Skip to main content

Full text of "Centennial history of Washington County, Indiana : its people, industies and institutions : with biographical sketches of representative citizens and genealogical records of many of the old families"

See other formats





3 1833 02300 5256 

Gc 977.201 W27£t 
Stevens, Warder W. 
Centennial history oi 
Washington County, Indian. 



Washington County 





With Biographical Sketches of Representative Citizens and 
Genealogical Records of Many of the Old Families 




Indianapolis, Indiana 



r.C'-'''""" •iye2'>- 


To tlie dear, dcpartcil oik-, who^e Iiiinv hands cliang-ed the giant for- 
ests inti.i fertile field-,; \vh,i>e li.>\ e of Imme cstaMished the hearthstones, the 
tender lie> oi wliiih yet hind logether ihe heartstrings of tlie native horn; 
wiiose ])atricili-ni :;a>e llie he-t nf their lives and snl'Stanee for the defense of 
their c^nntrv; wliosr make -acred ih.e -oil tlu'ir feet so often trod. 


In memory of 

My Father and Mother 




by daughter 


(Mrs. Charles B. Stout) 



Nineteen hundred and sixty-seven 


f'i -y 


All life and achievement is evolution; present wisdom comes from past 
experience, and ]ireseiit commercial prosperity has come only from past 
exertion and sacrifice. The deeds and motives of the men who have gone 
before have been instrumental in shai)ing- the destinies of later communities 
and states. The development of a new country was at once a task and a 
privilege. It required great courage, sacrifice and privation. Compare the 
present conditions of the people of Washington county, Indiana, with what 
the\- were one hundred years ago. From a trackless wilderness and virgin 
land, it has come to lie a center of prosperity and civilization, with millions 
of ^vealth, systems of railways, grand educational institutions, splendid 
industries and immense agricultural and mineral productions. Can any 
thinking person lie insensible to the fascination of the study which discloses 
the aspirations and eti'orts of the early pioneers who so strongly laid the 
foundation upon which has been reared the magnificent prosperity of later 
days? To perpetuate the story of these people and to trace and record the 
social, political and industrial progress of the community from its first 
inception is the function of the local historian. A sincere purpose to preserve 
facts and personal memoirs that are deserving of perpetuation, and which 
unite the present to the ])ast is the motive for the present publication. ■ A 
specially \rihial)le ;uid interesting department is that one devoted to the 
sketches of reprcsentati've citizens of the count}' whose records deserve 
preser\ation becaUM of tbc'r \' ortb, elVoit ■.\]](\ accomplishment. The pub- 
lishers desire to extend their tlian'ss to the gentlemen \\ ho have so faithfully 
labored to this end. Thanks are .-iKo due to the citizens of ^Vashington 
counl\- for the uniform kindnc^^ with which ihey have regarded this nnder- 
takiuL'', and for their ni;'.n\ scrxices rendered in the gaining of necessarv 

In i)lacing 

entennial History of Washington County, Tndirma," 
lieforc tlie citizens, tlic ])ublisb.ers can conscientiousl_\- claim that tbe\' have 
carried out the plan ;is outlined in tlie prosi)ectus. F.very luM-raphical 
sketch in the work has been suliiuitted |o llu' p.arty intereste.l, for correc- 
tion, and therefore -.inx error of fai't, il there be an\-, is s(jlel)- due to the 
person for whom the sketch was i)re]i:neil. Confident that our effort to 
please will fu!l_\ meet the ai)|)robation nf the ])ul)1ic, we 

Rcs]iect fully, 

TTIk. 1TT'.T,I.^^F.1^;S. 


Area — Variety of Surface and Soil and Beauty of Scenery — Hills — Water 
Courses and Drainage — Water Power — Geological Formation — Building 
Stone and Quarries — Fossil Formations — The Clays — Mineral Waters — Coal 
and Iron — Sand and Gravel — Caves — The Barrens — Timber — Natural History. 


Indians Found Here by the First White Hunters and Homeseekers — Shaw- 
nees, Piankashaus and Delawares — Early Chiefs — Indian Burial Places — 
Indian Arms — Scares and Measures for Protection — Appearance, ■ Character 
and Customs of the Indians — Medicine-Men — Burials — Social Laws — Tribal 
Government — Methods of Warfare — Witchcraft — The Prophet — The In- 
dians' Farewell. 


First Explorations by Europeans — First White Men on Indiana Soil — French 
Forts Established — French Rule — British Ascendency — Contests with Indians 
— George Rogers Clark's Conquest — First American Ruler Over Indiana- 
Cession of the Northwest Territory to the United States — Local Govern- 
ment Instituted — Governor St. Clair — The Legislative Council and Territorial 
Legislature — Indiana Territory Formed — Formation of First Counties — The 
Question of Slavery — First General Assembly — Indian Treaties — Harrison 
County Formed — Statistics of 1810 — First Adventurers and Settlers — The 
First Settler — Government Land Surveys — Apparent Necessity for a New 


Present Washington County First Owned by France, and Known as the 
District of Illinois — Ceded to Great Britain — Captured by Virginia and 
Organized as Illinois County — Ceded to the United States and Known as 
"Territory of the United States Northwest of the Ohio River" — Establish- 
ment of First Counties — Creation of Washington County — Legislative Act — 
First Boundary Lines of the County — Subsequent Changes in the Boundaries 
of the County — Question as to Jurisdiction for Taxation Purposes — Fixing 
of Final Boundaries — Organization of Washington County — First Officers — 
Selection of a County Seat and Its Name — First Sessions of the Circuit 
Court — Sale of County Seat Lots — Township Organization — First Election 
in the County — First Sessions of the Board of Commissioners — Changes in 
Townships — Voting Precincts — Public Buildings and Improvements — Court 
House — Jail — Pioneer House of Detention — Jailer's Residence— Prison 


Bounds— Public Well— Estray Pen— County's First Jail Deliveries- 
Standard Weights and Measures— Second Lourt House— New Temple of 
Justice — Second County Jail— County Officers' Building — The Third Jail- 
Present Court House — County Paupers and Asylum — Connty Board of 
Charities and Corrections. 


Hardships of the Pioneers — Character of First Emigrants to this County — 
Difficulties of the Journey — Locating the New Home — Clearing the Land — 
Primitive Farm Implements — The Staple Crops — The Harvest Season — 
Threshing — Food and Household Utensils — The Making of Corn Meal — 
Adepts at Curing Meats — Making Household Utensils — Early Trapping and 
Hunting — The Indian in Winter— Moon Signs and Waterwitches — Social 
Functions — Corn-husking "Bees" — Sports, Amusements and Games — Gander- 
pulling Contest — Social Happenings — Flirting Not Countenanced — Spelling 
and Singing School — Weddings Among the Pioneers — Early Wearing Ap- 
parel and Material Used — Itinerant Tinkers — Hog-killing Time — Table Fur- 
nishings — An Old-time China Closet— Cider Making — Roads and By-ways — 
Location of Early Routes — Turnpike Companies — Log-cabin Days — Noted 
Men Who Came from Humble Houies — Early Buildings in Washington 
County — Native Sons \\'ho Have Become Famous — Home of the Moun- 
taineer — Building of a Log Cabin — The Hearth the Center of Home Life — 
Pioneer Style of Furniture — I'.arly Hospitality — The Fate of the Old Cabin 
— Days that Live in Memory — A Second Generation of Pioneers — The Sugar 
Camp — Scarcity of Sugar During the Civil War — Introduction of Sorghum 
— First Power Mill — A Stum|i Mill ;i.nd Other Horse-power Mills. 


Early Difficulty in (_ri>-sing Streams — I'erries — An Elopement Beset with 
Difficulty — White RiM r Steamboat Company — River Transportation Aban- 
doned — Days r,f the Coach — First Stage Routes in Washington County 
— Characteristic Drivers- Fox Hunting — \\'olves— Old Powder-horns — 
Whisky and Muster Days— Distilleries— Muster-day Customs— Militia Offices 
Led to Higher Honors — Funerals of Early Days — The Cholera Scourge — An 
Early Peace Movement— Some Bloodless Duels in Early Days— Killing of 
Lieutenant Jennings — The Old ^^'holcsale Peddler and His Teams — Fourth 
of July, 1826— Lorenzo Dow— Youthful TriaN and Tribulations— Boy Life in 
the Wilderness. 

CHA1'T1':K \"II — I'RUMIXI' XT riCol'Mv ol' EARLY TlMl-.S 

Enoch and Arthur I'arr — Nice-President Johnson's Receptioji — John L. 
Menaugh— Indian .\bductron.— Gen. Marst.,n G. Clarke— Micajah Callaway 
— Indian Methods of T,.rturin- Tlieir \-ictims— Rev. William Cravens. 

Fighlinu Metli.idist — W illiam 1 I azard- T.ient.-Gov. Christopher Harrison. 

CHAPTER \lll— nil: rXDF.kiiRorXD R\iLR(TAIV 

A Typical \dvertisenient for a Runaway Slave— Provisions of the Ordinance 
of 17S7 as to Slavery— Origin of the Name, "l^nderground Railroad"— .\ 
Peculiar ln-tituti..n— The Conuectinii Link Between Slavery and h'reednni— 
Stations in Washington Countv— Leader, in This Countv— Difficulties Fn- 


countered and Care Necessary — Adventures of Two Slaves from Kentucky — ■ 
The Case of Joseph Daniels — Bound for Liberty — Experience of Tom Red- 
ding and Jake Small — Work of Joseph Sider — Edward and George Trimble 
— Help Rendered by the Covenanters — An Exciting Case of Kidnapping — 
Sentiment Against Slavery. 


The Mexican War — Soldiers from Washington County — The Second Indiana 
Regiment — Battle of Buena Vista — Indiana Riflemen in Action — The Wash- 
ington Rifles — The Civil War — Two Extreme Views of Political Leaders in 
Washington County — First Company Off for the War — Brief Mention of 
Commands with which Washington County Men Served — A Record of Hard 
Service — Drafts — Views on the Emancipation Proclamation — Morgan's Raid 
— Military Arrests — Summary of Men Furnished for the War — Aid Societies 
— Woman's Relief Corps — A Time for Rejoicing — Lincoln Memorial Meet- 
ing — A War Incident. 


Washington County's Early Rank as an Educational Center — A Typical Pio- 
neer School House — The First Teacher — The Public School System — Old 
School Books — Boarding Around — Barring Out the School Master — Salem 
Schools and Teachers — Free Schools — Early Instructors — A School for 
Young Women — The First Graded School — Blue River Academy — Bunker 
Hill School — Highland Seminary — Recreative Sports and Amusements of 
the Old Country Schools — The Old Singing School — County School Com- 
missioners, Examiners and Superintendents. 


First Preachers Contemporary with the First Settlers — The First Church 
Organization — Elder John Wright — Christian Church — Presbyterian Church 
— Tlic Covenanters — Lutheran Church — Roman Catholic Churcli — Baptist 
Church — Methodist Church — Friends, or Quakers. 

Free and .Accepted Masons — Royal .Arch Masons — Order of the Eastern Star 
— Independent Order of Odd Fellows — Encampment — Knights of Pythias — 
Improved Order of Red Men — Degree of Pocahontas — Tribe of Ben-Hur — 
Modern Woodmen of America — The Grange — Washington County Historical 
Society — Salem Farmers' Club — Highland Farmers' Club — Progressive Farm- 
ers' Club — Fortnightly Club — Woman's Club — Culture Club — Columbian 
Club — Shakespeare Club — Ladies' Piano Club — Junior Piano Club — The 
Penelope Club. 


Old-Timc Doctors — The Era of Nasty Nostrums — Women Doctors — The 
"Patent Medicine" Man — Some VVcll-remembered "Grannies." 


First Newspaper in Salem — Early Settlers Characterized by Intelligence and 
Enterprise — Ebenezer Patrick and Bebee Booth — An Early Temperance 


Advocate — Whig vs. Democrat — Other Papers in the History of the County 
—The Cholera Epidemic— The Democratic Paper— History of the Repub- 
lican Organ. 


The Poet's Corner— Jerry Talbott— "Weariness"— Mrs. Anna Williams Rhetts 
"Salem's Crown Hill"— Dr. J. B. Wilson— "Seventy-six"— "A Retrospect"— 
"New Year's Musings"— Warder W. Stevens— "The Old Grist-mill"— Mrs. 
Angeline Collins— "When the Clock Strikes Three"— "The Old College 
Bell"— "Whisky"— "The Old Rail Fence"— "Since Mary Left the Farm"— 
— "The Ole Mus-cat-a-tack" — "Home-made Bread"^Rev. L L St. John— ".-^ 
Hundred Years"— "The Calf Path"— "Back at the Old Homestead." 


The First Grand Jury Indictments — First Suit for Divorce— Troublesome 
Harry Mingo — A Colored Man's Fatal Quarrel— An Honest Old Man Dis- 
graced — Cases of Robbery, .Assault and Homicide— Tragic Death of Last 
Colored Resident — Strong Drink Causes Trouble — A Negro Fiend— Fatal 
Mistake of a Comrade— Long Chase of a Horse Thief — Robbers and Coun- 
terfeiters — A Green-goods Salesman — First Appearance of the Land Shark 
— Penalty of Flogging Never Inflicted — Trial of a Grave-Robber — "Black- 
birding" in Indiana — A Gang of Counterfeiters — One of the Earliest Homi- 
cides — Mysterious Murder of Voris — The Killing of John Davis — Killing of 
Grant McCory — Killing of Marcus L. Criswell — Premeditated Fratricide — 
Daniel W. Maybee, Wholesale Murderer — Making an Efifort at Reformation 
— History of a Life of Crime — Colonel Bowie's Regiment — James B. Mc- 
Lane — The Joseph-Gallahan Murder Case — The Wood-Kepley Murder and 
Suicide — Mattox Desperadoes — Killing of Frank Pitts — Run Over by the 
Cars — Davis-Scholl Homestead — Collins-Pitt? Murder — Result of a Drunken 
Brawl — Grindstaflf Shoots John Starr — A Double Tragedy — Son Shoots His 
Father — Dclos Heffren's Career. 


First White Inhabitant — Description of Pioneer Conditions — Some of the 
Early Settlers — Reminiscences of Rachel Crocket — First Mills — Tan Bark 
and Other Products — Early Mercantile Establishments — Fist Fights a Com- 
mon Occurrence — A Veteran of the Revolutionary War — Early Churches — 
A Hard-earned Subscription — An Abundance of Game — Dangers of Early 
Settlements — Friends in Time of Need — Early Industries — Forest Fires — 
Origin of a Nickname — Schools — Little York — Revolutionary Soldiers 
Buried in Gibson Township — Secret Societies. 


Walnut Ridge — The First Settlers— The Hattabough Family — Defied Mor- 
gan's Raiders— Col. E. D. Logan — Fresh Fish for All— Counterfeiters— Early 
Mills — Stores and Distilleries — Early Postoffices — Schools. 


First Settler — Later Comers — Milk-sickness — Early Mills and Millers — Dis- 
tilleries Considered a Necessary .Adjunct — First Stores — .\ Tragic Incident 


— Exploits of Henry Baker— Memories of a Day That is Gone — Early 
Schools — First Religious Services — Danger of Famine — Great Expectations 
— Killing of the Solidays — Close Quarters with an Enraged Bear — Another 
Paper Town — Schools and School Teachers. 


First Permanent Settlers — Twin Creek Declared a Navigable Stream — A 
Noted Hunter — Church Organizations — Buena Vista Laid Out — First Store 
— Schools — Campbellsburg, a Business and Educational Center — Its Business 
Directory — Saltillo. 


The First Settlers — The First Church — An Early Reformer — Claysville 
(Middletown) — Muster Day — Religious Worship in Early Days — Township 
Schools — Smedley. 


The First White Adventurer — First Permanent Settlers — Rapid Settlement 
of the Township — The Reyman Family — Other Prominent Men Who Had a 
Part in the Settlement and Development of the Township — Adventures 
of the Lindleys — A Skirmish with the Indians— Salt Works — Township 
Industries — Mills — Tanneries — The Last Bear — Oxonia (Hitchcock; — Nor- 
ris (Harristown) — Canton (Greensburg or Egg Harbor) — A Prosperous 
Nursery — Churches. 


First Permanent Settlement — Forts — Men of Note — Boyhood Home of a 
Governor — Friendly Relations with the Indians — Industries of the Township 
— Timber — Early Churches — Township Schools — New Philadelphia — South 


First Settlers — Rapid Settlement of the Township — A Pioneer Woman — 
Wild Deer— Mills— Early Stores— Old Pekin— Early Teachers. 


Organization — Name — Area — Natural Features — Streams — Geology — Early 
Settlers — Land Entries — Timber — Snakes in Early Days — Indian Relics — A 
Vein of Salt Water- The Silk Industry— Early Shops— The Search for 
Precious Metals — Mills — Water Power — Distilleries— Schools — First Preach- 
ers in the Township— Prices of Commodities in 1818 — A Fish Industry — 
Town of New Pekin — Its Various Business Interests — School^ — The Famous 
Twin Trees. 


How Named — Natural Features — First Settlers — Arrival of the Beck Family 
— Early Mills — First School House — Scouting for Indians — Indian Medicine- 
men — Early-day Sport— Bear ^'lunt — An Interesting Foot Race — The Old 
Mill at Beck's HiU^Later Mills. 



First Settlement in the Township — Early Mills— Change in Township Line 
• — Town of Livonia — Business Interests — Postmasters — Township Schools — 
Reminiscences of Pioneer Days. 


A Famous Old Trail — First White Settlers— A Forest Fire and Indian Scare 
— A Revolutionary Soldier — A Hunter's Paradise— Early Industries — Town- 
ship Schools— FrcdericksburR—Hardinsburg-The Old Plank Road. 


Topography — Peculiar Natural Features — Primeval Forests — Early Settle- 
ment — Wild Game — Morgan's Raid — Church History — Schools in the Town- 
ship — F'arly Industries — Early Merchants in Martinsburg — Founding of the 


Locating the County Seat of Washington County — Work of the Commis- 
sion — Influence of the Lindleys — A Grape-vine Chain — Sale of Lots — The 
Original Plat and Subsequent Additions — Clearing the Townsite — The First 
Buildings — First Officers of the Town — Early Stores — The Washington 
County Trading and Manufacturing Company — "Wild-cat" Banks — Mills 
and Manufacturing Industries — Other Salem Business Men — Hotel Rates — 
Prominent Early People — Lawyers of the Old-time Circuit — Some Note- 
worthy Items — Incorporation of Salem — Municipal History — Present Officers 
— Fire Department — A Disastrous Fire — Street Improvements — Library Asso- 
ciations — Banks — New Albany & Salem Railroad — Floods — Cemeteries — 
Postmasters — Business Directory — Centennial Celebration. 

Revolutionary Soldiers — War of 1812 — Old Settlers' Daj- — Reminiscences by 
George Beck — Address by John W. Reyman — Col. John L. Menaugh — Mrs. 
Elias Davis (nee Pitts) — Gary Thompson — John C. Thompson — Joseph Den- 
ny — James L. Thompson — Cadwallader Jones — Archibald Johnson — Old 
Relics — How a Coat L%ed to be Made — Washington County Giants — His- 
torical and Reminiscent Notes — Earthquake of 1811 — Prehistoric Forts — 
Meteoric Shower — Scourge of Squirrels — First Happenings — County Leh- 



"A Hundred Years" 418 

"A Retrospect" 407 

Adveaturers, First 70 

Aid Societies, War-time 322 

Amus( nients, .Pioneer 138 

Area of County 33 


■•Back at the Old Homestead" 423 

Baltimore 527 

Baptist Churches 354, 359 

Barrens, The 45 

Beck Family 576 

Beck's Mill 153, 636 

Ben-Hur, Tribe of 369 

■Blackbirding" _, 441 

Bloodless Duels 206 

Blue River 34 

Blue River Academy 347 

Blue River Association 354 

Blue River Township 85. 86 

Booth, Becbee 385 

Boundaries, Present, of County 81 

Boundary Lines of County 79 

Boy Life in the Wilderness 217 

Bridge. First in County 98 

Bridge Tolls, Early 173 

Bridgeport 596 

British Ascendency 60 

Brown Township — 

Boundaries 89 

Churches 531 

Drafts, Military 320 

Early Voting Precinct 90 

Geology i"^ 

Grange, The 371 

Hunter, A Noted 530 

Organization of 98 

Schools 532 

Settlement 529 

Buena Vista 531 

Buena Vista, Battle of 290, 295 

Building Stone '!'l 

Buildings, Early 158 

Bunker Hill School 348 

Burcham. Mrs. Zella L.. Reminis- 
cences 519 

Burial Places, Indian 50 

Callaway, Micajah 


Campbellsburg — 

Business Interests 






Grange, The 


Lodges 366, 






Catholic Church 





Charities and Corrections, 

Board of 


Cholera Scourge 


Christian Churches 


Churches 353, 498, 521, 



535, 557, 






1, 85, 


Civil War - _ _ - -- 


Clark, Gen. George Roger: 




Clarke, Marston G 92, 







Clearing the Land 


Clothing of the Pioneers - 

. 145 





Collins, Mrs. Angeline 


Columbian Club 

. 376 

Commissioners, County _. 

. 87 

Congress Land 

. 69 


Conquest by General Clark 62 

Corn-husking "Bees" 137 

Corn Meal. Making of 128 

Counterfeiters 438, 442, 509 

Counties, Formation of 66, 69 

County Asylum 109 

County Boundaries 79 

<."ounty Officers' Building 104 

County Organized 81 

County School Commissioners 351 

County Seat Commission 82 

County Superintendents _— 351 

Court House History 91, 99, 106 

Covenanters 358 

Covenanters Help Escaping Slaves. 282 

Cravens, Rev. William 247 

i->eation of the County 77 

Creeks . 35 

Crim'es and Misdemeanors 430 

Criswell, M. L., Killing of 448 

Crocket, Rachel, Reminiscences 494 

Crops. Staple Pioneer 123 

Culture Club _. 376 


Daniels, Joseph 273 

Davis, Mrs. Elias, Reminiscence — 640 

Davis, John, Killing of 446 

Days of the Stage Coach 181 

Delaware Indians 49, 51 

Democrat, Salem 396 

DePauvv, John 84, 174, 176, 197, 

607, 634 

Development of Country 58 

Development of Washington County 77 

Distilleries, Early 194, 496, 511 

Doctors of Washington County-378, 504 

Dow. Lorenzo, Visit of 214 

Drafts, Military 313 

Drainage, Natural 

Driftwood Township 86 

Duels, Bloodless 206 


Early Building.s in the County 158 

Early Election Metliods 652 

Early Settlers 117 

Early Trials. Court 430 

i:ducation_.__332, 502, 512, 527, 532, 

538, 557, 573, 588, 594, 601 

Election, First County 87 

Elopement Under Difficulties 175 

Emancipation Proclamation 313 

English Colonies 58 

Enlistments for Civil War 305 

Enlistments for Mexican War 287 

Enlistments, Summary of 321 

Era of Nasty Nostrums 379 

Estray Pen, Early 97 

E.xpcnse Account of Poor 114 


Fair. The First 653 

Farm Implements, Primitive 121 

I'arnit-rs' Mutual Benefit Association 372 
I'emalo Collegiate Institute 344 

Fighting Methodist, The 247 

I-'ireplace, Pioneer 162 

First County Election 87 

iMrst County Officers 81 

iMrst Indictments 430 

First Power Mill 170 

First Settlement in Washington 

County 73 

Food, Pioneer 127 

Forest Fires 501 

Forests 46 

Fortnightly Club 375 

Fossil Formations 39 

Fourth of July, 1826 212 

Fox Hunters' Vernacular 190 

Fox Hunting 187 

Foxhound, Origin of 190 

Franklin Township — 

Boundaries 90 

Churches 557 

Drafts, Military 320 

Early Voting Precinct 90 

Election, First 558 

Forts 553 

Geology ^7 

Indians 555 

Industries 556 

Mills 556 

Organization of 87 

Settlement 552 

Stores 558 


Franklin Township— Continued. 

Streams 35 

Timber 556 

Fraternal Societies 365, 504 

Fredericksburg 441, 596 

Free and Accepted Masons 365, 504 

Free-will Baptists 354 

French and Indian War 60 

French Forts Established 58 

French Settlements 58 

Friends 362 

Funerals of Early Days 198 

Furniture, Pioneer 163 


Gallahan, William, Murder of 472 

Games, Pioneer 138 

Gander-pulling Contest 139 

General Assembly, First 68 

Geology 36 

Giants of Washington County 646 

Gibson Township — 

Boundaries 89 

Churches 498 

Drafts, Military 320 

First Voting Precinct 90 

Forest Fires SOI 

Game, Wild 499 

Geology 37 

Grange, The 371 

Industries, Early 500 

Lodges 504 

Merchants, Early 497 

Mills 496 

Organization of 88 

Pioneer Conditions 492 

Reminiscences 494 

Revolutionary Veterans 497, 504 

Saltpeter Works 496 

Schools 502 

Settlement 492, 494 

-State of Gibson" .502 

Streams 35 

Tanneries 496 

Trails 493 

Water Power 36 

Girty, Simon 241 

Government of Northwest Territory 63 

Government Surveys 75 

Grand Jury, First 430 

Grange, The 370 

Grave-robbing 441 

Gravel 42 

Grocery Rates, Early ,-_ 86 


Hardinsburg 367, 368, 369, 595, 597 

"Hardshell" Baptists 360 

Hardships of Early Settlers 118 

Harrison, Lieut-Gov. Christopher— 262 

Harristown 74, 358, 549 

Harvest Season, Early 124 

Hattabough Family 506 

Hattabough Fort 506 

Hazard. William 260 

Highland Farmers' Club 374 

Highland Seminary 349 

Hills 33 

Hog-killing in Early Days 148 

"Home-made Bread" 417 

Homicide Cases 434, 442 

Horse-power Mills 171 

Hospitality, Early 164 

House of Detention, Early 93 

Household Utensils, Pioneer 127 

Howard Township — 

Barrens, The 45 

Drafts, Military 320 

Early Voting Precinct 90 

Grange, The 370 

Indian Troubles 578 

Mills 577 

Natural Features 575 

Organization of 90 

Settlement 575 

Sports. Early-day 581 

Hunter's Paradise 48 

Hunting, Early 130 


Implements* Primitive Farm 121 

Improved Order of Red Men 368, 504 

Improvements, Public 91 

Independent Order of Odd Fellows 

366, 504 

Indian Cessions o6 

Indian Methods of Torture 245 

Indian Scares 50 

Indian Treaties 68 


idian'- i 



Jackson Township— 




Drafts, Military 

I'.arly Industries 

h'.arly Voting Precincts 
(irange. The 







Morpan's Raid 






— - 



Wild Came 


lail [\liveries 


Jailer', Residence 

Je(Ter>nn TMwnship— 

1 lun-rh. -, 

Dr.Ol-. .Md-:i.n-v __ 

, 103 





l-arlv \'..liii'_' I'l-ecinct 





Indian Murder.-, 








St. ires. I'arly 51h 

Tannery 51(i 


Kemp, Judge Godlove 542 

Kidnapping, Exciting Case of 2S:2 

Knights of Pythias 367 

Knights of the Golden Circle 319 

Knol.s, The 33 


Ladies' Piano Club 376 

Lakey, Joshua, Murder of 449 

Land Sharks 440 

l.ehnianoski. Count 654 

Limestone 36 

Lincoln Memorial Meeting 324 

Lindley. William 83, 435. 607 

Literary Glimpses 400 

Little York- 
Buildings, First 503 

Business Interests 504 

Industries, Early 501 

Laid (Iff 503 

L.i.ig.-. 504 

Mill 503 

Schools 502 

Stltlemcnt 503 

Siores. First 503 


Lnsiiu-s Interests S>i7 

i hnrrlics 355 

l-.irlv Merchants 587 

Gr.inue, Tlie 370 

Laid (Iff 5;-6 

Lod-es 367, 369, 370 

^Lxicaii War 288 

^Tills 588 

I'oMiii.isters 588 

Lod.L^es 365. 504 

Loi; C;,l,in, Construction of 160 

Lo.;-ral,in Mays ]S5 

l-ou-rollnius . U6 

i o.,:m. lol. I-. D 508 

Lo-t Kn,r Town-hip 85 

LiMlieran (Imreli 358 



Madison Township — 

Barrens, The 45 

Caves 44 

Churches 589 

Drafts, Military 320 

Early Industries 586 

Early Voting- Precinct 90 

Organization of 85, 90 

Schools 588 

Settlers 585 

Marriage License, Eirst 652 

Marshall, Joseph G. 617 

Martinsburg 367, 605 

Masonic Order 365, 504 

Mattox Desperadoes 477 

Maybee, Daniel W., Murderer 450 

Measures, Standard 99 

Meat Curing, Pioneer 128 

Medical Profession 378, 504 

Medicine-men S3, 580 

Menaugh. John L. 226, 639 

Meteoric Shower 651 

Methodist Churches 361 

Mexican War 286 

Middletown 537 

Military Arrests 319 

Military History 286 

Militia Offices, Early Value of 197 

Milk-sickness 515 

Millport 511 


169, 496, 503, 510, 515, 534, 546, 556, 561. 
568, 577, 588, 593, 604, 610. 

Mineral Waters 40 

Modern Woodmen of America. _369, 504 
Monroe Township — 

Boundaries 89 

Caves 44 

Churches 357 

Counterfeiters 509 

Delaney 509 

Distilleries 511 

Drafts, Military 320 

Early Industries 510 

Early Voting Precinct 90 

Fish Dams 509 

Fort 506 

Geolo,!?y 37 

Grange, The 371 

Monroe Township — Continued. 

Hattabough Family 506 

Indian Raids 509 

Mills 510 

Organization of gg 

Schools 512 

Settlement 505 

Stores 513 

Moon Signs 133 

Morgan's Raid 316, 601 

Mt. Carmel 360 

Murder, A Mysterious 444 

Muscatatuck 34 

Muster Days 194, 196, 537 


Xaming the County Seat 83 

Xatural Drainage 34 

Xatural History 47 

Xew Pekin 571, 573 

Xew Philadelphia 357, 558 

"Xew Year's Musings" 407 

Xewspapers 383 

Xorris 74, 358, 549 

Vnrtliwest Territory^ 63 

Xotablc Incidents of Early Days.-- 173 
Xotcd Sons of Washington County. 158 


Odd I'ellows 366, 504 

Officers of County, First 81 

-Old Ox" 228 

Old Pekin 562 

f )Id Settlers' Day 635 

Organization of County 81 

Oxonia 375 


Parr, Arthur 219 

Parr, Judge Enoch 219 

•'Patent Medicine" Man 380 

Paupers 109 

Peace Movement, Early 203 

Peaches, First Grown in County 652 

Peddlers, Pioneer 209 

Penelope Club 377 

Physicians 378, 504 


Piankashaiis 49 

Piano. I'irst in CoinUy 652 

Pierce Townsliip — 

Barrens, The 45 

(hurche. 569 

Draft-. Military 320 

Karly Industries 567 

Rarlv VntinLV Precincts 90 

Geology 564 

(rrange. Tlie 3/0 

Indian Relics 566 

Land Entries 565 

Mills 568 

Natural Features 564 

Organization of 90 

Prices, Karly 570 

.Salt Works 567 

.Schools 56? 

Settlement 75, 565 

Streams 35, 564 

Timber 566 

Pigeoti Koost Massacre 50 

Pi.ijeons. Wild 4R 

Pioneer Crops 123 

Pioneer Days 117 

Pioneer Physicians 378 

Pioneer Sports and Games 138 

Pioneers. Second Generation of Idfi 

Pitts, Abner, Murder of 481 

Pitts, .Andrew 542 

Pitts, Frank, Killing of 479 

Plank Roads 153, 597 

Pocahontas, Degree of 368 

I'olk Township^ 

Drafts, Military 320 

Early Voting Precincts 90 

Geology 37 

Grange, The 370 

Mills 561 

Organization of 90 

Schools 562 

Settlers 559 

Stores, First 561 

Streams 35 

Poor, Care for the 109 

Posey Township — 

Barrens, The 45 

Boundaries 90 

Drafts. Military 320 

Posey Township — Continued. 

Early Industries 593 

ICarly Voting Precincts 90 

Grange, The 371 

Indian Scare 592 

Mills 593 

Organization of ?S 

Revolutionary Soldiers 593 

Schools 594 

Settlers 592 

Streams 35 

Powdcrhorns, Early 192 

IVeachers, Pioneer 353 

Prehistoric Remains 47 

Presliyterian Churches 355 

I'ress, The 383 

Primitive Mills 169 

Prison Bounds 94 

Progressive Farmers' Club 375 

Prominent Early People 219 

Public Buildings 91 

Public School System 334 

Public WeW. Early 97 


to Muster 205 

ed Men, Improved Tjrder of 368, 

eligious Societies 

cminiscences of Farm Life 

evolutionary Soldiers 

eyman Family 

eyman. John W., Reminiscences.- 

hetts. Mrs. Anna Williams 

idge Township 

iver Trade 

iver Transportation Abandoned 

Roads, Pioneer 152, 

Ivock Formations 

Roman Catholic Church 


Royal Arch Masons 

Rovse's Lick 74, 153, 227, 


St. John, Rev. I. I. 




Bridge, First 98, 

Buildings. Early 

Business Directory 


Centennial Celebration 

Cholera Epidemic 

Chosen County Seat 82, 

Churches 355, 356, 350, 

Civil War Days 



Early Stores 

Female Institute ^ 

Fire Department 

Fire. Destructive 

First Officers 

First Pavement 


Fourth of July, 1826 



Lawyers, Early 

Library Associations 

Lodges 323, 365, 367, 

Lot Sales 84, 

Manufacturing Enterprises 

Mexican War 


Morgan's Raid 

Naming of 


Notable Sons 

Officers, Present 



Prominent Early People 


Schools 334. 



Stage Routes 

Street Improvements 

Zelo-Pidusian Society 

Salem Farmers' Club 




Salem Peace Society 204 

"Saiem's Crown Hill" 401 

Salt Springs 41 

Saltillo 368, 534 

Saltpeter Works 49t) 

Sand 42 

Scalping, Method of 55 

Scares by Indians 50 

Scholl, Anthony, Killing of 480 

School Books, Early 335 

School Commissioners 351 

School Customs, Early 349 

School Examiners 351 

School House, First in County 332 

School Superintendents 351 


332, 502, 512, 527, 532, 538, 557, 573, 

588, 594, 601 

Seal of the Court, First 96 

Secession Sentiment 301 

Second Indiana Regiment 290 

Secret Orders 365, 504 

Sentiment Against Slavery 284 

Settlement of Ohio Valley 71 

Settler, First, in County 74 

Settlers, Early 117 

••Seventy-six" 406 

Shakespeare Club 376 

Shawnee Indians 49. 50 

Sidelights on Washington County 

History 631 

Sidcr, Joseph, Work of 278 

••Since Mary Left the Farm" 415 

Singing Schools 143, 350 

Size of County 33 

Slavery, Early Question of 67 

Slavery. Sentiment Against 284 

Smedley 539 

Snakes 48 

Social Functions, Pioneer 135 

Soil of County 33 

Soldiers' Relief ?.21 

Sniidays, Killing of the 523 

South Boston 558 

Spelling Schools. Early 143 

Sports. Pioneer 138 

Spurgcon Hill .39 

Squirrel IVst 651 

Suige Coach, Days of the 181 

Stage Drivers, Characteristic IS.^ 


Stage Routes, Early 

Standard Weights and Measures 

Starr. John, Killing of 

Statistics of 1810 

Stevens, Warder W. 

159, 372, 396, 409, 

Still, Murphy D. 


Stump Mill 

Sugar, Scarcity of in War-time 

Sugar-camp, Old-time 

Surface of County 

Survey of Lands 



496, 516 

Tavern Rates, Early 



.222. 527 

Territorial Government 


Territorial Legislature 


"The Calf Path- 


•■The Old College Bell" 


••The Old Grist-mill- 


'•The Old Rail Fence" 


"The Ole Mus-cat-a-tack" 


•■The Prophet" 


Thompson. Gary 


Thompson, John C. 


Threshing Grain in Early Days_ 




Timber, Early Destruction of_- 


Tinkers, Itinerant Early-day_- 


Toll-gates Earlv 






Training Days 


Trapping. Early 


Tread-mills --^ 


Tribe of Ben-Hur 


Trimbles, Escape of the 


Turnpike Companies 

__154. 507 

Twin Trees Noted 



Underground Railroad 266 

Vallonia 73 

Wrnon Township — 

Barrens, The 45 

Boundaries 89 

Churches 535 

Drafts, Military 320 

Early Voting Precincts 90 

Grange, The 371 

Muster Day 537 

Organization of 88 

Schools 538 

Settlement 535 

.Stores, Earh' 537 

\'oting Precincts. Early 90 


Walnut Ridge 358. 442, 505. 511 

War Incident 330 

War of 1812 634 

War ..f the Rebellion 300 

Washington County Created 77 

Wa-hington County Historical Sn- 

licty '. 373 

Washington Rifles 299 

W.-i-hington Township — 

Changes in Boundaries 86, S7. 90 

Churches 354, 358 

Drafts. Military 320 

Early Industries 546 

Early Voting Precincts 90 

Geology 27 

Grange, The 371 

Indian Troubles 544 

Mineral Waters 40 

^lills 546 

Organization of 85 

O-uarry 38 

Schools 346 

Settlement 540 

Wild Game 548 

Water Courses 34 

Water Power 35 


Watcrw itches 133 

■■Weariness" 400 

\\'oddin8S, Pioneer 144 

Weights and Measures 99 

-When the Clock Strikes Three"— 411 

■■Whisky" 413 

VVliisky, Pioneer Use of 137, 194 

Whitconib, James 617 

W'liitc River Steamboat Co. 175 

Wholesale Peddlers 209 

Wild .Animals 47 

Wilson. Dr. J. B. 403 

Witch. Burning of a 56 

Wolves 191 

Woman's Club 375 

Woman's Relief Corps 222 

Women Doctors 380 

Wood, Daniel, Murder of 476 

Woiidmen 369, 504 

Y:n\ng. Milas K., Killing ot 486 

Zink Family _.__ 544 



Alexander, William R. 764 

Allen, Ellis E. 813 

Allen, Emmet S. 772 

Anderson, Isaac L. 873 

Arnold, William A. __ . 752 


Barnett, Harry C. 720 

Bartlett, Elza V. 997 

Batt, Charles S. 915 

Batt, Walter R. 826 

Baynes, Thomas P. 753 

Baynes, William H. 774 

Beard, John R. 919 

Berkey, Frederick N. 706 

Berkey, Jonas W. 706 

Blackman, John J. 1013 

Blice, John W. 1039 

Boss, George M. 865 

Bowman, Hon. John A. 660 

Branaman, William M. 1055 

Brewer, Jonas E. 853 

Bright, John C, D. D. S. 1020 

Brooks, Samuel H. 814 

Brown, Henry H. 1027 

Bush, Charles P. 907 

Bush, Edgar D. 912 

P.u-h, John A. 1031 


Carter, John J. 869 

(\uihle. Juson R. 845 

Caul.lo, John H. 786 

( auhlc, Omar 1.. 891 

(aiil)k-. Thomas I',. i)3Q 

I avaiiau-h, Thomas M. _ ,... H47 

I'li.irU'S, lanu s I'. _. __. vOl 

Chastain, Lafayette 69/ 

Clarke, John B. 758 

Clegg, Robert E. 1040 

Coffman, Osborn E., D. D. S. 1035 

Colglazier, Joel E. 1014 

Colglazier, John M. 701 

Colglazier, Robert B. 922 

Colglazier, Robert F. 710 

Colglazier, Walter D. 788 

Crane, Frank M. 862 

Cravens, Aaron A. 970 

Criswell. Henry H. 979 

Curtis. Aquila 1032 


Davis. Amos 859 

Davis, Henry 899 

Davvalt, Henry C 954 

D.nney, James 878 

Denney, Thomas M. 909 

Dennis, Clarence 750 

Dennis, Lewis 864 

Dod.qe, Andrew J. 911 

Dui-kwall, Edward L. 860 


IClliott, Hon. Asa 657 

I'lliott. Francis .\. 820 

F.lrod, John 980 


I'rantz, .\aron B. 857 

I'raiit^-. Bruce C. 789 

I'liltz. Ccor.ue W. 829 


'nlMunis. iMl-ar O. 795 

I. il.l. ..,,-. Tolin \. 867 


GMl Brothers 9^ 

(,ill, James \V. 999 

Gill. John 999 

Gill. Patrick- II. 99.S 

Gordon. William E. 746 

Goss, John 920 

Goss, Thomas J. 890 

Graves. John T. J 686 

("iraves. Joseph H. 1045 

Graves. William .-\. 904 

Greene. Lodie 781 

Grider. Simon 1019 

Grimes, Isaac O. 973 

Grimes. James P. 771 


Ha^'en. Gustav H. 742 

Hamilton. Charles W. 934 

Hamilton. David F. 715 

Hancock, Jacob H. 968 

Heacock. Foster J. 824 

Hiestand. Isaac H. 928 

Hiestand. John W. 605 

Hinds, Charles S. 959 

Hinds, George 1058 

Hinds, P. 932 

Hinds. John C. 938 

Hobbs, Dr. HaviUa C. SSO 

Hobbs, Oscar K. 665 

Hoflfman, George W. 975 

Houston, Frank S. 767 

Howard, Dr. Samuel B. 1037 

Huston. Prince Garfield 916 


Jackson, Jo-rph 9,K5 

Johnson, George M. 734 

Johnson. Josiah T. 024 

Jones, Isaac X. 1049 

Lewis. John W. -.- 
Lindley, Charles \. 
Lindley, William B. 
Loudon, Elmer E. _ 
Loudon, Harry C. _ 
Loudon, Thomas M. 
Lusk. W'illiam K. 

- 736 
. 662 
. 760 

- 792 
. 951 


McPhceters, Johr» S., M. D. 976 

Markland, -Augustus 868 

Markland, Stephen X. 725 

Markland, William H. 712 

Martin. Gilbert P. 886 

Martin. John G. 982 

Martin. Lucius D. 739 

May. James W. 965 

Medlock, W. .A. 848 

Menaugh. Eli W. 816 

Mitchell. John I.. M. D. 668 

Morris. Caleb W. 687 

Morris. Charles R. 768 

Morris. Jehoshaphat M. 843 

Morris. John Jackson 703 

Morris. Roscoe C. 679 

Motsingcr. Edward K. 738 

Motsinger, Ellis H. 933 

Motsinger, John F. 807 

Motsinger, John R. 722 

Motsinger. Manson M. 1041 

Mritsinger, William O. 776 

Mull. Robert J. lip 

Murphcy, Charles W., M. D. 691 


Xdugle. William H. 797 

Xewby, .\lbert E. 850 

Xewlon. Richard R. 957 

Kelley, J.mus l'., M. D. 
Kinney, Matt 

.\lbert R. 


William. M. D. 

)\\ens. Robert X'. 


Lane. .Alva 1„ 
Lai)pino, Will 


Andrew J. 
Oden F. _. 



Payne, Lewis C. 852 

Persise, James F. 671 

Peugh, George D. 983 

Pickelheimer, William T. 1024 

Pitts, Albert ^3 

Pollard, Erastus O. 822 

Prow, John C. 761 

Purkhiser, Dawson L. 1006 

Pnriee, Ernest O. 831 

Purlee, Ransom L. 811 

Putoff, William 840 


Ray. Simon S. 990 

Rodus. John M. 948 

Reid. .Volney T. 708 

Reyman, John W. 744 

Reyman, Hon. John W. 791 

Reyman, Joseph E. 1008 

Reyman. William L. 780 

Rickard. Charles C. 871 

Rickard, Sherman C. 988 

Riester, John O., D. V. S. 754 

Roberts, George M. D 929 

Roll, George E. 884 

Rudder. William H. 681 

Rutherford, Hon. Ira H. 704 


Saylcs, Col. Stephen D. 888 

Schleicher, Clyde F. 930 

Schocke, Frank J. 1000 

Shanks, James L. _1010 

Shanks, Manson C. 962 

Shanks. Robert R. 1017 

Smith, Henry E. 784 

Spigler. John R. 960 

Standish, William N. 757 

Stanley, Bert H. ._ 987 

Stephenson, Eli B 944 

Stevens, Warder W 936 

Sullivan, Harvey C. 724 

Sullivan, James 946 

Sullivan, Robert 763 

Sunimers, Frank 790 

Swaini, John R 832 


Tash. Christian 993 

Tash. Francis M. 943 

Thompson, Albert W. 828 

Thurman. Virgil E. 694 

Trotter, William H. 992 

Trueblood, Alfred 834 

Trueblood, E. Hicks 876 

Trueblood. Elwood W. 875 

Trueblood, Linus M. 855 

Trueblood. Luther E. 777 

Trueblood. Thomas B. 926 

Trueblood. Oliver M. 745 

Tucker, James L. 1030 

Voyles, Hon. Samuel B. 842 


Walker. Thomas J. 672 

Weaver. Mrs. Lillian (Clarke) 809 

Wesner, Dennis B. 1026 

Williams, Elmer T. 783 

Williams, James 80S 

Williams, John A. 1003 

Williams, William O. 863 

Wilson, Carl E. 894 

Winslow, Albert 1057 

Winslow, Brady V. 994 

Winslow, John 748 

Winslow, Pritchard M. 773 

Winslow. Wiley P. 719 

Wire. Mrs. Mary J. 1022 

Wriaht. Eli M. 94i 

Wright. Evans H. 1004 

\\'risht. Grant F. 803 

Wright, Joseph B. 1059 

Wright. William E. 935 

\\ y:itt. Commodore Butler 882 




In all of Washington county there are about three hundred and thirty- 
foui thousand acres. In point of size it ranks fifth among the counties of the 
state. For variety of surface and soil and beauty of natural scenery, it is not 
surpassed by any other county in the state. About one-fifth of the county is 
low-lying, or bottom lands and very productive. Something like three-fifths 
is table or rolling lands, well adapted to the raising of cereals of all kinds, and 
to the scientific, up-to-date farmer yields a bountiful harvest. The remain- 
ing fifth may be classed as knob or hill lands, destined, some time in the 
future, to become very valuable for grazing purposes, or for fruit lands. 
There are a few thousand acres of land in the county that are too rough and 
hilly even to be made profitable for agricultural purposes, which, if devoted 
to timber culture or cultivated to fruits of various kinds, especially the grape, 
could be made to yield very handsome returns, and in time would become 
quite valuable. There is thus veiy little waste or worthless land in the county. 
A strong limestone soil, like that which predominates in Washington county, 
is not only adapted to a wider range of productive and profitable crops than 
any other soil, but is easiest to reclaim or build up when run down by exces- 
sive cropping or bad management. Corn and wheat are the leading crops. 
The former is especially adapted to the bottom lands, while the uplands are 
best for wheat, in fact producing crops that for both quantity and quality 
cannot be excelled anywhere in the state. 

Extending across the eastern part of the county is a range of hills called 
the "Knobs," rising to an altitude of nine hundred and sixty feet above the 
level of the ocean. This range extends southeasterly till it reaches the Ohio 
river just below the Falls, and northwardly till it is lost in the bluffs of the 
Muscatatuck and White ri\'ers. These hills are very precipitous on the east 
and north, as if Ijeaten by a current, and from their tops they slope ofif 
gradually to the southwest. They once formed the western shore of a 



glacial river that flowed with some current in a southeasterly directiun. A 
large portion of Gibson township lies in this ancient river-bed, which is 
made up of drift matter, varying in depth from a few feet to a hundred or 
more feet in some places. In digging a well in this drift some years since 
a white walnut log round in a guod state of preser\ation twenty-one 
feet below the* surface. 'Ihe tops of these "knoijs" command a \-iew of 
some beautiful scenery. From one point of view the spectateir may look 
across a vast extent of low country, dotted here and there with farms and 
farm houses and e\en villages, extending to ranges of hills some twenty 
miles to the east; while from perhaps another, the beholder stands lost ni 
wonder and admiration, gazing down a gorge two or three hundred feet 
deep, hemmed in by steep, craggy hillsides, and out upon a level plain of 
fertile bottom lands several miles distant. 

A range of hills, not quite as high as the "Knobs," extends from east 
to west across the county near its northern boundary. Along the different 
streams that drain the county are numerous hills, and there is a hilly sec- 
tion of country in the southwest corner, but lying i>etween them are some 
very fertile valleys. 


The Muscatatuck and its confluence witn Driftwood, forming White 
river, make the northern boundary of the county, and for a great many 
years after the country was settled, constituted the main waterway for the 
outlet of fiatboats that carried the surplus products of this section to the 
South. For some years small steamboats plied up and down these streams, 
doing quite a business in trade and traffic. Along the river a number of 
small towns sprang up, which seemed to have a promising future, but when 
boating ceased, they were soon deserted and the places that knew them 
once will know them no more forever. The merchants of Salem shipped 
considerable quantities of country produce by way of this route. The 
county is traversed by a number of streams having their origin on the ele- 
vated lands, and all are fed by never-failing springs of pure, cold water, 
which makes this section an exceedmgly well-wateretl one. especially 
adapted to grazing and stock-raising. In the northeast part of the county 
is Elk creek, flowing almost due north through Gibson township, emptying 
into the Muscatatuck river. This stream received its name from the fact 
that the earliest hunters found an abundance of elk in this low-lying 
country. Delane^s creek, which drains the greater portion of Monroe 
township, runs in a northerly direction and discharges its waters in the Mus- 


catatuck. This creek took its name from an Indian named Delaney, who 
remained in that section of country a few years after the others of his tribe 
had gone. He had a wigwam down towards the mouth of the creek. It 
was on account of the fine fishing and hunting grounds found there that the 
old Indian was loath to leave. Buffalo creek has its origin in Monroe 
township, then wends its way among the hills across the northern part of 
Jefferson township, emptying into White river. Buffalo were known to 
have ranged up this valley at a very early day, hence the name. Rush, Twin 
and Clifty creeks are small streams which drain the northwest comer of 
the county and discharge their waters into White river. A number of boats 
were made, loaded and floated down Twin creek, and it was once declared 
navigable by the Legislature. The north and south forks of Lost river 
have their source in Vernon township, flowirig west. The south fork was 
the water outlet for the "flat woods," a very level section of country in 
Vernon township, where at one time there were several small lakes, a 
favorite resort for the early hunter and trapper. 

About two-thirds of the county is drained by Blue river and its tribu- 
taries. There are three main branches of this stream, called the south, 
middle and north forks of Blue river. The south fork is generally known 
by the name of Mutton fork, because a man who lived • on this stream 
at an early day was detected stealing sheep and selling mutton. This latter is 
the longest branch, having its source in the southeast corner of Franklin 
township, running thence, through Polk, Pierce, Jackson and Posey town- 
ships, till it empties into Blue river near the town of Fredericksburg. The 
middle fork also starts in Franklin township and, uniting with the north 
fork in the northwest corner of Pierce township, forms Blue river. The 
main or north fork, has its source in the southwest corner of Gibson town- 
ship, running southwesterly through Salem. It is also designated as Lick 
fork or Royses fork. Other streams of considerable size, which in an early 
day furnished sufificient water to run saw and grist-mills most all the year 
round, were Mill, Highlands, Rush, Brocks and Bear creeks. Besides these, 
there are many other small brooks fed by springs that gush from rocky 
hillsides, rushing and leaping over miniature precipices and along mossy 
banks, making music for the lover of nature who seeks a retired spot for 
repose and meditation. "t /li ^ I^O 


With the perfecting of long distance transmission of power by elec- 
tricity, the question of the utilization of the water-power resources of the 


county is one of great importance. There is an enormous amount of this 
unutihzed which, if it is ever properly directed, will be of incalculable value. 
Over a large part of the county, the underground drainage lends itself well 
to power production. Th°n there is over four hundred feet of fall from the 
top of the knobs in Gibson township to the point where Blue river leaves the 
county. This makes it possible for the surplus surface water that is carried 
down by the streams to be used over and over again a number of times. 
Three methods of titilizing this power present themselves. First, the build- 
ing of impounding dams at suitable points; second, the fluming of waters 
down the banks of streams, after the style of the old "race;" third, the seal- 
ing of the mouths of spring caves. When high bluffs extend up close to 
both sides of a stream the dam is practicable. Along Twin creek there are 
points where dams could be constructed one hundred feet high, impounding 
a huge body of water which would extend back upon land of very little 
value, the same not being fit for cultivation. Where the fall of a stream is 
quite rapid, flumes could be easily and cheaply constructed. There are at 
least a half dozen large cave springs in the county that might be successfully 
sealed and all the power they are capable of exerting utilized. In almost 
every case suitable stone could be quarried on or near the spot where dams 
might be built profitably. 


The rocks of four geological epochs of the Lower Carboniferous period 
form the surface of W asjiington county. These are the Knobstone and the 
three groups of limestone — the Harrodsburg, Bedford Oolitic and Mitchell. 
The rocks of the Knobstone consist of blue and gray shales, sandstone and 
rarely a little limestone. In this county it ranges from three to five hundred 
feet in thickness. It contains few seams or fissures, hence is never a water- 
producing stratum. (J\erl\ing the Knobstone is a group of rocks called 
Harrodsburg limestone. It is bufi^ or blue in color and in this county has a 
depth of about forty feet, on an average. It is readily recognized l)y the 
crinoidal remains and gee ides it contains. 

The next stratum overlying the Harrodsburg limestone is the Bedford 
Oolitic, a granular limestone made up of soft shells: is eas}- to car\-e, 
weathers well auA i> probably the most in)i)ortaiit liiiilclin;.; stone found in 
the whole countr\- It is buff and blue in color and lies m beds or strata, 
varying from a few feet up to fifty feet in thickness, .\lio\e the Oolitic 
limestone is the hard gray and blue MitrhcU |.;roup of limestone, ranging 


from one hundred to two hundred feet in thickness. It is in this group that 
caves are found, and on the surface are many sinkholes, all of which lead 
into caverns. 

The rocks of the Knobstone group are exposed in the townships of 
Brown, Jefferson, Monroe, Gibson, Franklin and Polk and in the north 
part of Washington. In Brown township they are only seen at the bottom 
of the bluff of Clifty creek, near its mouth or in the bed of the creek and 
they are exposed in the same manner on Twin creek. Passing up Twin 
to the mouth of Rush creek the Knobstone exposures are much more prom- 
inent. Five miles north, the sandstones reach to the tops of the highest 
bluffs, and this same formation continues for a distance of three or tour 
miles up Buffalo creek. 

Delaneys creek is marked by high, steep bluft"s on each side, the same 
features possessed by all the other streams that flow toward White river or 
the Muscatatuck. Along this creek the sandstones are found extending to 
the tops of the ridges for a distance of five miles aliove the mouth, dibson 
township exhibits nothing but Knobstone rocks, except in the southwest 
corner, where the ridges are capped with Ilarrodsburg limestone. The 
knobs here reach an altitude of one thousr.: d and ninfeteen feet above sea 
level and are three hundred feet above the creek liottoms. In the townships 
of Franklin anrl Polk, Knobstone is not exposed except in the cuts made 
by this creek. About three miles northeast of Salem, in a cut in the road 
and along the creek bank, there are exposures of blue shale, and it extends 
southwest in the beds of the creeks as far as Salem, where it disappears, 
owing to the westward di|) of the strata. The general dip of rocks in Wash- 
ington county is from ten to twenty feet to the mile, trending a little south 
of west. 


The more compact .sandstones of the Knobstone group have consider- 
able economic value as building material. The shales would be found prulit- 
able for clay wares or for the clay ingredient of Portland cement, if there 
were railroad facilities to render them marketable. 

The Harrodsburg limestone practically covers an area of count rv 
which lies northeast of a cHrect line drawn from the southeast to the north- 
west corners of the county and extending east to the {<>]> of the knobs and 
north to the summits of the ridges that lie south of the Muscatatuck and 
\\'hite rivers. This formation is found in layers of \ariabk- thickness, from 
a few inches up to a few feet. It is of a gray or blue color and verv hard. 


It makes fairly good lime and has been used considerably about Salem in 
structural work. The first 1)rick houses ever built in Salem were put up on 
foundations made of these thin mck. laid up without uK.irtar. and s.mie of 
these structures have stood for almost a centur\- with walls just as solid, 
seemingly, as they were the day they were put ui). Where these thin rocks 
could be readily quarried they have been used quite extensi\ely in fence 
building. The fertile calcareous clay lands about the central portion of the 
county were formed l>y the weathering of this Plarrodslmrg group i)f lime- 
stone. Northeast of Salem it has yielded a clay that in some places is twen- 
ty-five feet deep. 

Lying atop of this latter forniati(_)n and along its southwest area is 
the Bedford Oolitic limestone. This most valuable grou]) of stone extends 
in a strip from one {<> three miles in width, from Martinshurg in the north- 
west corner of the cuunt}-. and lies in sufficient strata at \arious ]i(_>ints ahjiig 
this belt to be of great commercial value if facilities were provided for get- 
ting it to market. The finest stone has been found about Salem and north- 
west along Rush, Twin and (."lifty creeks. 

The first quarry to be opened and worked in this count\- was the one 
located a mile southwest of Saler.i. Work was begun there about 1855 ^"'^l 
for se\-eral years all the stone tliat was shipj)ed (jul of the count}- was car- 
ried from the quarry to the railroad, a distance of about ime-third of a 
mile, by means of a huge pair of trucks, the blocks of stone being swung 
beneath the truck axle. In 1870 a switch was extended from the railroad 
up to the quarry on a wooden trestle. l^Voni 1875 to igoo this quarry was 
operated quite extensively. Large saw, turning and planing mills were 
erected and their products \\ere shipped to all parts of the country, to be 
used in the construction of large buildings. This quarry furnished the stone 
for the Gait House, the city hall, the city hospital and a number of large 
churches in Luuisville, and tlie state capitol> of ( icorgia and Xew Jersey; the 
Cincinnati court house and the Xew ( )rleans I otton Exchange are of this 
stone. A .lalf dozen large limekiln^ were built and operated to utilize the 
refuse stone from the cjuarries. Se\ eral small quarries ha\e been opened on 
Twin creek to supply local demands for liuilding stone. There some of the 
finest beds of Oolitic stone in the count\ are found, in some instances show- 
ing a face, at the outcrop, of from tifl\ to ninety feet. 

'l"he Mitchell limestones .ire the surface rocks found in that ]ionioii ,if 
the county known as the "baneus" and throughout the southwot part of 
the county, \\here the sinks .iccuiv The exposures are few and the cl.ivs are 


characterized by a peculiar reddish-brown color. The stone's color is dark- 
gray or blue and it is very hard, being suitable for little else than road 
material. It is also called "cavernous" limestone liecause of the fact that 
caves of greater or less extent, are ahi*ays found in this formation. 


All the rocky exposures in Washington county are rich in fossils, 
making this locality a -paradise for the collector of geological specimens. 
The most famous locality is Spurgeon hill, situated in section 24, township 
2 north, range 4 east. It has a world-wide reputation for the variety and 
abundance of its finely-preserved specimens. It has for \ears past been the 
resort of eminent geologists from all parts of the country, and will still be, as 
its treasures are inexhausible. No calnnet, public or private, is now con- 
sidered complete, unless it contains a full series of Spurgeon-hill specimens. 
In sections 7,2 in Gibson township and 25 in the nordiwest corner of Wash- 
ington, the finest fossils belonging to the Knobstone formation are found. 
In all the railroad cuts and along the lieds and banks of all streams that pass 
through the Harrodsburg limestone, more or less rare and fine fossils are 
found. Geodes are numerous in the InitT ledges and shaly layers of this 
same formation in many places, ranging in size from a walnut up to some 
grand specimens two feet across. Some of these have been flattened by 
pressure, but their most usual shape is spherical. 


The clays of the county are mostly residual, being the resitluuin of rock 
decay, the soluble portions of the parent rock having been wholly or partly 
carried off or dissolved beneath the surface. The main factors in bringing 
about this change were water, the disintegrating effects of heat and cold, 
and the action of roots of plants. Such clays are usually very impure and 
highly colored by iron, which accounts for them Ijeing red, as a rule, in this 
county. A shale is only a clay which has Iiecome consolidated into a hard 
mass by pressure. When weathered, or when ground and mixed with water, 
it becomes a soft jjlastic mass, like clay. The Knobstone and coal-measure 
shales constitute the most valuable sedimentary clay deposits of the state. 
Probably abotrt trtte-lifth t,f the surface of Waslvington county shows the 
shale or sedimentary clay. These shales liave, as yet, received but little 
attention from rla\- ni;uuifaclurers, hut thev are destined to become one of 


the most important clays of the state. They are beginning to l)e used to a 
considerable extent as the clay ingredient of Portland cement at some of the 
large factories in this state. They are also suitable for paving-brick and 
pressed-front brick. Should a railroad ever be built up through the knob 
region of the northeast part of the county an inexhaustible supply of clay- 
working material could be easily and cheaply secured. The residual clays 
of the county furnish excellent material for the manufacture of common 
brick, and kilns have been burned in various localities e\er since the country 
was first settled. Tile factories have l)cen operated successfully in several 
paits of the county where drain-tile was in demand. In the low bottoms of 
Gibson township there is some alluvial clay, which seems specially adapted 
to the manufacture of drain-tiles. 


There are several mineral springs and wells in Washington county, hut 
their waters have little more than a local reputation. In section 30. in 
Franklin township, there is a spring which yielded, on analysis, chloride of 
sodium bicarbonate of lime, sulphate of lime, bicarlionate of magnesia, 
sulphate of magnesia, sulphate of soda and sulphate of iron. \Mieii used 
it acts beneficiaUv as an aperient, alterative and tonic. It is a water that is 
not very pleasant to the taste and conseciuently is not used \ery extensixely. 

In section 26, township 4 north, range 3 east, thirteen miles north of 
Salem, is a mineral well sunk in 1870 to a depth of nineteen feet, through 
clay, gravel and blue mud into a shale from w'hich the water is derixed. The 
water stands ten feet deep in the well and when raised has a temiterature 
of fifty-eight degrees Fahrenheit. ^Vhile free from the odnr of hydrogen 
sulphide, it has a distinct, but slight, sulphur-saline taste. A rather heavy 
whitish efflorescence on the ground below the well and on the rocks rein(i\e(l 
and thrown to one side, when the well was dug, are indications of aluminum 
silicate. A partial analysis made in [Sjc by a Cincinnati chemist resultetl 
as follows: Basis — Sodium, potassium, calcium magnesium, iron. Acid 
radicals — Sulphuric, hydrochloric, carbonic, phosjihoric. 

"Of these, the sodium, calcium ami magnesium, among the metals, ,ind 
the sulphuric and hydrochloric, of the acids, are the most The 
iron and potassium are present only in very small proportions. Among the 
more soluble salts, the chlorides and phosphates of sodium and magnesium 
exist in by far the largest quantities, (^f the less soluble salts the sul])hate 
of calcium is the most abundant. 


"The specitic gravity of the water is 1.0033. It affords, upon standing, 
but a very slight sediment, containing a small quantity of organic matter. 
This water is to be classed with the saline springs and wells such as those 
of Seidlitz, Pyrniont, the Ballston Spa, of Saratoga, and the St. Louis arte- 
sian well." 

The water has quite a local reputation for kidney, bladder, stomach and 
rheumatic troubles. It has been prescribed in a great many instances by 
resident physicians of the county and has been shipped to a number of towns- 
and cities of southern Indiana where its remedial effects are known. 

A cluster of springs which give forth a saline-sulphuretted water is^ 
found in the northeast quarter of section 10, township i north, range 3 east, 
six miles .southwest of Salem and one-half mile northwest of Becks Mill. 
Here three springs issue from limestone rock ; two of them about thirty feet 
apart, on opposite sides of a shallow ravine. The water of the larger spring 
flows- horizontally from the ledge of limestone, at the rate of one gallon per 
minute, and is collected in a basin hollowed out in the rock, [n this basin 
and in the rill bearing away the overflow, there are white, black and ])urple 
precipitates of salts of sulphur. The water has a distinct taste and odor of 
hydrogen sulphide, combined with a slight saline taste, and a temperature of 
sixty degrees Fahrenheit. 

The water of the accond spring, very similar in character, wells up per- 
pendicularly from a crevice in the limestone rock, at th" rate of one-half 
gallon per minute. The third spring is located one-quarter of a mile farther 
north, on the west bank of Mill creek. The v^ater flows about fifteen feet, 
into that stream, at the rate of about one gallon per minute. Two other 
springs of similar water formerly welled up on low gr ^und, thirty rods west 
of the first two mentioned, but their openings are now covered with mud 
and decayed vegetation. The water from all these springs has quite a local 
reputation for dyspepsia and stomach trouble. The scenery in this locality 
is \ery romantic and pleasing. 

In the earlv settlement of the country there were two salt "licks," or 
springs, a few miles east of Salem. In making well borings in and about 
Salem, salt water is reached almost invariably at a depth of from seventy- 
five to one hundred and fifty feet. 


Upon the range of hills that lie in the southwest part of the county 
Sdine (lutlines of the Huron jrroui) of stone occur. It consists of a dark,. 


hard blue limestone capped with sand rock. This group of stone lies at the 
lx)ttom of the coal-measures of Indiana. It originally extended eastward to 
the vicinity of Salem. Init the ancient erosions that created this great valley 
in the central part of the county carried away almost every trace of this 
formation, together with much of the underlying rock, while the sand ridge 
on the west remained as a monument to show the wonderful destructive- 
ness of the forces that once were in existence. It is thus seen that all the 
rock formations in Washington count}- are below the coal-measures, conse- 
uently no coal deposits in paying quantities will ever be found. 

The top of Spurgeon hill is one hundred and thirty-five feet higher 
than the railroad track at Harristown, one of the highest points in the 
county, but it is still too low for coal. A few fossils of coal plants have 
been found at the top of the hill, showing that the higher points would more 
likely reveal evidences of coal than by digging down in less elevated locali- 
ties. In a few localities in the west part of the county coal seams have 
been found running from three to six inches in thickness. , One of these 
occurs al)out a mile north of Hardinsl)urg and it is said that in an early 
day, when coal was hard to get, the blacksmiths of that neighborhood 
obtained some coal there for use in their work. There is another thin vein 
found in a hillside about two miles south of Livonia, but both of these are 
now lost, being co^-ered up by the wash from the hillsides. 

Iron may be found in small quantities in almost any part of the county, 
upon or near the surface, forming a part of the residuum resulting from 
the disintegration of superior strata, but it exists nowhere in anything like 
paying quantities. 

No precious metals will e\'er be found in this county, because primitive 
formations, in which mines of gold and siher are found, do not exist. The 
fabulous stories, said to ha\e been handed down through a long line of 
Indian chiefs, about concealed siher mines in the county long since lost 
credence in the minds of considerate penple. 


(^f white (ir glass sand there is practically an inexhaustible supply 
found iin the kn(il)s in the smitheast part of the count}-, which was used 
in ccmsiderabk- (piantUy liy the \e\\ All)any glass works while thev were 
l)eiii,i;- operated. I "he sand wa^ carted to P.orden, from which point it was 
shipped by rail to the works. l'"or ;i numl)er of years this industrv was a 
source of consideralile re\ enue to landowners and teamsters ni that iiai-t 


of the country. In the level country lying west of Salem large beds of red- 
dish sand are occasionally found, which contains a sufficient proportion of 
alumina to make it a most excellent sand for molders' use. A large deposit 
of this sand is foimd in section 23, township 2 north, range 3 east, about 
four miles southwest of Salem. There is quite a steady demand for this 
sand from various iron and brass foundries in the Ohio valley and it is 
said to be one of the l>est articles of the kind to be found anywhere. These 
deposits are the residuum of the Hyron sandstones that once extended 
across that part of the country. Any amount of sand, for building pur- 
poses, is to be found along White river and the streams that flow into the 
same from this county. Beds of excellent sand for plasterers' use are found 
at various places along Blue river and most of its tributaries. These 
streams also furnish unlimited quantities of gravel suitable for road build- 
ing. Where the gravel beds along these creeks are exhausted during the 
summer months by road builders, the spring freshets carry down another 
supply from the crumbling banks above and from the rocky ledges where the 
process of disintegration is always going on. 

A deposit of pit gravel, which is probably an overwash from the large 
gravel deposit to the north, exists on the top of a high hill in section 30, in 
Monroe township. It covers about thirty acres and has been used exten- 
sively for top-dressing roads of the vicinity. The gravel is composed mostly 
of chocolate-colored chert, pieces of quartzite and brown and yellow hard 
sandstone. There is much oxide of iron intermingled, which causes this 
gravel to cement \ery closely and firmly, thus making a road surface which 
does not wear into ruts, and which is free from dust at most seasons. By 
far the finest roads in the county, and the most durable as well, have been 
top-dressed with gravel from this pit. While the supply is practically inex- 
haustible for this part of the county the only pity is that it does not extend 
to a wider range of territory. 


To anyone who takes delight in exploring the earth's caverns, Wash- 
ington county presents an interesting field. They are found all over the 
southwest half of the county. Three miles north of C'ampljellsburg in the 
east half of section 14, two very interesting caves are found. The mouths 
of these two caverns are about two hundred yards apart. Clifty creek has 
its source in the streams which emerge therefrom. The caves are desig- 
nated, respectively, by the terms "wet" and "dry," the former being the 


smaller of the two. Across the mouth of the wet cave a cement dam has 
been built, and it supplies enough water at most all seasons of the year to 
run the machinery of a grist-mill. The mouth of this cave is a perfect arch- 
way in the solid limestone, fourteen feet wide and eleven feet high. This 
cave is only explorable by boat, which carries one back about six hundred 
feet, at which point rapids are encountered and further exploration must 
be made by wading in the stream. There are some good-sized rooms 
in this cave and several short avenues leading ofi in ditterent directions. 

The entrance to the "dry" cave is eighteen feet high and twenty feet 
wide. The first five hundred feet of the main passage is very crooked, but 
beyond that point it runs comparatively straight. Some of the branches 
which diverge from the main passage are over four hundred feet long. At 
two thousand feet the passage is one hundred feet wide and contains much 
fallen rock. When a distance of three thousand feet from the mouth is 
reached the cave narrows so that it becomes difficult to proceed farther. 
Here huge boulders have f;illen from the ceiling, some of them fifteen by 
i^hirty feet in size. 

Along the bluffs of Twin creek several interesting caves are found, 
which have been explored from a quarter to a half mile. One of these is said 
to have been occupied by a band of thieves and robbers that infested this 
part of the country at an early day. In section 19, Monroe township, is a 
very interesting cavern known as "Houses" Cave." Before the hand of the 
\andal robbed it of much of its beauty and grandeur its stalactites of varied 
hues were the wonder and admiration of all explorers. "Cave Spring" situ- 
ated in section 34, Madison township, takes its name from the l)eautiful 
cave from which it issues. This cave is dry a short distance back from the 
entrance. It branches off in a number of different ways. Iiut does not extend 
in any direction more than about six hundred feet. The walls of this ca\e 
from fioor to ceiling, are covered with beautiful concretions of carbonate 
of lime, some of which are stained to a deep pink color by oxide of iron. 
The ceilings vary in height from eight to twenty feet and the width from 
ten to sixty feet. This cave contains enough beauty to make it well worth 
a visit. 1 here are se\eral smaller caves in this locality, one known as the 
Mitchell ca\e. two miles southeast of Hanlinsburg lienig quite extensi\e. 

There is a ca\e at Beck's mill which ha.-, been explored tor more than a 
mile, and in it are found some \erv intere-lin,L', formations. It has two 
entrances, one where the huge spring l;u-.1k-s forth that runs the mill, and 
another oxer the hill a half mile s. mth, \ ^pecio of blind lish are found 
in the pools of water within thi^ ciuc. llu- tiuarrx ca\e. one and one-half 


miles southwest of Salem, is frequently visited and explored, and presents 
some interesting attractions. 

Some very interesting caves are found in the southeast part of the 
county. One, two miles south of Martinsburg, connects Washington and 
Floyd counties by tunnel, which can easily l>e traveled its entire length, a 
distance of about a quarter of a mile. ..,.., 


Where the cavernous limestone occurs, most of the country, at an early 
day, was destitute of timlx;r and water and was consequently called "The 
Barrens," by the early settlers. This barren country included the greater 
part of Howard and portions of Vernon, Madison, Pierce and Posey town- 
ships. Along the streams there were borders of timber. These barren 
uplands, for years swept by autumnal fires, presented to the eye the treeless 
effect of the western prairie, but with their many undulations were robbed 
of the prairie monotony. They presented a beautiful picture of the splendor 
and bounty of untrammeled nature when the rank prairie grass had per- 
fected its summer's growth and was overtopped wrth wild flowers innumer- 
able and the stately meadow fern. Here the wild strawberry grew without 
stint and produced fruit in the greatest abundance. There were acres upon 
acres of hazel bush here and there which yielded annually a rich harvest of 
nuts, and the wild-grape vine fairly groaned Ijeneath its weight of fruit. 

The rain which falls on these prairie barrens finds an outlet through 
innumerable sink-holes, all of which lead to some subterranean system of 
brooks, creeks and rivers which flow through rock vaults in midnight dark- 
ness, where eveless fish, beetles and salamanders exist. 

Outside the "barrens" Washington county was originally a heavily- 
wooded country. In fact no county in the state ever grew timber in greater 
variety or of finer quality. The prevailing sjjecies were white, black, red 
and chestnut oaks, white and black walnut, ])opular, white and yellow sugar, 
soft maple, hickory, white and red ash, blue and white, and red and white 
beech, wild cherry, white and red elm, chestnut, sycamore, red. black and 
sweet gum, sassafras, mulberry, Cottonwood, hackberry, birch, honey locust, 
cedar, white pine and several other varieties of less note. In the White 
ri\er region of countrv' there were sassafras trees that measured two feet 


across the stump and chestnut trees that measured over five feet. There 
were black wahiut and wild cherry trees in different parts jf the country 
that were over four feet in diameter, while a few yellow poplars were eight 
feet through and seventy-hve feet to the tirst limb. There were poplar trees 
on the public square of Salem that measured twenty feet in circumference. 
It was from the stumps of some of these trees that the first oratorical eft'orts 
ever made in Salem were heard. Grape vines in abundance, some of which 
were over a foot in diameter, often climbed to the tops of the tallest trees. 

Beneath these forests there grew a dense mass of '^hrubl>ery, consisting 
chiefly of spicewood, paw-paw, waa-hoo. black-haw. thorn, 'eatherwood. 
prickly ash, red-bud, sumac, dogwood, etc. Tn every place where the forest 
and shrubbery were sufficiently open to admit a glimpse of sunshine, the 
ground was covered with pea vines, which furnished inexhaustable browsmg 
for all kinds of stock. Such was the primitive condition of this county 
when it was wrested from the red man. T!ie forests have dwindled down 
to a few patches of woodland, surrounded by cultivated fields; the under- 
growth has entirely disappeared and the pea \ines are botanical curiosities. 
A few spots have been preser\ed in their prinntive wildness by those who 
are lovers of nature, but even these will soon disappear. 

The last one of the giant poplars was cut in 1878. It stood m sec:ion 
32, three miles south of Salem. This tree measured eight feet across the 
stump and made six logs twelve feet long. It took fourteen horses to haul 
the first cut to the saw-mill in Salem, where it made three thousand feet 
of five-eights-inch lumber, many of the boards being forty-two inches wide. 
The entire tree made over twelve thousand feet of lumber. The enormous 
amount of wild cherry, lilack walnut, yellow poplar and white oak sawed 
into lumber and shipped out of the county may be roughly estimated when 
the fact is considered that during the past twenty-five years one saw-mill 
in Salem has shipped out over thirty-five million feet of luml^er, while the 
county has been dotted all over with small mills that have exhausted a much 
larger amount of its valuable woodlands. 

The greatest obstacle in the way of the rapid development of this 
country was the forests and they were recklessly cut down and burned, to 
make way for cultivated fields. Up to i860 the very best of the ash, cherry, 
walnut and white oak timbei was chopped into ten-foot lengths and split 
into railr for fencing. When it was desired to express in the strongest 
terms possible the irksomeness of any sort of muscular eftort it was said 
to be "as hard as mauling rails." 



In bygone ages, no one knows how long ago, the gigantic mastodon 
stalked across the plains and waded in the marshes of all this western coun- 
try. We know that they once were to be found in this county from the fact 
that in 1878, [xirtions of a skeleton were dug out of the creek bank twa 
miles east of Salem, a few hundred feet northeast of Royses Lick- The find 
consisted of some huge teeth, a portion of a jaw-bone, some vertebrae and 
a tusk. As one carefully inspects these bones they cannot avoid reflecting 
on the time when the huge frame of this great animal was clothed with its 
peculiar integuments and moved by appropriate muscles, when the mighty 
iieart dashed forth its torrents of blood through vessels of enormous caliber 
and the mastodon strode along in supreme dominion over every other ten- 
ant of the wilderness. Enormous as were these creatures during life, and 
endowed with faculties proportioned to the bulk of their frames, the entire 
race has been utterly destroyed, leaving nothing behind but the "mighty 
wreck" of their skeletons to testify that they once were among the living 
occupants of this land. 

No positive evidence can now be produced substantiating the tact that 
buffalo were e\er killed by ihe earliest trappers and hunters that visited this 
region of country, but skeleton heads and horns have l)een preserved that 
were picked up at an early day in the northeast part of the county, Elk 
horns were occasionally ])icked up_in the lowlands of Gibson township as 
late as 181 2, and elk were killed there only a few years prior thereto. 

The county once abounded in wild animals and the streams were well 
stocked with fish of all the varieties usually found in western waters. The 
black or cinnamon bear, the gray and black wolf, deer, panthers, wildcat and 
porcupine were plentiful hereabouts while an unbroken forest remained. 
In every cave that a bear could crawl into there were bear wallows, where 
this animal retired to take his long winter nap. A few deer remained in 
the county up to as late as 1845. Other animals that still in the county 
are the fo.x, gray and red, raccoon, ground-hog, skunk, weasel, muskrat, 
opossum, squirrel, rablsit and mink. A\'ild turke\s were found back in the 
hills and flat woods region as late as 1850. The prairie hen was extermin- 
ated before 1820. Pheasants and quail were abundant until the country 
!)ecame quite thickly settled. Wild geese and ducks came in great flocks 
during the late fall and winter months and filled the streams and the few 
small lakes of the county. Some species of ducks reared broods along the 


Muscatatiick and White rivers during the summer months. About the time 
the acorns and beech nuts ripened, milhons upon milHons of wild pigeons 
swooped down upon the country from the north and remained here for 
several weeks, or as long as the mast lasted. They would come in great 
clouds, extending clear across the sky in every direction as far as the eye 
■could reach, fairly blackening the heavens. One of their favorite roosting 
places was on ttie tops of the knobs in the eastern part of the county, where 
they clustered so thickly that all the' smaller limbs of trees were broken otT 
by their weight. Hunters from all parts of the country would visit these 
roosts of nights, and with clubs would kill the pigeons by the bag full, or 
as many as they could haul home. These pigeons vanished suddenly and 
mysteriously about 1855. 

For a period of fifty years after the coming of the first settlers, this 
■county was a suitable paradise for the hunter — but nearly all the game that 
was then so plentiful has disappeare^i. A few timid quail, with perhaps, here 
and there, a scattering pheasant, are the only birds left for the hunter's 
nxark. In the timber spots a few squirrels are still found and the rabbit is 
quite numerous. Up' to about the year i860 one never saw anything but a 
gray squirrel or gray fox. in this part of the country. Xow both squirrels 
and foxes are mostly of the red species. 

Snakes were quite numerous while the country was new. Indians and 
hunters always wore buckskin leggings to protect themselves against snake- 
bites. There were snake dens in hiany places, usually along rocky clififs. 
where hundreds of reptiles would congregate. The numerous snakes were 
the copi>erheads, rattlers, spreading-adders and water moccasins. Rattle- 
snakes and copperheads were most dangerous. The most numerous snakes 
were the racers or black-snakes, garter and cow snakes. The latter was 
the largest of all. The ground snake was a dwarf species not over a foot 
long. The green snake was about two feet long and very slender, about the 
size of a lead pencil. Dens of water snakes were quite common along the 



When the nrst hunters, trappers and homeseekers ventured into this 
territory there were a number of Indian villages here and there along the 
numerous streams, the remnants of tribes and nations that had been driven 
back from the East, who subsisted by hunting, fishing, the spontaneous pro- 
ductions of the earth, and some cultivation of the soil. In the southwest part 
of the county there were some Shawnees, their villages extending south to 
and across the Ohio river. Painkashaus were located north on White river, 
while there were several villages of Delawares in the central and north- 
eastern part of the county. A mile west of where Salem now stands, along 
the gentle slope just east of what was known as "Camp" spring, because 
of its being a favorite camping place for both Indians and white emigrants, 
was a Delaware village headed by an old chief named Highland. This 
spring is located a few rods below the waterworks pumping station. The 
creek that courses down the valley here and empties into Blue river, was 
named for this Indian chief. Another chieftain was named "Old Ox," who 
ruled over several villages within the present bounds of the county, the prin- 
cipal one of which was located at a place known as "The Lick" about two 
miles east of Salem on the north bank of Blue river. Plis followers had a 
number of villages over in the northeast part of the county, where hunting 
and fishing were considered the very best. An occasional cleared spot of 
land near good springs up and down all the streams in the county showed 
where Indians had in days gone by, pitched their teepees. Bumed stone and 
flint spalls still mark places where Indians once lived and operated their 
workshops. At Beck's spring, seven miles south of Salem, there was a 
clearing of some fifteen acres and every indication points to this as being 
at one time the largest Indian town in the county. Only a few families of 
Delawares were here when first settlers came in. It was no uncommon 
sight for the earliest hunters and trappers to, come upon deserted Indian vil- 
lages, as they followed the trails that wound about through the country, 
marked by the small clearing and perhaps the rotting, tumble-down wigwam 
made of poles and bark that had at no distant day been the red man's abode. 


These locations were frecjuently chosen by the early pioneer for a cabin 
site, having thus a spot of cleared land for a roasting-ear patch the first 
season. Near most Indian villages there were to be found Ijurial places. 
and graves were marked by shells, such as could be ])icked up along the 
banks of the larger streams, 'i'hese shells would sometimes l)e edged up 
around the gra\e or a mound of earth would l)e made ami this covered all 
over with shells. The Indian grave wuuld settle very little, as burials were 
made without any sort of coffin, the ileceased l)eing wrapped in his best 
blanket, along with his favorite hunting or war weaix)n. It was in many 
instances the custom to obliterate all trace of burial places when a village 
was abandoned in order that graves coukl not l)e desecrated and robbed of 
their contents. This was more particularly the case when tribes were hostile 
to each other in any particular section of country. 

Most of the Indians found here were armed with spears, tomahawk, 
bow and arrow, but not a few had procured guns of the then formidable 
flint-lock pattern. These had been procured of the British on the north, 
who scattered arms cjuite freely among all Indian tribes that, during the 
Revolution, would war against Americans. The pioneer blacksmith did 
quite a business in shaping up spear, arrow points and tomahawks which 
were readily bartered to the Indian for furs and provisions. The Indians 
here were generally friendly to the whites and there was never any general 
uprising in this particular locality or massacre on what is now Washington 
countv soil. .\t times there were scares when everyliody retreated to nearby 
forts, caust-d bv savages located farther north and west, bent upon pillage 
and plumler, who would not hesitate to carry out their nefarious schemes, 
even at the cost of the life of a settler or his entire family. With the excep- 
tion of some horse or cattle stealing, the first settlers suffered no serious 
trouble, for thev were constantly on the alert for warring, prowling bands 
of savages. 

-\fter the battle of Tippecanoe. Xovemljer 7, iSii, the Indians were 
scattered and divided into small, prowling liands. On Septenil)er j;. iNu, 
a band of Siiawnee warriors peri>etrated the Pigeon Roost massacre, 
which brought out tlie entire militia of the county to aid in the attem])t to 
capture the fleeing savages. The women and children all took refuge in 
the forts. -\nd it was not until after the close of the Indian war in 1815 
tliat the countv .settled down and had no further fear of attack from red 
men. ( )ccasional visits would be made l)y liaiuls of Indians to the settle- 
ments f>ir the purpose of barter and trade. The last IiuIkiu -care in this 
countv wa- in June, iSi.v It was reported that a consider.ible band ni Dehi- 


ware Indians were committing various depredations among the settlers 
north of White river, and to be rid of them, Colonel Bartholomew got to- 
gether a force and moved from Vallonia in a westerly direction to surprise 
and break up the various Indian villages that still remained in that section of 
country. Major Depauw had command of the company that joined this 
body of troops from Washington county. This was the last time the militia 
was called out to rid the country of Indians bent on doing mischief to the 

Ytry few readers of this history ha\'e e\er seen the Indian in his native 
wilds, and can only draw his -pictures in their imaginations. Among all 
Indians there was a striking uniformit\- in their appearance, character, man- 
ners, customs and opinions. This uniformitx ma^• still be seen among the 
few tribes now found upon reser\ations in western parts of the United 
States. i\s to color they were all of a reddish copper, with some diversity of 
shade. The men were tall, large boned and well made; with small black 
eyes, lodged in deep sockets, high cheek bones, nose more or less aquiline, 
mouth large, lips rather thick and the hair of the head black, straight and 
coarse. They wore no l)eard, carefully extracting every hair that might 
make its appearance on the face. .\t the present time one may be seen sport- 
ing a light mustache. Their general expression of countenance was thought- 
ful and sedate. The\- were little gi\en to mirth, had sound understanding, 
quick apprehension, a retentive memory, with an air of indifference in their 
general beha\ior. The women, or squaws, differed considerably from the 
men, both in person and features. They were small and short, with homely, 
broad faces, which often wore an expression of mildness and even sweetness, 
.^t times she was not deficient in prattling loquacity. .\11 spoke in low tones 
of voice and employed few words in casual conversation, but their chiefs, in 
council, would become loud, rapid and vehement. Young people among 
them had \arious games and sports in which they engaged, such as ball play- 
ing, hi(le-:ind-seek. leaping, climbing and shooting with bows and arrows. 
The smaller ones l)uilt queer little wigwams, shaped canoes and in many 
ways imitated the lives and occupations of those about them. 

The sight, smell and hearing of the Indian, being frequently and atten- 
tively exercised, were all remarkably acute. They could trace the footsteps 
of man or beast through the forest or swamp, when an inexperienced eye 
could not discern the slightest \estige. They could pursue their course 
through the pathless forest or over vast plains with undeviating certainty, 
being guided by marks which would have entirely escaped the notice of the 
white man. Their distinguishing qualities were strength, cunning and 


ferocity, and as war was their chief employment, so bra\ery was their main 

Their dress diitered considerably in different tribes or nations. The 
Indians found here were mostly clothed in fur robes and blankets. Every- 
thing they could seize upon in the way of gaudy trinkets or ornamentation, 
was rapidly appropriated. Much time was spent by the squaw in fashioning 
out of furs and feathers the showiest kind of head dress, belts and neckwear. 
Ordinarily they went bare-headed winter and summer, but a sort of cap was 
usually worn by the warriors, and a quill or feather \\as suspended from it 
for every enemy slain in battle. Leggings protected the lower limbs, and 
moccasins the feet. A breech cloth, fastened to a girdle, passed around the 
loins and lower part of the body. In some tribes the hair was allowed to 
flow loosely over the shoulders ; in others it was carefully braded, knotted 
and ornamented as well as soaked in grease. ^Nlost of them suspended from, 
their ears wampum beads and trinkets of various kinds. They were fond of 
bracelets and rings. Beads of various kinds were the favorite ornament for 
the squaws, but they took more pride in painting up and adorning their hus- 
bands than themselves. The woman who could turn out the most gaudily 
bedecked warrior was the envy of everyone else. A tobacco pipe and pouch 
were always suspended from the ginlle, for all were inxeterate smokers. The 
women's dress was ver\' sinlilar to that of men, except in being more simple 
and less gaudy. 

The wigwams or lodges of the Indians were differently constructed in 
different tribes. The modest were formed of poles stood up against trees or 
benches of rock, covered with grass or cedar boughs. A more pretentious 
shelter was made of poles stuck in the ground in a circle, the tops !>eing 
brought together and tied with pliant strips of bark or \ine of some sort. 
Skins of wild beasts were often used for tent co\-ering, making very com- 
fortable quarters for winter. Light was admitted by a small doorway, and 
by an aperture at the top, which also served for the escape of smoke Fires 
were kindled in the middle of the lodge, and the family sat around it on the 
bare ground, but a skin was spread for a visitor. Indians at the time this 
county was first settled, had learned to start fires with flint and steel from the 
whites. Cooking utensils were very few. In some instances a pot or kettle 
had been procured from the white traders, but more often an earthen pot of 
their own make was the onW utensil used around the fire, ^^'ooden liowls 
were sometimes employed in serxing meals. The stomach or skull of some 
animal was usetl for carrying water and hot stones were used in heating 
Avater as necessit\' (.Icmandcd. Tlu^ir inod consisted in the main of ])arclu'u 


corn, wild fruits, fish and the tiesh of wild animals. In travelling or going 
to war, peinican was their favorite food. This consisted of tlesh cut into thin 
slices and dried, after which it was beaten to a coarse powder tetween two 
stones, and packed into a bag. They had no fixed time for meals, either at 
home or in hunting or traveling, but ate when they were hungry. When a 
stranger entered the lodge he was first presented with food, and having 
partaken of same, his business was made known, if he was other than a 
simple caller. 

Most Indians were satisfied with one wife, but occasionally they would 
take to themselves two or three, and there was no law or custom to prevent 
it. When polygamy was practiced and wives grew quarrelsome or refrac- 
tory, a wholesome castigatinn was administered by the bead of the lodge to 
adjust matters. 

The big brave never lowered himself to do any sort of drudgery work, 
or in fact work of any sort. The sfjuaw was depended on to do e\'erything. 
except the hunting and fishing. She made the lodges, gathered in the fuel 
and kept the fires going. She looked after the dress of the whole family, 
cultivated the ground and cared for the baggage on the journey. In their 
small clearings they grew corn, beans, pumpkins, melons and tobacco. They 
possessed no tools for cultivating the soil other than sharp pointed bones, 
shells or flat stones. About the time settlers first came into this part of the 
country they had learned to use the hoe, as made by the blacksmith. 

Indians never chastised their children, 'especially the boys, thinking it 
would dampen their spirits, check their love of independence and cool their 
martial ardor. Parents, by example, instruction and advice, would endeavor 
to train them to diligence and skill in hunting and inspire them with courage 
and contempt of danger, pain or death. The old men put in most of their 
tiiue exhorting and teaching the young ones how they should demean them- 
selves in after life. The Indian's name was always a descri]>tion of the real 
or supposed qualities of the individual to whom it was applied. Most fre- 
quently the young man went unnamed until by some daring feat or accomp- 
lishment he had earned a title, and names were often changed se\'eral times. 

To the healing arts they were in a great measure strangers, although 
by means of some simple remedies they performed many cures. Most of 
their "medicine-men" were simply conjurers, pretending to ha\e communica- 
tion with the Great Spirit. They professed to be able to chase awav disease 
by howling, blowing on the trum|>et, and by various incantations, slight-of- 
hand performances and sujierstitious rites. The bead of e\ery family had 
his medicine bag the same as the ijrofessional doctor, consisting of rdds and 


herbs of various kinds pounded up together, and when needed was admin- 
istered with a httle warm water. When advanced in Hfe, and being no longer 
able to participate in the chase or take part in war, they often longed for the 
hour of dissolution. The dying man rejoiced in the hope of immortality, and 
talked of the happy hunting grounds to which he was soon to be transported 
— where the trails would always be smooth and the sky clear 

When there was a death in the village friends assembled around the 
body, the men in mute silence, while the women indulged in hand-clapping 
and loud lamentations. The burial followed soon after death. The body 
was wrapped in some sort of robe or skin and carried to the grave on the 
shoulders of two or three men. With the body they buried such of the 
deceased's belonging- as they thought he might use when he arrived at the 
happy hunting ground. They believed that if this was not done his spirit 
would be ill at ease and he would not be properly prepared for his entrance 
into the other world. 

Among the red men, wherever found, society was always in the loosest 
state in which it could possibly exist. They had no laws, no magistrates or 
tribunals to protect the weak or punish the guilty. Every man asserted his 
own rights and averiged his own wrongs. He was neither restrained nor 
protected by anything but his innate sense of shame, or the promptings of 
honor, together with the approbation or disapprobation of his tribe. His 
misdeeds sometimes caused him to be cut off from his people, to become a 
wandermg miscreant doomed to an untimely end. Among these savages 
sentiment and habit often did more to curb passion and set matters aright 
than wise laws accomplish in civilized society. They were always ambitious 
to preserve the honor of their tribe or nation, proud of its success, and 
zealous for its welfare. No people were ever more ready to sacrifice every- 
thmg, even life itself if necessary, for country. When all are equally poor, 
the distinctions founded on wealth cannot exist ; and among a people when 
experience is the only source of knowledge, the aged men are naturally the 
sages of the nation. 

In many tribes the sachems or chiefs had a sort of hereditary rank, but 
in order to maintain it they had to prove themselves worthy of the honor 
conceded. Bravery, good conduct and generosity were the principal means 
of maintaining any rank or distinction. Matters of general import to the 
tribe were discussed in a council composed of the chiefs and principal war- 
riors, in which the acknowledged head chief presided. He had no power to 
compel, so that argument and persuasion were resorted to in order to gain 
influence or prestige. The chief was merely the most confidential individual 


in the tribe, and was never installed with any ceremony nor distinguished by 
any badge. The men of the tribe usually settled their controversies among 
themselves, seldom applying to their chiefs, except for advice. 

The chief causes of war among different tribes or nations most com- 
monly originated from the stealing of horses, elopement of squaws or the 
encroachment on hunting grounds. When a warrior felt that he had been 
wronged he advised with the chief, and, if in his opinion the matter was of 
sufficient importance, a council of war was called, and if there was strong- 
following, the war dance was put on and a call for volunteers followed. No 
one was obliged to fight against his will. Sometimes a small party went 
forth to right a supposed wrong, headed by the brave who was most enthus- 
iastic in the cause. Before starting out the head warrior would give a feast 
to those who had signified a willingness to follow him, and it was distinctly 
understood that they who partook of his hospitality thereby pledged them- 
selves to be faithful followers and partners in his enterprise. Before start- 
ing out the medicine bag was always arranged and the oracles consulted. 
On the medicine bag much reliance was placed for the successful termina- 
tion of the adventure. It usually contained the skin of a sparrow hawk, 
wampum beads, tobacco and various trinkets. The bag was cylindrical in 
shape and from one to two feet long and was suspended on the back of the 
leader by the girdle which passed round his neck. The leader marched at 
the head of the column, the others following in line two or three pace? apart, 
and usually treading in each other's footsteps. 

An experienced woodsman was usually sent ahead as scout or spy, and 
when he reported that the enemy was near, a halt was called, the medicine 
bag was opened and preparations were at once tnadt for action. The band 
then moved on with cautious tread, always endeavoring to fall upon the 
enemy when least expected. The attack began with the war whoop. If 
they were in the forest each one took shelter behind a tree. If it was ou 
open ground they dodged about from side to side to prevent the enemy ffom 
taking a deadly aim. The successful carrying^ away of an enemy's scalp was 
a much greater honor than simply to shoot him, for he then carried back a 
sure mark of victory. To take the scalp the victor set one foot on the neck 
of his dead or disabled enemy, entwined one hand in his hair, and by a slash 
or two with his scalping knife the scalp was lifted. 

After a successful encounter the victors buried their dead and returned 
rapidly to their village. The scalps were displayed and the dance renewed. 
A sort of drum and a rattle, consisting of a skin bag filled with pebbles. 


were the only musical instruments they had. In these encounters a watchful 
eye was kept on the young warrior. If he displayed marks of bravery he 
was at once put into the rank of braves. If prisoners were taken the women 
were made slaves and the children were adopted by families of the tribe, but 
the men had little show for their lives. When not burned at the stake, they 
were allowed to run the gauntlet. Two lines were formed, ,iot only of 
warriors, but squaws and children also participated. They took their places 
about six feet apart, each armed with club, spear or tomahawk, which was 
held in readiness to strike down the prisoner as he passed through the lines. 
If he was agile and was dexterous in warding ofi the blows aimed at him he 
might get through with his life, but this did not always give him his lil>erty. 
The council was then called which determined his fate. When prisoners 
were burned and tortured at the stake they never murmured or complained, 
for they had been taught that courage and fortitude were the glory of man. 

Among all tribes and nations the pipe or calumet was the symbol of 
peace, and the pledge of friendship. This pipe was about four feet long, 
with a bowl made of clay or stone, with a stem of light wood or reed. It 
was variously decorated and ornamented, and carefully preserved. The 
bearer of this sacred symbol was never treated with disrespect. Peace was 
concluded and treaties ratified by passing round the pipe and all participated. 
Presents were also exchanged. When tribes, friendly towards each other, 
desired an exchange of commodities or food supplies, the needy tribe would 
send a deputation of their number to make their wants known and smoke 
with their more fortunate neighbors. It was considered a breach of courtesy 
to send them away unprovided for, as they might sometime in turn be com- 
pelled to ask for aid when misfortune might overtake them. 

The Indians, in general, like other ignorant people, were believers in 
witchcraft, and thought most of their ill-luck, as well as many of their 
diseases, proceeded from the arts of sorcery. Believing this, it was not 
ti difficult matter for impostors to take advantage of their credulit\-. A case 
in point was the burning of a witch only a mile from where Salem is located. 
In 1804-5 ^ brother of Tecumseh, named Law-le-was-i-kaw (which signifies 
the loud voice) visited at one of the Delaware villages on West fork of 
White river. In order to make for himself a reputation and gain influence 
over his people he assumed the roll of prophet. He would go about from 
village to village and harangue his ignorant hearers by telling them alx)ut 
the danger of witchcraft, the horrible results of using fire-water to excess, 
how unholy it was 'for Indian maidens to marry white men and the bad 
practice of selling Indian lands to the United States. He told them also that 


the Great Spirit iiad appeared untu him and had f;i\en him puwer ti i reineiK 
these evils, and in addition thereto had given him power to e\ en sta\ the 
arm of death in sickness rmd on the battlefield. He called himself 'Fhe 
Prophet and was everywhere looked upon as such. He visited all the I )ela- 
ware villages in this part of the state and was particularly se\ere on wUclic^. 

About a mile down the creek from old chief Highlands town 
was located in and near a cave, afterwards known as Zink's ca\ e, there was 
another village, and at both places there had been an unusual amount of 
sickness. He laid the trouble to some witch and when he left, achised them 
to keep strict watch on an old squaw whom he susjiected was the cause of all 
the trouble, saying that upon his return the matter could be more fulK 
determined. He thus went aljout o\er the state pointing out wizards and 
witches and exhorting the bra\es to continue their warfare against the pale- 
faces. In many places where he went Indians were accused of witchcraft, 
were tried, condemned and either tomahawked nr burned at the stake. 
Through the inHtience of this arch-bend this whole Indian C(juntr}- became 
as superstitious as the Massachusetts I'urilans, but should not lie held to the 
same accountability, for one was an ignorant sa\age race, while the other 
was an intelligent one and professed Christianity. 

In the spring of 1807 The Prophet made another visit to this locality 
and was not long in pointing out the old squaw who was the author of all 
their trouble. She was accordingly brought forward before "Big Medicine'" 
and all sorts of charges were preferred against her. She had no defendei'. 
no one to plead her case, and in short order she was found guilty as accused, 
the sentence being that she should be burned at the stake. A procession was 
formed and she was led down to the forks, where Highland creek and 
Royse's fork of P>lue river meet, where she was tied to a tree and burned, 
after suffering severe torture. She stood it all without nuirnuir or com- 
plaint, in regular stoical Indian fashion. The earliest settlers, among them 
Brock and Beck, knew of this tragedy and vouched for its correctness, and 
had a number of times seen the spot where the scene had been enacted. 

It was probably about the time that Salem was laid out, 1814, that the 
Indians bade farewell to these hunting grounds, struck teejiees and mo\ ed 
farther west where they would be free from encnjachment of the whiter 
and find game more abundant. For some years afterward a small part\- 
of friendly Indians would occasionally come through tne country, visiting 
scenes of early days and nearly always professing to be on the hunt ni 
treasures that had been hidden and left behind when their tribe had fled the 



Almost a century and a half passed away after the discovery of America 
before any portion of this Western country was explored by Europeans. 
While the English were striving to establish colonies along the Atlantic 
coast between Chesapeake bay and Plymouth Kock, the Erench moved up 
the St. Lawrence and settled Canada. Quebec was founded in 1608, and 
gradually thereafter adventurers pushed farther west and established posts 
back in the lake country. The Jesuits and fur traders were the forerunners 
■of our civilization. As early as 1634 missions were established as far west 
as Lake Huron. 

The first white men known to nave put foot upon Indiana soil were 
the missionaries, Allowez and Dablon. Between the years 670 and ibjj 
they were visiting the Indians along the Kankakee river. The Miami con- 
federacy of Indians then claimed and possessed all of this Nortliwest coun- 
try. La Salle was the boldest of all adventurers and spent t\\elve years of 
his hie in exploration. In the early part of 1682 he crossed over from the 
lakes to the Mississippi river, and was the first to explore the same to the 
gulf of Mexico. Here he ouilt a few huts, erected a cross, fastened the 
arms of Erance to a tree and proclaimed that he had taken possession of all 
the country through which he had traveled, from Canada tv the gulf in the 
name ot the king of Erance. He called it Luuisiana, in honor of Louis 
XIV., who then and there became the first ruler o\er tlie territory embraced 
in the Ohio and Mississippi valleys. Erom this time on explorers and traders 
made frequent excursions into these western wilds and the Jesuits labored 
industriously to form missions among the savages. 


No sooner had La Salle inf(irnie<l the h'rench king of the vastness and 
fertility of the territory- west of the Alleghanies than he set about to estab- 
lish a line of forts and settlements from lanada to the mouth of the .Missis- 
•^ip])i ri\er, for the purpose of protecting the fur traders and keeping out 


Other nations. The faxorite route from Quebec to the gulf was up the St. 
Lawrence river, across lakes Ontario and Erie to the mouth of the Maumee 
ri\er; up that stream as far as boats could go, where a portage of ten miles 
was made to the Wabash, from which point the passage to the Ohio and 
Mississippi was easy. This continued to be the main line of travel for 
traders and settlers as long as bVance retained possession of the country. 

One of the first in the chain of forts established across the Northwest 
was at Detroit in 1701. The next, in all probability, was the "Post du 
.\ubashe" (V'incennes ), in 1702, and thus began the settlement of what is 
now the great commonwealth of Indiana. It was ten years after before this 
post became a permanent settlement. It was not till the year 1733. when 
Francois Morgan de \'incennes, officer of the King's troop in Canada, was 
sent to take charge of the "posti" that its name was changed to "Posti 
V'incennes." New Orleans was founded in 1717, and from that date French 
emigrants came in quite rapidly. 

In 1 72 1 France divided her western possessions into nine districts. All 
the Ohio valley and the country extending as far west as the Mississippi 
was one district and was called the "District of Illinois.'' Its capital was 
located at Fort Chartres, built in 1718, on the banks of the Mississippi. 
The only remains of this ancient capital is a heap of crumbling, moss-grown 
ruins. King Louis XV was then ruler over the French territory in America. 
This king and his nobles were much more diligent in trying to make fortunes 
for themselves out of the colonies than they were in looking after the wel- 
fare of the colonists. Heavy taxes were imposed on all who attempted to 
establish permanent settlements, and little encouragement was extended to 
those who took up agricultural pursuits. If the French had prompted their 
early emigrants to become tillers of the soil, like the English did their 
colonists along the Atlantic coast, they would no doubt have increased their 
population more rapidly and been able to retain their possessions against 
all intrusions, but during the eighty years that France controlled this coun- 
try very little was done to develop it. 

While engaged in an expedition against the Natchez Indians in 1736 M. 
de Vincennes was killed, whereupon Louis St. Agne was placed in command 
at Post "Vincennes, who continued to command this fort as long as the 
French held possession of the country. He was a wise and discreet ruler, 
and for almost a quarter of a century the inhabitants round about the post 
lived careless, happy lives, and while they farmed a little most of their 
time was spent in fishing, hunting and trading, all the while maintaining 
peaceable relations with the Indians. 



About 1750 emigrants from the colonies began to cross the Alleghanies 
and encroach upon the French domain. As a means of self-protection a 
number of strong forts were built northwest of the Ohio and garrisoned 
with French soldiers. By the aid of the Indians, who were their allies, se\- 
eral English traders and small posts were captured on the burders of the 
frontier settlements. In retaliation the l-jiglish picked up a number of 
French traders and scouts and held them as jirisoner^ of war. These depre- 
dations soon led to a formal declaration of war between luigland and 
France, commonly known as the "French and Indian War." For eight 
years this strife continued, but finally the I'rench had to yield to superior 
numbers and the control of the country pas.sed t(j the luiglish. By treaty 
made at Paris, February 10, 1763, France ceded to Great Britain Canada, 
Nova Scotia and all the territory claimed by the French lying east of the 
Mississippi, except the town of .\ew Orleans Thus the territory now 
comprised within the Ijorders of Indiana came under British rule. But the 
Indians occupied the same and made a stubborn fight, under Pontiac, to 
retain it. A sanguinary struggle ensued, but the Indians were o\erpowered, 
their warriors slain and their villages destroyed, and they sued for peace, 
which was concluded on October 25, 1764. Immediately thereafter the work 
of garrisoning all the French posts was begun There were at this time 
only three small colonies of whites within the present limits of Indiana. 
There were about eighty families at Post Vincennes, fourteen at Fort 
Ouiatenon and ten at the Twightwees village near the confluence of the St. 
Joseph and St. Marys rivers. These were all French and in the absence of 
any military force they refused to submit to British rule and did not transfer 
their allegiance to the British crown until 1777. On December 15, 1778, 
Post Vincennes was for the first time garrisoned by English soldiers. 

On the 2nd da}' of June, 1774, the British parliament passed an act 
extending the boundaries of Canada so as to include all of the "Illinois 
District." At this time they were anticipating trouble with the American 
colonies, so they took steps to conciliate the Indians and French in this 
territory and turn them against the frontiersmen, .\fter the colonies had 
declared their independence the British still controlled Canada and all the 
territory northwest of the Ohio. By retaining the forts, they could annu}- 
the Americans by fitting out arnieil bands of Indians and sending them tu 
attack the settlements along the border. The Continental army had to direct 


all its force against the British troops that had been landed on the Atlantic 
coast to force the patriots into subjection, so the western country was left 
to fight its own battles. 


At this time Virginia claimed all the territory west of the AUeghanies 
and back to the Mississippi. She was greatly distressed on account of the 
savage warfare that was causing so much trouble and bloodshed among her 
people and in which strife she seemed unable to lend a helping hand. Among 
the early pioneers that followed Boone into Kentucky was a brave, vigorous, 
patriotic young man who had been authorized to survey the lands as they 
were claimed by early settlers. The name of this adventurer was George 
Rogers Clark, a native of Albermarle county, \'irginia, and to him, more 
than to any other one man, the United States is indebted for the accession 
of all that vast scope of country out of which the states of Indiana, Illinois, 
Michigan, Wisconsin and part of Ohio were formed. More especially do 
the people who now dwell in the land conquered by General Clark owe 
him a debt of the deepest gratitude, for if he had not disputed the claims 
of the English, the boundary of the United States would doubtless have been 
the Ohio river instead of the Mississippi and Indiana now might have been 
under British rule. 

Clark had not been in Kentucky long before he saw that the only way 
to secure the safety of the settlements was to send an armed force against 
the British, capture their forts and take possession of the country. He felt 
sure that if the Americans could gain possession of the country b}- driving 
the English out they could then make peace with the Indians and make the 
homes of the pioneers secure. Kentucky was then subject to the laws of 
\'irginia, and before this bold and hazardous enterprise was undertaken the 
support and protection of the state must be secured. Acco-dingly, on June 
6. 1776, a general meeting was called at Harrodstown to di.scuss and, if 
possible, take some action in the matter that might lead to the accomplish- 
ment of the end so much to be desired. At this meeting Gabriel Jones and 
George Rogers Clark were chosen to represent Kentucky l)efore the Virginia 
Legislature and make known the needs and desires of the settlers. In their 
first visit to the capital of Virginia they did little more than to succeed in 
having the "County of Kentucky" established under the protecting wing of 
the "Old Dominion." 


In the summer of 1777 Clark sent two young hunters to Kaskaskia 
and \'incennes to ascertain the exact condition and strength of the garrison, 
while he returned to \'irginia and secured men. arms and ammtmition for 
the proposed expedition. About the first of June, 1778, he rendezvoused 
liis forces at the Ohio falls, having journeved from Pittsburgh in flat-boats. 
Some of his recruits were from Kentucky, but all told they only numbered 
one hundred and fifty soldiers. On June 24 they started for Kaskaskia. 
which place thev reached and captured on July 5. Clark remained there 
some time to ingratiate himself into the favor of the French and Indians. 
On b'ebruarv 4, 1779. Clark started from Ka.skaskia with one hundred and 
thirty men to capture \'incennes, which he succeeded in doing on February 
Jv and from this time (in \'irginia's claim to the great Northwest Territory 
was recognized. 


While ( leneral L'lark was waging his successful campaign against the 
Hritish posts the General Assembly of X'irginia. in October, 1778, passed an 
act creating a county to be called "Illinois," embracing all that part of 
.ountry "'on the western side of the Ohio" claimed by said state. Provision 
was also made for the appointment of a "county lieutenant" to take coni- 
mantl of said county. Col. John Todd was duly elected and commissioned 
lieutenant of Illinois C(.)unty m the spring of 1779. and thus became the first 
.\merican ruler over Indiana. Kaskaskia was made the seat of government, 
at which place Colonel Todd arrived in May. His first act was to order an 
election for the purp(.ise of choosing officers for the territory. This was the 
first election held in Indiana and the country northwest of the Ohio. Colonel 
('lark was made general and was gi\en command of all troops and the man- 
agement of the militar}- aflairs in Illinois cmuit}-. In June, 1779, Colonel 
Todd \isited A incennes and e-^tablishe<l the first court on Indiana soil. It 
was coni])osed of several magistrates, and Col. J. M. P. Legras was made 
president of the same. These officers held their positions till 1787. 

In (October, 178,:;. the (leneral .\ssembly (.^f \'irginia passed an act for 
laying ott the town of Clarksville "at the falls of the Ohio in the county of 
Illinois." The act provided that the lots, of half an acre each, should be sold 
at public auction for the l)est price that could be obtained. The purchasers 
respectixel}' were to hold their lots subject to the condition of Ixiilding on 
each, within three years from d;ite of sale, a dwelling house "twenty feet 
by eighteen, at least, with a brick or chimney." This town was laid 


out and was known as the "Illinois Grant," or "Clark"s Grant," and is what 
is known as Clarksville today, situated between New Albany and Jefferson- 
\ille, a short distance above Silver creek. 


On account of the vastness of the Northwest Territory and its remote- 
ness from Virginia, this state decided to cede to Congress, on certain condi- 
tions, all the right, title and claim which she had to said territory. 'Yhn 
conditions were that the territory so ceded should be laid out and formed 
into states having the same rights of sovereignty, freedom and independence 
as other states, reserving certain rights and claims that had been granted to 
French and Canadian settlers in and about the several posts that had been 
established, including the grant of one hundred and fifty thousand acres 
made to Gen. George Rogers Clark and the soldiers who marched with him 
when the posts of Kaska,skia and Vincennes were reduced. Congress acce]ited 
the cession of the territory and on the ist of March, 1784, Virginia's dele- 
gates in Congress executed a deed for same. 

On the 23rd of April, 1784, Congress, by a series of resolutions. i)ro- 
vided for the maintenance of temporary government in the territory thus 
recently acquired. From 1784 to 1787 various commissions were appointed 
by Congress to obtain from the Indians who had possession of and claimed 
all the country north of the Ohio, as liberal concessions t lands as possible 
and to establish friendly relations with all tribes located thereon. .\n eflFort 
was also made to effect a treaty with Spain, so as to obtain equal rights with 
that country for the navigation of the Mississippi. 


About this time the tide of emigration was turned toward the great 
country west of the Alleghanies. Settlements be_i.-an to spring up here and 
there and with them came the necessity for s. <" better system of local 
government. Congress readily took cognizance of ali the existing perplexing 
conditions that were confronting these pioneers and pro\ ided for a more 
stable form of government by electing, on October 3, 1787, Maj.-Gen. 
.\rthur St. Clair governor of the territory, and \\'inthrop Sargent, secre- 
tor\ . This position General St. Clair held till 1800. In the month of July, 
I jNS. ( ;o\ ernor St. Clair assumed the active duties of the office, locating at 
.Marietta, in what is now Ohio, it then being near the center of the most 


populous sections of the territory. The first laws governing the territory 
were adopted and published at that place by the governor and judges of the 
general court, Samuel Parsons, James V'arnum and John Cleves Symmes. 

Early in January, i/QO, Governor St. Clair and his court moved down 
the Ohio to Ft. Washington and founded there the town of Cincinnati, 
making it the capital of the territory. In the early part of March they 
proceeded to the Illinois country to organize the government in that quarter. 
Upon their arrival at Kaskaskia they proceeded to lay out the county of 
St. Clair, which extended from the Mississippi to the Wabash rivers. Mag- 
istrates and other civil officers were appointed to maintain law and order. 
In June following, Governor St. ("lair was called back to Cincinnati to settle 
some serious Indian troubles that had arisen thereabout, leaving Secretary 
Sargent as acting governor, with instructions to complete the work already 
begun at Kaskaskia and then proceed to Post Vincennes and lay out a 
■county there. Secretary Sargent and the judges of the territory, John 
■Cleves Symmes and George Turner, moved across to the '"poste" early in 
the spring and at once proceeded to lay out a new CL)unty, including all uf 
what is now Indiana and Michigan. It was named "Knox," in honor of 
Gen. Henry Knox, then secretary of war. Various civil and military offi- 
cers were appointed, the militia was organized and numerous disputed land 
claims were settled. Two courts were estalilished, one of claims and the 
■other a magistrates' court. John Small was commissioned sheritT and Sam- 
uel Baird, clerk of the court. At tlie -irst session ni the magistrates court, 
July 14, 1790, a grand jury was impaneled. Their first presentment read 
as follows: "The grand inquest for the body nf the countw upon their 
oath, present that a murder, oi malice rifurctlidUi^ht. was cotnmitted on or 
about the i()th or JOth of Noxeniber last li\ one Michael (iraft'e, upon a 
certain Albin Guest." The tirsl jail w a'. ])an cf the block-liouse of I'l. 
Sackville. In the course of the suninuM- of 1700 tln\e l.'iws were pronuil- 
gated regulating the sale of lii|UMr>, arm- ;in.l aniniunition> tn the In<lian- 
and prohil)iting every species of i;;unli]ini^ .ind \ariMU- ilisorderh- ])racticc>. 

During the years 1790 lo iji)j twcntx -tlirrc '-taluli's were adopted and 
published at Cincinnati b}- Goxernor St. (Ian- and tlir Mi])(.-nor court of the 
territory. .\ number of these acts were i^v the pvirpose of rei^ulatini; the 
courts that had been established m the -e\eral counties thai had lieeii laid 
out in the territory. The niiliti.i roened eonsideralile attention, one aei 
requiring " whenever ])ersMiis eiinilled in the iniliti.i cf this territnr\- 
shall assemble ;il .any ]il:ue mI' |iulilir wur-hip e\ery -ucli ]KTsMn shall arm 
and equip himself aeeiu'duiu tn law .'i- if he were inareliiii-- t. ■ eiii;a,!.;e the 



enemy." All merchants, traders and tavern-keepers had to pay a license 
fee. Each county was directed to build a court house, county jail, pillory, 
whipping post and stocks. Persons assisting violators of the law to escape 
or evade arrest were to be punished by iine, imprisonment, whipping, pillory 
Dr sitting on the gallows with a rope about his or her neck. Strange old 
laws were these, but the exigencies of the times seemed to demand them. 
These laws were amended and many others enacted during the fitting of 
he law-making court at ( incinnati from May 29 to August 25, 1795. On 
he 7th of April, 1798, Winthrop Sargent was made governor of Missis- 
;ippi Territory, whereupon William Henry Harrison was appointed secre- 
ary of the Northwest Territory. 

The time had now come when the people themselves were to have a 
^oice in making the laws which were to govern them. Accordingly, on the 
:9th of October, 1798, Governor St. Clair issued a proclamation- directing 
he qualified voters of the territory to hold elections in their several counties 
select representatives to form a General Assembly to meet at Cincinnati 
m January 22, 1799. There were then seven counties in all the territory. 
vs yet Knox was the only county organized within the present state of 
ndiana. Her representative was Shadrack Bond. 

This Legislature was composed of a legislative council of five, appointea 
y the President of the United States, and twenty representatives elected by 
le several counties. It was organized at Cincinnati on September 24, 1799. 
lenry \'anderburgh, of this (Knox) county, was elected president of the 
.gislati^e council and Edward Tiffin, speaker of the House of Representa- 

On the 3rd of October the Legislature elected the first delei^ate to 
^present the Northwest Territory in Congress in the person of William 
enry Harrison. Charles Willing Byrd was apiwinted his successor as 
cretary of the territory on December 30, 1799. 

This first territorial Legislature, which continued in session till Decem- 
■r 19, 1799, passed forty acts, thirty-seven of which were approved by the 
pvernor. Representati\'es who attended this Legislature received three 
<j)llars per day for their services and three dollars for everv fifte«ti miles 
tiveled, going to and returning from the seat of governnicnt. 

I Willi iIh; l.tL^iiiinn.L; ui" the nnietefiitl! century the whites had gained 
cJMH,kr;ihlr !.n,.!„,l,! ,,,1 .In- l.,,,,!. Ivinu „,,rth ,,f the Ohio river. The Indians 


had stubbornly claimed and 1)attled for every fout ijf soil in the territory, 
but after the campaign waged by Gen. Anthony Wayne, the)- sued for 
peace. On the 3rd of August, 1795. a treaty was signed l)y all the warring 
tribes at Greenville, making e.xtensive cessions of land to the L'nited States 
in different parts of the territory. The Indians ga^•e up most all their 
claims in Ohio. In what is now Indiana they ceded tracts of lands a few 
miles square at Ft. Wayne, Ouiatenon and Yincennes. At the Ohio falls 
there was a cession of one hundred and fifty thousand acres, called "Clark's 
Grant." Also a strip of land lying east of a line running directly from the 
site of Ft. Recovery and intersecting the Ohio river at a point opposite to 
the mouth of the Kentucky river. This strip of land included the present 
counties of Switzerland, Ohio, Dearborn and part of Franklin, Union, 
Wayne, Randolph and Jay. Prior to this treaty the times were hard and 
perilous for the people who inhabited the scattering white settlements or 
posts on the Wabash. But with trade and traffic resumed and the Indian 
boundaries established, new settlements sprang up rapidly. It was soon 
deemed expedient to divide the territory: accordingly, by act of Congress, 
May 7, 1800, a division of the territory was made l)y establishing a line 
from the mouth of the Kentucky ri\-er below Cincinnati to Ft. Recovery and 
thence north to Canada. The country situate east of this line was still called 
the Northwest territory and that which was west. Indiana territory, and 
included the present states of Illinois and Wisconsin, nearly all of Indiana, 
about half of Michigan, and the northeast corner of Minnesota. In all this 
domain there were then but three counties — Knox, with the county seat at 
Vincennes; Wayne, with the county seat at Detroit, and St. Clair, with the 
county seat at Kaskaskia. The capital of the new territory was located at 

On May 13, rSoo, \A'illiam TTenr}' Harrison was appninted go\ernor of 
the territory and on the next day Jnhn Gibsrm was made secretary. William 
Clark, Henry \"anderburgh and Jdhn Griffin were ajipointed territorial 
judges. In July. .Secretary Gibs(in went to A'incennes. and, as actino go\ - 
ernor, made se\eral aiipointnients of territ(irial officers, so that the wheels 
of go\ernnient might 1)0 set in nidtinn. Gn\-ernor 
capital of the territor\- nn Jannar\- to. iSot. He calk 
of the territory on ^londay, Januar\- u, and togcll 
they held sessions from <la\- to da\- until the jotf 
adopting and publishing ■^ex'en l:n\ s and three re-oliiti 

About the 3rd of Febrnarv, tSoi. two new coi 
gubernatorial proclamation. The connix <<\ St, (^1a 

Harrison read 

led the 

ed together the 


ler with the go 


of iJK' same 


mtie^- were fori 

ned bv 

r wa. divided 

hv the 


line of the trail leading from Vincennes to Kaskaskia. All the country 
south of this line was the county of ^^andolph, while that north remained 
St. Clair. Clark county was laid out in the southeast corner of Indiana 
Territory, with boundaries as follow : "Beginning on the Ohio at the mouth 
of Blue river, now the boundary line between Harrison and Crawford coun- 
ties ; thence up said river to where the trail leading from Vincennes to the 
Ohio falls crosses said river ; thence by a direct line to the nearest point on 
White river ; thence up said river to the branch thereof which runs towards 
Ft. Recovery, and from the head springs of said branch to Ft. Recovery ; 
thence along the boundary line between Indiana Territory and the North- 
west Territory south to the Ohio river ; thence down said river to the place 
of beginning." The exact place where the old trail crossed Blue river may 
not be now known, but it was not far from the point where the New Albany 
and Vincennes turnpike now crosses it at or near the town of Fredericks- 
burg. The line running north from this point divided what is now the town- 
ships of Howard, Washington and Jefferson, thus putting the west third of 
Washington county in Knox county and the east two-thirds in Clark. 


When the United States assumed control of the Northwest Territory 
Congress passed an ordinance which declared that neither slavery nor invol- 
untary servitude should exist in the territory, otherwise than in the punish- 
ment of crimes. This law was not strictly enforced, however, for there were 
quite a number of slaves owned and held in and about the old French posts 
in 1800. It was under French domination that slavery had first been legal- 
ized. A great many people in the territory were natives of slave-owning 
states and were opposed to the ordinance passed by Congress. Governor 
Harrison himself favxarad the slave system, but in deference to public opinion 
he issued a prodawration requesting the people to hold an election in the 
several counties of the fterritory on the nth of December for the purpose 
of selecting delegates ffeo meet in convention at Vincennes on December 20, 
1802, to take into cottaideration the expediency of adopting measures to 
eflfect the repeal of the ordinance of 1787 prohibiting the holding of slaves 
in Indiana terribjrvv. The numl)er of delegates from the several counties 
was fixed as follraws: IFiFom the county of Knox, four: Randolph, three; 
St. C'lair, tliree, anad (Qark. two. Wayne county had no representation. 
With the excepticMa i(i)if Cllni'k county the delegates all voted for a suspension 
of the ordinance. an<ll n memorial and ])ctition was forwarded to Congress 


voicing the sentiment of the convention. Congress refused to suspend the 
law. The question of slavery in the territory continued to be the all-iinporl- 
ant political issue for several years afterward, but the anti-sla\ery people 
were persistent in their purpose and were finally victorious. 


The second election held in Indiana Territory was for the purpose of 
determining whether or not the people favored the organization of a General 
Assembly. This election was held on September ii, 1804, and resulted in a 
majority of one hundred and thirty-eight in fa\'or of the propositioiL A 
great many persons opposed the taking of this step, because it advanced the 
territory to what was termed a second-grade government, which necessitated 
the payment of taxes to meet the current expenses of the same. On .Janu- 
ary 3, 1805, the several counties of the territory elected members of the 
House, as follow: Jesse B. Thomas, of Dearborn county: Davis Floyd, of 
Clark; Benjamin Park and John Johnson, of l\nox: Shadrack Bond and 
William Biggs, of St. Clair, and George Fisher, of Ixandolph. Xo election 
was held in Wayne county, for the reason that an effort was being made to 
create a new territory out of the same. By act of Congress, approved 
January 11, 1805, the territory of Michigan was established, taking from 
Indiana Territory all the region of country lying north of a line drawn east 
from the southerly bend of Lake Michigan. 

The first Legislature of the Indiana Territory met at \''incennes on 
July 29, 1805. During its session a number of necessary laws were enacted 
and some of the old laws which had lieen adopted by Governors St. Clair 
and Harrison and the territorial judges were re-enacted and revised. Before 
the close of the session Benjamin Parke was elected first delegate to Con- 
gress for the Indiana Territory. 


From 1802 to 1S05 GdxcruMr llarrisdu. under the stipukitidus of 
various treaties, extinguished ihr hidi.m mlc to sc\ rral \ery large districts 
of country lying within the liMundaiK'- "t" the iernior\ . At ;i tfeat\ rmi- 
cluded at Vincennes on the iSili i<\ Vn-u^t. 1^04. ilie l)el.i\\:ire tribe ceded 
to the United States its elaim (c (be ir.iel of eoiiinr\ l\ing between the 
Wabash and Ohio river- and s.,ntb di ilie trail le.idiii- ird,,, \ nueiine- Id 
the falls of the Obid. The I 'ainke-li.iw - ibeir el.nni- Id ihe 


same territory by a treaty concluded at V^inceiines on August 27, 1804. 
This opened up for settlement a strip of land in the southwest part of what 
is now Washington county, or practically all the lands south of the New 
Albany and Vincennes turnpike, which followed the old trail very closely. 
On the 2ist of August, 1805, at a treaty which was concluded at a 
place called Grouseland, near Vincennes, certain chiefs and headmen of the 
I^elaware, Pottawattamie, Miami, Eel River and Wea tribes ceded to the 
United States the Indian territory lying southeast of a line running north- 
easterly from a point about fifty-seven miles due east from Vincennes, so 
as to strike the general boundary line, or the line running from the mouth 
of the Kentucky river to Ft. Recovery, at the distance of fifty miles from 
the commencement of said line on the Ohio river. The point "fifty-seven 
miles due east from Vincennes was known in later years as "Freeman's 
corner," and was situate about one-half mile north of the present site of 
Orleans. By this treaty, all the territory in what is now Washington county 
became "Congress land," a term generally applied to all lands owned by the 
United States. By act of Congress, approved March 26, 1804, three land 
offices were established for the disposal of public lands in the Indiana Terri- 
tory, one at Detroit, in Wayne county; one at Ftaskaskia, in Randolph 
county, and the other at Vincennes, where all entries were made by parties 
taking up lands in this section of coimtry. The land office at JefTersonvilJe 
was established on March 3, 1807. After the treaty at Grouseland the set- 
tlements back of the Ohio falls began to develop rapidly. The country 
round about "Clark's Grant" seemed to be the objective point of all emi- 
grants who came to Indiana Territory. Most all the government lands 
within the present border of Washington county were surveyed and platted 
out in 1806. Clark soon became the most populous county in the territory, 
which made it necessary to curtail its boundaries. 


By an act of the Legislature, approved October 11, 1808, Harrison 
county was formed out of the counties of Clark and Knox, with the fol- 
lowing boundaries : Beginning at the point on the Ohio river, where the 
meridian line from which the ranges take number strikes the same, thence 
due north to the present Indiana boundary line, thence with the said bound- 
ary, to the intersection of the same by the line which divides the fourth and 
fifth ranges east, thence with the latter to the above mentioned boundary 
line, between Jeffersonville and \'incennes districts, and with the same to 


the intersection of the line dividing the fifth and sixth ranges, thence with 
the said range line, until it strikes the Ohio river, and thence down the same 
with the meanders thereof to the place of beginning. "In compliance with 
the wishes of the good people within the bounds of said new county," so 
says the act, "the seat of justice shall be and is hereby fixed at the town of 
Corydon." The town was quite new, having been laid out in the spring of 

By this division most of what is now Washington county was included 
within the boundaries of Harrison count)'. The present townships of Gib- 
son, Franklin, Polk and a strip one mile wide off the east end of Jacksun, 
still remained a part of Clark county. The question of a division of the 
Indiana Territory into two parts was pressed upon the attention of the 
Legislature by legislative memorials and by petitions from 1806 to 180S. 
The principal reasons which were assigned in favor of such a division were 
based upon the "wide extent of wilderness country which separated the 
civilized population of the country — the dangers and the expenses which 
were imposed upon parties and witnesses who were compelled to attend the 
superior courts of the territory — and the difficulties which presented or 
obstructed the administration of the laws at settlements remote from the 
seat of government." 

The subject was disposed of by an act of Congress of the 3rd of 
February, 1809, which declared that from and after the ist of March, 1809, 
all that part of the Indiana Territory lying "west of the Wabash river and 
a direct line drawn from the said Wabash river and Post Vincennes, due 
north to the territorial line between the United States and Canada," should 
constitute a separate territory and be called Illinois, At this time there were 
but five organized counties in the territory of Indiana. Knox, Clark, Dear- 
born and Harrison. 

In 1810 the population of the Indiana Territory was 24,520; and there 
were in the territory 33 grist-mills, 14 saw-mills, 3 horse-mills, 18 tanneries, 
2?^ distilleries, 3 powder-mills. 1,256 looms and 1.350 spinning-wheels. The 
development of the great commonwealth of Indiana has thus been traced 
through a period of one hundred and forty years, or from the time of the 
first white man's \'isit to this part of the unexploretl \A-est until the present 
borders of the state were established. 

It was nearlv one lunidred and liftx^ year^ ;ifter the first 1mii;1 
ments were estal)li.shed on the Vll.iiuir c. .:i';i that the fir^t w 


explored the upper Ohio valley. The lower Ohio was discovered by the 
French about 1680, and by 1700 they had a well-defined line of travel laid 
out from the lakes south by way of the Wabash river, but nothing was 
known of the upper Ohio except what information they were able to glean 
from the Indians. 

It remained a wild, unexplored country until 1748, when one Thomas 
Lee, a resident of Virginia, conceived the design of effecting settlements in 
the fertile lands west of the Alleghany mountains through the agency of a 
company. Lee succeeded in enlisting a wealthy merchant of London, named 
Hansbury. in his enterprise, and with twelve other persons, residents of 
Virginia and Alaryland, formed what was known as the Ohio Company. In 
1 749 this company received a land grant of about one-half million acres 
from the king of England, to be located northwest of the river Ohio. Their 
first mo\e was to employ an agent, in the person of Christopher Gist, "to 
explore the countrw examine the quality of the lands, keep a journal of his 
adventures, draw as accurate a plan of the countn,' as his observation 
would permit and report the same to the Board." Gist organized a small 
party and spent three years exploring the Ohio and its tributaries quite a 
distance back into the country, as far south as the Falls. Prior to this time 
it was only known that a broad expanse of territory lay beyond the Alle- 
ghanies, but whether it was land or water, mountain or plain, fertile or 
barren none could tell. But the stories told by this band of adventurers 
on their return to the settlements about the vastness and future promise of 
all this western country, turned the thoughts of the pioneer to the Elysian 
fields '"across the ranges," which from thenceforth ceased to be impassable 
barriers and the hitherto impenetrable fastness began to lose its terrors. The 
onlv check that held l)ack the tide of emigration was the claims of the 
French and Indians, .\fter 1763, when England succeeded in wresting the 
country from FVench domination, adventurers began to push their way 
across the nmuntains and open up new homes on the headwaters of the 
Ohio. In 17(11) I^aniel Boone made his first visit to Kentucky. 

I'caring that this westc-rn cnuntr\' might in time lieconie densely popu- 
lated, and as ;in indi']icnilent pe()])le set u]) a government for themselves, 
England chaiit^ed her jxilicy and discfjuraged all emigration as much as pos- 
sible, particnlarh- refusing to make any sort of land grants to parties whose 
aim \\;ls to csialili-li rol.niies in the West. But the tide of emigration was 
irresistilile aud before the close of 1 77ri numbers of jiersons explored and 
marked out \al\i,i1)le lands for settlement far down the Ohio and established 
( i.iu w itii tin I ren(ii scttk-ments in the Illinois country by an over- 


land route from the Falls to Vincennes -and on to other points. In the 
absence of any record of dates or positive information on the subject, it is 
consistent to presume that the first white men to put foot on Washington 
county soil were the ad enturers who first crossed over from the Falls to 
Vincennes, aiong the Indian trail, in the summer of 1770. 

Gen. George Rogers Clark captured Vincennes on February 25, 1779, 
after which he spent some months adjusting affairs of government and 
arranging garrisons for the main points that had been wrested from the 
English. His troops were divided l^etween Post Vincennes, Kaskaskia, 
Cahokia and the Falls of the Ohio. General Clark took up his quarters at 
the Falls as the most convenient spot to ha\e an eye over the whole. This 
was the first body of armed troops that e\er passed through Washington 
county. They made the journey early in July, 1779. General Clark at once 
secured from the Painkeshaw chiefs, called Tabac and C'omet, a tract of 
land two and one-half leagues square opposite the Falls and erected thereon 
Fort Clark. This was not only the first station established along the Ohio 
river on Indiana soil, but also the first one northwest of said river below 
Loggstown. This site became Clarksville by act nf the Legislature of \'ir- 
ginia, January 2, 1781. From this time on the "(lid Trail," which passed 
across the southwest corner of this count}-, became a much fre(|uented 
thoroughfare for traders, scouts, adventurers, settlers, governors and com- 
mandants of the territory. 

Clarksville was laid out in the latter part of I7<S3, but notwithstanding 
the fact that it was the only town in this part of the country north of the 
Ohio river, that General Clark made it his home and that Fort Clark was 
located there, around which many a sensational scene was enacted, its growth 
was slow: for it is alluded to in 1797 as "a straggling village of only some 
twenty homes." 

Emigrants from the interior of \'irginia, the (_"arolinas antl nther 
states began to find their way across the mountains rapidly after the con- 
quest of the Northwest Territory. It is said that in the spring of 17S0 three 
hundred large family boats arrived at the Falls of the Ohio, and all found 
homes in the interior of the country, most of them in Kentucky. A feu- 
took claims in Clark's Grant. 

The Indians still persisted in claiming as their own all the territory 
northeast of the Ohio, excepting the military grant and a few jioints near 
the river. It was not expedient for settlers to take clainis in any part of the 
country when the United States could not jirotect them, so this part of the 


country filled up very slowly. In 1800 the population in and around Clarks- 
\ille and on the Grant, amounted to less than a thousand. 

The first lands relinquished by the Indians in what is now the state of 
Indiana \vas a strip of a few thousand acres in the southwest corner. 
Under the stipulations of \arious treaties made by Governor Harrison, 
beginning in the year 1802, the Indian titles to several large tracts of land 
were extinguished, and the work of surveying and mapping out the country 
for settlement was begun. 

The first settlement of white people made in territory over which 
Washington county once exercised jurisdiction was at the present site of 
\\illonia. Here some French located in 1790. They cleared up a few acres 
of land for farming purposes and put up some substantial cabins for that 
day, but their chief occupation was bartering and trading with the Indians. 
All the pelts secured from the savages were carried down the river in 
pirogues and supplies of various kinds were brought back in the same man- 
ner. There was a good-sized Indian village here also. The proprietor of 
this post is said to have done a thriving business here up to 1805 when the 
Indians grew hostile, under the influence of Tecumseh and the Prophet, and 
the post was abandoned. 

In 1800 hunters, tra]jpers and traders began to make regular excur- 
sions into this territory. It is doubtless true that in as much as permanent 
settlers followed hard after the year 1800, squatters lived and thrived here 
prior to that date. While this is reasonable to conclude and is undoubtedly 
true, detailed statements cannot be given, as the squatters had no reliable 
historian and their public achievements accordingly will sleep in eternal 
oblivion. The first settlers found evidences of white occupancy in several 
places where there were large springs, such as marked trees, rude shelters 
and trees cut down white man fashion. When the Indian cut down a tree 
he hacked all around it, while the white man chopped only on two sides. 
The signs of ci\ilized man were more numerous about the "Lick," twO' 
miles east of Salem, than any other point. A man named Royse is known 
to have lived here among the Ox Indians as early as 1802. He built, or 
some one did before him, a sort of pen out of poles and covered it with bark, 
for a place of shelter. The entrance to this "shack" was through a hole 
made in one side of same by cutting out a pole, through which the occupant 
had to crawl. It stood among the Indian "wakiups" that were located at 
the foot of the hill just west of the "Lick." Royse was a hunter, a trader 
and in a small wav. a manufacturer of salt. The "Lick" took its name front 


this man and the stream that flows nearby was known as Royse's fork of 
Bhie river. 


Thomas Hopper is entitled to the credit of being the first settler of 
Washington count}-. He landed at the Falls in the spring of 1803, and after 
learning all he could about the "lay of the land'" decided to push out into 
the interior of the country to select a home. He followed the Indian trail 
leading to Vincennes until he came to the point where Hardinsburg now 
stands. Finding at this place a rich soil, an abundance of fine timber and 
good, cold cave springs, he staked his claim on a piece of land which, when 
it was surveyed a f.;w years afterward, was in section 3, township i south, 
range 2 east. A cabin was built in what was then an immense sugar orchard. 
This was two }-ears before the Indians, by treaty, ceded this land to the 
United States. Flopper was a man of considerable means, and had left 
Xorth Carolina with a view of improving his fortune in land speculation. 
He spent a considerable portion of his time prospecting through the country, 
and when the lands had been surveyed and now open for entry he took up 
aljout ten thousand acres of the best. In 1808 he, sold his farm in this county 
and moved farther west. In 18 16 he visited the place, then owned by Hyatt 
Rutherford, and while standing in the door-yard pointed out where, just 
thirteen years before, he cut twelve bee-trees, and captured three bears in a 
ca\ e. He also told how he had chased deer across the barrens or prairies, 
when the hounds and game could be seen several miles away. He was the 
only resident of that part of the county for two or three years. His home 
was a favorite stopping place for tra\elers going to or returning from the 
Wabash and Illinois country, and such guests were ever welcome, for they 
brought either news from the settlements or rehearsed the horrible tales of 
Indian depredation among the frontiersmen. 

The first white man to locate with his family in the central part of 
the count}- was Jesse Spurgeon. He li\-ed akme with the Indians at Royse's 
Lick for some time in 1804, eniplo}-ing his time hunting and prospecting. 
When he returned to his old home in Xorth Carolina he gave glowing 
accounts of this Mecca in the far west. In the spring of 1805 he brought 
his family out and l)uilt a small cabin on the branch about a mile east of the 
'T.ick." it l)eing in the southwest quarier of section 14. Here he lived till 
iSoS. when the land being subject to entr\ he secured the northeast quarter 
of section J5, a short distance southeast of llie present site of Flarristown. 
lie did not remain liere Ions'. seeminL; lo li;i\e ;i liking for the Indians and 


frontier life. His next move was to Illinois and from thence to Missouri. 
He never seemed content unless he was on the verge of civilization or 
beyond it. Afterward he fell in with the Mormons on their way to Salt 
Lake, and was never heard from again. 

In 1805 the third settler came into the county. His name was Thomas 
Poulson and he stopped in section 17, about a mile southwest of Fredericks- 
burg. He was noted for his hospitality and there was always an extra bed 
for the wayfarer at the Poulson cabin. On the 25th day of December, 
1807, George Beck and his two sons, John and George, Jr., crossed the Ohio 
at the Falls and started out the "Trace" in search of a home. On the second 
day's travel they left the Trail and went north till they came to the south 
fork of Blue river in section 31, in what is now Pierce township, where they 
found a spot to their liking, and made a brush shelter under a big elm tree. 
In a few days a cabin was completed and made ready for the rest of the 
family, which had been left back at Bear Grass, now Louisville. In the first 
days of January, 1808, the family was safely quartered in their rude sconce 
in the midst of an unbroken wilderness. While the two boys were out 
hunting a short time afterward they discovered a large spring in section 
1 1 . Howard township, which they decided would be an excellent place to 
locate a mill and to this place they removed the following spring. 

George Brock, born in Virginia, but of German descent, was the first 
man to settle in the immediate vicinity of Salem. He found his way to 
Clarks' Grant in 1807 and spent some time exploring the country with a 
view of locating therein. He finally laid claim to all of section 8, just north 
of and adjoining the present site of Salem. Near the center of this .section 
a cabin was built in the fall of 1807 and early the following spring he moved 
hi? familv out to their new home. There came with him his son George, 
Jr., and his sons-in-law, Adam Barnett and Frederick NeidifTer. They all 
located on the same section and thus formed a little settlement of their own. 
Brock was a blacksmith, the first that ever came to the county. The Indians 
would visit his shop quite frequently and express their astonishment at the 
way and manner he brought the iron to a heat and shajied it with a ham- 
mer. P.enjamin Brewer entered the land when Salem now stands, in 1809. 
His cabin stood on the south side of what is now Alulberry street between 
Posey and Harrison streets. 

The ,ijo\ enniK-nt sur\ey of lands in this county was made in 1806 and 
1807. A land ofiice was established at Jcffersonville, March 3, 1807, and 
from this date claims were taken up quite rapidly. Log cabins and clearings 


soon began to dot the whole face of the country and the sound of the wood- 
man's ax reverberated from every hillside and \'ale. They came singly and 
in colonies ; some well-to-do, some poor, some good, some bad. They came 
mostly in wagons drawn by ox teams, but not a few put all their worldly 
possessions on a pack-horse and journeyed several hundred miles to find 
homes in this then far-away country that promised so much. The county 
was mostly settled with emigrants from North Carolina, Virginia and 
Pennsylvania, but there were a few persons here and there from almost 
every other state in the union, h^oreign population was never a very prom- 
inent factor in the settlement or development of any portion of the county. 
For several years the sturdy pioneer endured many hardships, ever 
encouraged by the prospect that in the near future he would be the fortunate 
possessor of a home with plenty all around. For several years the Indians 
remained troublesome and the sturdy pioneer suffered no little anxiety about 
the safety of himself and family. It was not until after the treaty of peace 
with the various Indian tribes, made in 1815, that frontier settlers felt secure 
in their homes and possessions. In 1S12 and the early part of 1813, dis- 
cussion was rife upon the necessity and importance of establishing a new 
county in the northern limits of Harrison and a petition was circulated and 
extensively signed, asking the General Assembly to take action accordingly. 



As has been stated, what is now Washington comity was first owned 
by France in 1682. Under French rule in i/Ji it became the "District of 
Illinois." It was ceded to Great Britain in 1763, and made a part of Canada 
in J 774. Virginia captured it from the British in 1779 and it was organized 
as "Illinois County." It became the property of the United States in 1784 
and was called the "territory of the United States Northwest of the Ohio 
river." In 1790 Knox county was laid out. In 1800 (Jhio was formed, and 
this became Indiana Territory. Clark county was established in 1801, the 
dividing line between it and Knux county running "due north from the 
point where the old Indian trail crossed Blue river." Harrison county was 
laid out in 1808, including all of Washington county lying west of the true 
dividing ranges 5 and 6 east. There was then no change in boundary lines 
till Washington county was created by act of the Legislature, approved 
December 21, 1813, as follows: 

"An act for the funiiatidii of a lu'tv couiily out of the counties of Harrison 

and Clark. 

"Be it enacted by the I.ei/islalii'c Council and House of Representatives, 
and it is hereby enacted by the authority of the same, That from and after 
the seventeenth day of January, eii^hteen hundred and fourteen, all that jjart 
of the counties of Harrison and Clark included within the following bounds, 
to-wit : Beginning at PVeeman's corner, ^m the meridian line; thence south- 
wardly with said line to the intersection of an east and west line running 
through the center of township i soull; ; thence with the same eastwardly 
to the summit of the Silver Creek knolis: tlience northeastwardly with the 
extreme height of the same between the waters of Silver creek and Blue 
river to the line dividing ranges d and 7 east; thence with said range line 
northwardly to the Indian lioundary; thence with said l)oundary to the place 
of beginning — shall compose one ne\v county called and known by the name 
of Washington. 

"Sfxtion 2. .lud be >t finihcr enaclnl. T\v,\\ the county of Washing- 


ton shall enjoy all the rights and pri\ ileges appertaining to the counties 
heretofore established in the Indiana Territory: and it shall be lawful for 
the coroners, sheriffs, constables and collectors of said counties of Harrison 
and Clark to make distress for all taxes, levies and officers' fees, remaining 
unpaid by the inhabitant within the bounds of said new county at the time 
such division shall take place, and they shall be accountable for the same in 
like manner as if this act had never been passed: and the courts of Harrison 
and Clark counties shall have jurisdiction in all suits, pleas, plaints and 
proceedings which may before the aforesaid 17th day of January next ha\e 
been commenced, instituted and depending within the present counties of 
Harrison and Clark shall be prosecuteil to final judgment and effect, issue 
process and award execution thereon. 

"Section 3. And he it fnrthi-y enacted by tJie authority aforesaid. 
That Joseph Paddox, Peter ]\lclnto.-^h and Ignatius Abel, of Harrison 
county, Alarston G. Clark and Joseph Bartholomew, of Clark county, be, 
and they are hereby appointed commissioners to designate the place for the 
permanent seat of justice of Washington county, agreeable to an act entitled, 
'An act for fixing the seats of justice in all new counties hereafter to be laid 
off.' The commissioners above named, or others appointed by the proper 
court, shall convene at the house of W^illiam Lindley or. Blue river, on the 
17th of January next, and then jiroceed to discharge the duties assigned 
them by law. 

"Section 4. And be it further enacted. That the judges of the Court 
of Common Pleas of the new county aforesaid shall within six months after 
the permanent seat of justice he established, proceed to erect the necessar)' 
l)ublic buildings thereon. 

"Section 5. And he it further enacted. That until suitable accom- 
modations can be had (in the oiiiniun (if said ci mrt ) at the seat of justice 
of saiil new county, all courts of justice 
the house of William Lindley. 'I'liis act t 
and after the 17th d.'u- nf lanuarv. A. D. 

•oved Decer 
Tii. I'o-iv, 

.r the 

-^anie sh 

all l)e holden at 

.e in f. 

irce ami 

take effect from 



■:s XoHLE, 

le lln 

use i>\ R 



■s ni,;,;s. 

t ..f t1 

he Legisl 

lative ( 'ouncil. 


This first boundary line of Washing-ton count}', embraced ahnost 
one-half of what is now Orange, Scott and Jackson counties, and a portion 
of the southeast corner of Lawrence. The extreme northeast corner of the 
county extended to a point some six miles northeast of Seymour. Free- 
man's corner was the junction of se\eral Indian boundary lines and was 
established by treaty of Fort Wayne in 1803. I^reeman was the name of 
the surveyor who established the corner and run the lines fixing the limits 
of the various land grants. 

In 1814 the bounds of Washington county were extended by the fol- 
lowing act : 

"Be it enacted by the l.ei/islati-c'c Council ami House of Representa- 
tives, and it is liereby enacted by the authority) of the same. That all the 
tract of country contained in the boundary following be attached to and con- 
stitute a part of the said C(junty of Washington, to-wit : Beginning at I'ree- 
man's corner on the ]\leridian line; thence north to the present Indian 
boundary line ; thence with said Indian boundary to the line established by 
the treaty of Grouseland ; thence with said line to the place of beginning: 
and the same so attached shall be deemed and taken as a part of the said 
county, in the same manner and under the same regulations as are prescribed 
for the said county of Washington. 

"Approved September i, 1814." 

This addition was in triangular shape, beginning at the b'reeman corner 
running thence nortli to the new Indian boundary at a point about seven 
miles northeast of the present site of Bloomington ; thence southeasterly 
aking said new Indian boundary to a point about four miles southwest of 
Seymour; thence southwest along the old Indian boundarx' to the place of 
beginning. Washington county then included nearly all of what is now 
Jackson county, and a considerable ])ortii)n nf what is now Brown, Monroe 
and Lawrence counties. Hut with the ra])id dexelopmenl of the country 
this territory was soon found too larye for convenience, the seat of justice 
was too remote from nian\ of the scattered settlemetits to gi\e them needed 
protection and enforce the law. Se\eral new counties were petitioned for 
and the matter wa^ ;uljnsted ])\ an act of the Legislature, a])proved Decem- 
ber _'(). 1S13, <Te;iiiiiL; the comities of Orange and Jackson. The latter took 
all of WashinL;ioii ,-.,uniN l\uig north of the .Muse.-itatuck and White rivers; 
Orange count) was gi\en a strip extending eight miles east of the meridian 
line, togetlier witli Washington count} 's |iossessi(jn w uhin the present 


(.)n January u. iS_'o, the county of Scott was created by legislative 
enactment, again reducing the territory of Washington county by taking a 
strip five miles in width .ill' the east side of same, or from the line dividing 
ranges and 7 east, to Jie present l.ioundary line. This virtually established 
tlie present limits of Washington county, only minor changes being made 
later, 'i'lie following act was appro\ed December 2(\ 1820: 

•7n- // ciiaclcJ by the Genera! .Isseiiibly of the State of Indiana, That 
so nuich uf ihe county of Scott as is south of a line commencing on the 
boundary line between the counties of \\'ashington and Scott at the south- 
west corner of section 20, township 2 north, range 6 ; thence running 
east with the sectional line until it intersects the Clark county line, be and 
the same is hereby attached to and shall form a part of the county of Wash- 
ington in the same manner as if it had never fonned a part or been attached 
to the county of Scott. This act to take effect and be in force from and 
after its passage." 

By an act relative to county lx)undaries, approved February 10, 1831, 
ibis same portion of territory, consisting of about six sections of land, was 
described within the boundaries of both Washington and Scott counties, and 
was claimed by the officials of both counties, but the title was quieted by 
act ( f the Legislature in 1842, giving to Scott county the disputed territory. 

-\s long as the boundary line between Washington and Clark counties 
vas the indefinite "dividing ridge." or "summit" of the knobs, there was 
contention and dispute as to which county had the right to exercise juris- 
diction in certain ci\il and criminal cases that came up for litigation, and 
there was some (|\iestion as to where certain portions of this border land 
should be listed for taxation. This nuich-mooted question was finally set- 
tle(l li\- luutual agreement, each county ap])ointing a committee of three to 
go (wer the ground carefuil}' and establish a fixed boundary along section 
lines. W ashingion count) was represented by D. W. Gray, John Morris 
and loel \Vilson. Clark county by Thomas T. Bellows, ]\1. W. I^ayton and 
H. Packwood. They met on August 5. 1872 and agreed upon the following 
I)oun<lar\- Hue: "( dmmencing at the southwest corner of section 17, town- 
ship 1 south, range 5 east; thence north along the line dividing sections 17 
and 18. 7 and 8, aiul 5 and 6 to the base line; thence north between sections 
31 and 32, township i north, range 5 east, to the southwest corner of section 
_'0 ; thence east between sections iC) and 3.?, and 28 and 33, of said town 
and range to the southwest corner of section 2~ : tlience north to the north- 
west corner of said section 27; thence between sections 22 and 2y, 23 and 


j'l, 24 and 2^ in said township i north, range 5 east: thence east between 
sections 19 and 30, township i north, range 6 east, to the southwest corner 
of section 20; thence north between sections 19 and 20 to the southwest 
corner of section 17. said township and range; thence east to the southwest 
corner of section 16; thence north l^etween sections 16 and 17, and 8 and 9 
to the northwest corner of section 9, said township and range; thence east 
between sections 4 and 9 to the southwest corner of section 3; thence north 
l>etween sections 3 and 4 to Scott county hne." 

'I'he reix)rt of the viewers thus agreed upon was forwarded to the 
Legislature that couNcned in January. 1873, together with petitions from 
each county asking that this hne l)e permanently established as agreed upon, 
which was accordingly done by act of the General Assembly. Since this 
date there have been ud changes made in the boundary lines of Washington 

The bourn larie- of the county as now established embrace an area of 
ab(jut rt\e hundred and ten square miles. Beginning at the southwest cor- 
ner of same and going east it joins Crawford, Harrison and Floyd coun- 
ties, until (lark county is reached: thence the eastern boundary joins Clark 
and Scott counties, as far north as the Muscatatuck river; the north line 
is the Muscatatuck .ind White ri\ers, lying north of which is Jackson county 
and a small strip of Lawrence county: Lawrence also forms part of the 
Avestern l)Oundar\-. then comes Orange county line, south to place of begin- 
ning. In all Washington county joins eight other counties. 

or(.;aniz.\tion of \v.\siiington county. 

While the act creating a new county out of the counties of Harrison 
and C]^<rk. to be called and known by the name of Washington, became a 
law December 21. 1813, the governor took no official step towards its organ- 
ization till j:innar\ 7, 1814, when Isaac Blackford was commissioned clerk. 
( )u tho I ith be \\;is commissioned recorder, and a dedimus was issued to 
hiin to ^wrar into otlic<- ,ill the ci\il and military officials of said county, and 
a commission was issued to Col. John Del'auw to take the oath of all mem- 
ber.s of the .\inth Regiment of Territorial Militia then being organ- 
ized in the county. ( )tlier commissions were sent to William Hoggatt,, 
sherill': William Lindley. surveyor: Jeremiah Lamb, coroner; Jonathan 
Lindlew first judge; Moses I loggatt, second judge, and Simeon Lamb, third 
judg" of the WasliMigtoii circuit court. Neither of tliese judges was a mem- 

l)er ut the legal i)rofe>^ii)n, hut what was hetter, perhaps, they were prac- 
tical men of sound, c<jniniijn sense anil understuDcl well the Imsiness they 
had in hand. 

An interesting Ijit uf !iist(iry is usually connected with the selection and 
development nf all new ccainty seats. The_\- are nearl\ alwaxs made the 
center of local commerce and the (ippurtunitics offered for traile and specu- 
lation make them ver\- desirahle acquisitions in any localit)'. .\(i sooner had 
the Ijoundaries nf Washington cnunty I'cen defined than discussion was 
l)egun as to wliat point should he selected for the seat of justice. 

The connnissioners named liy legislatixe enactment to designate the 
place for this new county seat were Joseph TaddoK, Peter Mcintosh and 
Igantius .\liel, ot Harrison countv. with Marstou (]. Clark and Joseph Rar- 
tholomew of Clark. The\- were directed to meet at th.e house of William 
Lindley on Blue ri\er, near the center of said count}', on the 17th of Janu- 
ary, and then aitd there proceed to discharge the dut\- assigned them hy 
law. The weather at this date pro\ed to i)e inclement, and as the roads 
leading across the country were rough and indirect it was a few days after 
the time set for the meeting before the commissioners got together. Mars- 
ten G. Clark, and perhaps one or two others, made the journe}' afoot. 
Ignatius .\liel was unahle to he ])resent. The commissioners had heen out 
all da\- in the discharge of their dut\- l)efore Jose])h Piartholomew put in an 
appearance. .\s the_\- \\ould start out in their Inmter's garh and armed 
with the trustv rifle the\ looked more like a hand of scouts than a luidy of 
men appointed tii discharge a i)ul)lic dut_\-. 

Tlie\- were eight days \iewing and considering \-er\' carefulK' the ddfer- 
ent sites suggested Ii\" parties interested. .\nd almost e\er\l)odv in the 
w-hole country seemed UKire or less interested in the matter. .Vt this time 
Royse's Pick was the husiness center of the count\". Dr. .'^imeon Panili was 
running a small store at this ])lace, the only one in the countw where e\ ery- 
hod)- went for their ammunition, coffee, sugar and such notions as were 
then deemed essential in the pioneer iKniseliold, \ud the whole c<iuutr\- 
was sui)iilie<l with salt from the "Pick" works. This was the first jilace 
ins])ected liy the commission. 'Idle gentl\--s|(j|)ing land lying just north- 
west of the "Pick" were iiointed out as a \-ery suitable and desirable site for 
a town antl there was an abund.ince of good spring water aroimd ;iboul. 
.\ \-ery careful inspection of a number of |)laces was made in order that the 
commission might be ftilly ad\ ised in the |iremises, that no one might lecl 
slighted and that in the end the most fitting site might be selected. They 


went as far west as Mill creek, which was near the center of the county 
(in an east and west line, as then mapped out. The lay of the land in and 
around the Cani]) spring and on duwn to the fork of FUue river and High- 
lands creek was inspected. I-'ort Hill. I'.ecks ?\lill and possibly several other 
places came in f(_)r consideration. 

The lieadcjuarters. or st(>p])iug ))lace of the conunission, was at the 
home I if William I.indley. who. liemg county sur\eyor, accompanied tiie 
part\- in all their pereL;rinati<ins. and he never lost an opportunity to get in 
a good word for his favorite site, it lieing the lands that lay in the fork of 
I'llue rn cr and i '.rocks creek. Those interested in tiiis location sliowed that 
it was near the center of tlie count} : that it was easy uf access; that the land 
was dr\- and rolling; that there were streams on two sides of same which 
would furnish water-power for mills; and. last hut not least, that there were 
within a radius of a mile from the center of said site more than a dozen fine 
springs of "pure, cold water." .\n abundance of good water was the 
sine (]ua lion at this early day in locating homes as well as towns. It was 
n(j doubt the superior water advantages that won out when the location was 
tinall\- agreed uiion. .\rrangemcnts were at once made for the purchase of 
one hundred and se\enty-four acres i.if land of Benjamin Brewer and Will- 
iam Lindkw. and title bontls were executed for the conxeyance of same to 
the county, k'nim the former the\' obtained the southwest cjuarter of sec- 
tion 17, township J north, range 4 east, at a cost of one thousand three hun- 
dred doll.irs, ;ui(l for which the said Iirewer executed his <\eed, March 18. 
1814. LiiuUey sold the following tract: Beginning at the northeast corner 
of the northwest quarter of section _'o. to\\nshi]) 2 north, range 4 east; 
thence south 7 degrees, east 28 ])o]es, to the middle of Blue river; thence 
down the same westwardlx' to Brock creek; thence north to the section line; 
thence In tlie same east 7 degrees, north J>^ imles. to the beginning, com- 
prising fourteen acres, 1he consideration was hft\- dollars, and deed for 
same was made on March 21, 1814. 

Several names were proposed for the new count}- seat. John DePauw 
wanted it called Mt. \'ernon. but there being a numlier of Germans among 
the first settlers who could not pronounce the same correctly, this was objec- 
tionable. Washington was suggested, which would have been the most 
appropriate name, but it was thought that some confusion nu'ght arise from 
ha\ing the county seat of justice having the same name as the count}-. The 
Liudleys had emigrated to the state from Salem, Xorth Carolina, and as a 
matter of course had attachments for the names of their native tow-n. The 
lad\ who hatl been the obliging and hos|)itable hostess to the commission put 


in her plea to have the place called Salem, and after due Cdnsideratiim the 
gentlemen very gallantly gave her the honor of naming the new town. .Ml 
matters and duties devoh'ing upon the afore.-^aid commission were com- 
pleted February 2, 1S14, ?t which time a special session cif the Washingtnn 
circuit court was called to take the initial steps toward nrganizing the 

The circuit court at this time wa> empuwered to transact all county 
Imsiness, as well as to adjudicate both ci\-il and criminal matters. The place 
of meeting was at the house of William Lindley. He then lived in a three- 
roomed log house situated near the center of the northwest quarter of sec- 
tion 20, township 2 north, range 4 east, or on the right side of the road 
going south from Salem on top of the little hill which is some two hundred 
vards south of the bridge at the foot of Main street. 

The following is the record made of the proceedings had at this first 
term of court in the new county: "At a special session of the circuit court 
for the county of Washington. I. T.. held at the house of \\"illiam Lindley 
in said countv. on \\'eilnesday the 2nd of I'ebruary. in the \ear of (]ur T.ord 
1S14. Present. Jonathan Lindlev. Moses Hoggatt and Simeon l.amb. 

"John DePauw was apiKjinted ( jiursuant to tiie act for fixing the seats 
of justice in all new counties), agent, to discharge the duties of siuli ofticc 
as relate to the seat of justice in this county. 

"On motion, ordered that John DePauw. as agent for the seat of jus- 
tice in this count}', gi\e bond and securit\- for the faithful discharge of liis 
office in the sum of tive thousand dollars. Wherefore the said John 
DePauw. with Aiuos Thornburgh, Alex.-mder Little and James llarlies(]n, 
securities, entered into and acknowledged a IhmhI in the sum o.f \]\v thous- 
and dollars, conditioned for the faithful ])erformance i>f his duties as agent 

The record of the second day's ])r( jceedings wa-^ as follows; ••|,,hii 
DePauw. the agent ai>iH)inte(l b\- the court, for the seat of justice 111 this 
county, was instructed to adxertisc the lots in said town for sale in the 
JVcstcni Eacjlc and Western Cmiricr at least thirtv days previous to the 
time of sale, which was ordered to lie on the second Tuestla\- in .\pril next. 
The town to be called Saletu. 

"Ordered, That the \o[^ in said town be sold at imblic vendue. u]>.ni 
the following conditions: One-fourth ])art of the jiurclKise monev to be paid 
down and the residue in one vear from the time uf purchase, the i)urcli.iscrs 


to give bond and appro\ed security for the payment. The agent to gi\'e 
bond, conditioned to make a title at the time of the full payment of the pur- 
chase money. 

"Ordered, That such part of the improved land, purchased by the com- 
missioners for the seat of justice, in this county, which it may not be thought 
proper to sell, be leased by the agent for the next season on the best terms 
he can. 

"Ordered, That the clerk delixer to John DePauw, agent for the seat of 
justice in this county, the title bonds given by Benjamin Brewer and William 
Lindley. conditioned for the conveyance of certain lands referred to in the 
report of the commissioners appointed by law to fix such seat of justice." 

The "improved land" referred to above, and which the county agent 
was ordered to rent on the best terms he could, consisted of a small field of 
cleared land, probably eight acres, on the west side of Brock creek, just 
abo\e the bridge on West Alarket street, together with the cabin and truck 
patch on top of the hill near the fort. 


The first regular term of the Washington circuit court convened at the 
house of William Lindley, April ii, 1814. On Tuesday, the second day of 
the term, the following order was made, dividing the county into civil town- 
ships : 

"Ordered. That this county be divided into five townships, as follows, 
\'iz. : 

"1st. Madison Townshii^ — ?>eginning where the line between the first 
and second townships north crosses the meridian line; thence east into the 
second and third range line; thence south to Harrison county line; thence 
w est to the corner of said county ; thence to the beginning. 

"2d. Lost River Township — Beginning at the same place; thence 
east to the line between the second and third ranges; thence north to the 
l)oundary nf the county. 

"3d. iUue Ri\er Townshijy — P)eginning at the second and third range 
on the (south) county line; thence north on said line to the jd township 
line: theiue east with said line t<j ("lark county line. 

"4th. W a-~hington Tf)wnshi]) — Beginning at the northeast comer of 
I'.lue l\i\er township: thence north along the Clark county line to the main 
branch of the Muscatatuck ri\er; thence down the same to White river; 
thence down the same to i.i]>t l\i\-er townshi]). 


"5th. Driftwood Townshii.) — Beginning where Washington town- 
ship strikes the main branch of the Muscatatuck ri\er; tiience nortli with the 
Clark county Hne to the Ijounds of this CDunty ; thence with said liounds to 
the beginning." 

In this division Madison townshij) comprised all of what is now Madi- 
son, the west half of Posey, and all the territory west of these t<i the merid- 
ian line. Lost River township, all of what is now Brown and the west two- 
thirds of Vernon and extending westward to the meridian line. Blue River 
township, all of Howard. Pierce, Polk and Jackson and the east half of 
Posey. Washington township, all of Gibson, Monroe, Jefferson, Washing- 
ton, Franklin and the east third of X'ernon, togetlier with a strij) fi\e miles 
wide off the west side of what is now Scott county. Driftwdod township 
included all the county north of White and Muscatotuck ri\ers which was 
then the largest township in the county. As soon as these ti.nvnshiijs were 
created the necessary officers were appointed and the machinery of govern- 
ment set in motion. Superintendents were appointed to lease the schooi 
sections in the county. Viewers were appointed for a numljer of roads and 
several licenses to keep ta\ern and ttJ sell goods were issued. The ta\ern 
and grocery rates were fixed as follows: Bed, six and one-fourth cents: 
meals, tw'enty-fne cents; horse oxer night to hay and fodtler, tweK'e and 
one-half cents: rum, peach brandy or wine, thirty-se\en antl one-half cents 
per half pint; all other spirits, twehe and one-half cents per half pint: cider 
or beer, sixteen and two-third cents per quart. -\ ta\ern license was tw u 
dollars per annum. Alexander Little was apjjointed county lister. 

The next alteration that was luade in the arrangeiuent of townships, 
was on December 26, 1813. In the formation of Jrickson and < )range coun- 
ties W'ashington county lo^t considerable territor\- whereu]ion three town- 
ships were established as follows: 

"Blue River township begins at a stake where tb.e line of townships 
I and 2 intersects Orange county line: thence running east on the hue 
betw-een said townshii)s to the < lark county line, including all the territor\- 
between this and the llarrivon county line. 

"\\"ashingl(iii Tow ii'-bip- - I'cginnnig at the northwest c irner of Blue 
Ri\'er township on the < >range i-ouut\ line; thence uorlb on said Inie until 
it extends two miles into town>hi]i :; nortl 
thence south bounded by said county line 
ship; thence west to place of beginning. 

"Ridge Townshiii— Includes all that 
lies north of Washington township." 



uorlb on 


.■ e; 

ivt t.i Cla 

the c 


ler of Bl, 


In the abo\e di\isiuns all the county lying south of the present south- 
ern boundary of Washington township and extending across the county 
was Blue River township; all north of the present north line of Washington 
was Ridge township. While Washington embraced a belt through the 
center of the county just equal to its present breadth north and south. 

The first election held in the county, after its formation was in August, 
1 81 4, when, for congress Jonathan Jennings received three hundred and 
eighty-two votes and Elijah Sparks forty-five; for the Legislative council 
(same as State Senate) to represent the counties of Washington and Knox, 
John DePauw received three hundred and twenty votes and John Johnson 
one hundred and se\en. The total vote of the county being four hundred 
and twenty-seven. 

With the admission of the state into the Union came a change in the 
management of county business, it being taken out of the hands of the cir- 
cuit court and turned over to a board of commissioners. At an election held 
on February 3, 1817. Robert Mclntire, Alexander Huston and Nathan 
Trueblood were chosen first county commissioners. The following is the 
first record made of their proceedings : 

"At a meeting of the Board of Commissioners of the county of Wash- 
ington in the state of Indiana, holden at the Court House in the town of 
Salem, on Monday, the loth of February, 181 7, Robert Mclntire produced 
a certificate from Noah Wright, sheriff of said county, of his election as 
commissioner of the county aforesaid for three years, on which certificate 
there appeared an endorsement of Enoch Parr, Esq., of his having taken 
oath required by the constitution of the state. Alexander Hustin produced 
a certificate from said sheriff of his election as a commissioner of said 
county for two years, endorsed as aforesaid. And Nathan Trueblood pro- 
duced a certificate, from the said sheriff aforesaid, of his election as com- 
missioner of the said county for one year, endorsed as aforesaid." 

The first business transacted by said board was the division of the 
countx' into six tuwnshijjs, as follows: 

"W'asliin.i^tnn Township — Begins on the township line one mile west of 
the line (li\ idiiig ranges 4 and 5 ; thence north on said line two miles into 
tnwnsliip 3, range 4; thence west two miles into township 3, range 3; thence 
smith to the line dividing townshijjs i and 2: thence to the beginning. 

"Franklin Tdwiisbi]) —Begins on .Muscatatuck one mile west of the 
line ilniding raiif^es 4 and 5 ; thence south to the line dividing lownships i 
,111(1 2: thence ea^t one mile to the line (li\i(ling ranges 4 and 5; thence by 


said range line south to the Harrison county Hne; thence l)y the hue of this 
county to the beginning. 

"Posey Township — Begins on the township hue dixidnig townships i 
and 2 (southwest comer of Washington township) ; thence mie mile south; 
thence west to the Orange count} hue; thence south (.m s.iid ( )range county 
line to the ilarrison county line; thence on said Harrison cuunty line to the 
sectional line dividing sections 14 and 15. township i, range 3; thence nouli 
to the beginning. 

"Jackson Township — liegins at the southeast ctjrner of this county; 
thence north to the line dividing townships 1 and j; thence on saitl town- 
ship line two miles west of the line (li\i(.ling ranges 3 and 4; 
sectional line di\-iding sections _' and 3, in township i, range 
line of Harris(.in county; tiience east on said Harrison coin 

"Vernon TownshiiJ — Begins on the township line di\ ii 
2 and 3, two miles west of the line di\-iding ranges 3 and 4; 
said township line to the (Jrange county line; thence south 1 
line one mile south of the line dividing townships i and 2 ; 
the sectional line to tlie line dividing sections 2 and 3 m tow 
3; thence north to the beginning. 

"Brown Township — Begins on the ( )range count)- line 
sliips 2 and 3; thence east on said townshiji line to the section, 
sections 34 and 35, in townshii) 3, range 3 ; thence iK.irth tW( 
east on the sectional line dividing sections 2^^ and 26 in tow 
4 until within one mile of the range line dividing ranges 4 
north to White river ; thence by said river to the Orange com 
south on said (Grange county line to the beginning." 

An election for two justices of the jieace in each <if saitl lownsln|is 
was ordered to be held on the hrst Monday m March. 1817. 

Monroe township was created by act (if ooniniissioiiers on Xoveinlier 
18, 1817. The following was the entry matle of this proceeding: "Ordered. 
That Brown tciwnship be divided as follows: Beginning on the townshi|i 
line dividing townshi]>s 2 and 3, where Rush creek crosses said Hue; tliencc 
tlown said creek to White river, and all that part of said townshi|) east of 
said line shall constitute a new township, to be named Monroe." 

On May 12, 1818, Gibson township was organized, bv the follow in- 
order of commissioners' court: "Ordered, That Gibson township be stricken 
off from I'Tanklin township — and that all that part of l-ranklin townsln]i 

; thence 

on the 

3 south. 

to the 

nt\ line 

to the 

ding tov 


thence v 

vest on 

..11 sai.l 


thence ( 

-ast on 

niship I 

, range 


■ town- 

al line d 




nship 3, 

, range 

and 5; 


ity line; 



lying east and north of the Knobs be and form said Gibson township." 
Thus divided they embraced considerable territory, extending into what is 
now Scott county. 

The last change made in the arrangement of civil townships, which 
practically fixed them as ihey nuw are, was made on March 3. 1853. 1'he 
following is the order relating thereto : 

"Whereas, the new school law abolishes congressional townships and 
for school purposes adopts civil townships, and it has been represented to 
us that all the school houses ha\e been built with reference to the congres- 
sional township lines, therefore to preserve the location of the present school 
houses and render them useful, it is deeiued ad\"isal)le to reorganize and 
change, the civil township fines and make tfiem conform to and follow the 
congressional townshii) lines as near as i)ractical)le, therefore after mature 
deliberation and consultation it is ordered by the board that the following 
alterations in the civil to\vn>hip^ of this count\- be made, the number 
increased to thirteen, and the boundaries thereof fixed and established as 
follows, to wit: 

"Township Xo. 1 shall retain the name of Gibson and include all that 
jiart of thi-. count)" embraced in the f(jllowing boundaries, to wit: That which 
lies north of the line dividing townships Nos. 2 and 3 north of the base line 
and east of the line dividing townships 4 and 5 east of the second principal 

"Xo. _' shall retain the name of Monroe township and shall include 
and emljrace all that part of congressional township X^o. 4 north, range 4 
east, in Washington county, as well as sections Xo. i to No. 24, inclusive, 
of congressional tcjwnship Xo. 3 north, range 4 east. 

"No. 3 shall be known by the name of Jefferson township and shall 
include and embrace the following territory: All that part of congressional 
townships mmibered 4 north, range 3 east, and 3 north, range 3 east, in 
said county except sections 24 and 26, 35 and 36, in the last named town- 

"Xo. 4 shall retain the Tiame of Urown township and shall include and 
embrace all tliat |)art of congressional townships 4 north, range 2 east, and 
3 north, range 2 east, in said county. 

".Xo. 5 shall retain the name of Vernon township and shall include 
and embrace all that jjart of congressional township Xo. 2 north, range 2 
east, in said county, as well as sections 5, 6. 7. 8, 17, 18, 19, 20, 2Q, 30, 
3! and },2. in congres-^ional townsbi]) 2 north, range 3 east. 


"No. 6 shall retain the name uf Wash' igtun township and shall include 
and embrace all the remainder ul the last named congressional towiiship. as 
well as the whole of congressional township J north, range 4 east, and sec- 
tions 25 to 36, inclusive, i_>f congressional township 3 north, range 4 east; 
also sections 25 and 2(), 33 and 36 in congressional tnwnship 3 north, range 
3 east. 

"No. 7 shall retain the name of Franklin township, and shall include 
and embrace all the territory in congressional township 2 north, in ranges 
5 and 6 east, in said county. 

"No. 8 shall be known and designated by the name of Polk t(.)wnship, 
and shall include and embrace all that part of congressional township 1 
north, in ranges 5 and 6 east, in said county. 

"No. 9 shall be known and designated by the name of Pierce townshi]i 
and shall include and embrace congressional township i north, range 4 east, 
in said county. 

"No. 10 shall be known and designated 1)y the name of Howard town- 
ship and shall include and embrace congressional township i north, range 
3 east, in said county. 

"No. II shall be known and designated by the name of .Madison town- 
ship and shall include and embrace all that part of congressional township 
I north, range 2 east, in said county. 

"No. 12 shall retain the name of l'osc_\- township and >hali include and 
embrace all that part of congressional township i south, in ranges 2 and 3, 
m said county. 

"No. 13 shall retain the name of Jack^(.)n township and shall include 
and embrace all that part of congressional to^Miship 1 south, m vanges 4 
and 3 east, in said county." 

At this time the following \dting precincts were estaltlished in said 
townships: Gibson, Holjson's Mill: Monroe, I 'lattsburgh ; Jelfersoii, Han- 
cock's store: Brown, Mt. L'armel : N'ernon. Robert .Mexander's : Washing- 
ton, Salem: Pranklin, P. P.. Martin's: Polk, .Mien W\att's: Pierce, l-'.mery 
school house: Howard, John ("': Madison. I'.vaii 1 )ueses' :\-, 
Alvin C. (ira\es' : Jackson, .Martinsl)urg. 

On the 3ril of September. iShi, ;i ])etiti(iii was liled with the count\- 
commissioners asking that a change be made m the l)oundary line between 
X'ernon and Aladison t(nvnshi|.)s. The lividing line running east and west 
])assed through the center of the main street of Pixoiiia. making it difficult 
to arrange school districts com enientlv and satisfactorilw and causing 


trouble and contusion in justices' courts over the question of jurisdiction m 
certain criminal cases, .\fter due deliberation the board granted the prayer 
of the petitioners and moved the line one-half mile farther north, where it 
has since remained. 

On June 6, 1873, the east and south boundaries of Polk and Jackson 
townships were established by commissioners' court so the same would 
conform to the line described in the legislative enactment of 1873, fixing 
along section lines the boundary between Washington and Clark counties. 


Section 4 of the act creating Washington county out of the counties of 
Harrison and Clark, provided that the judges of the court of common pleas 
should, within six months after the pennanent seat of justice was estab- 
lished, proceed to erect all necessary buildings therein and in pursuance of 
this act the said court, on the 13th of July, 1814, made the following order 
in relation to the building of the first court house and jail: 

"Whereas, by an act of the Legislature, it is made the duty of this 
court to cause the necessary public buildings to be erected at the seat of jus- 
tice ill this county, and it appearing from an examination of the treasury 
that there are funds 'amjjly sufficient for the purpose aforesaid, and the very 
fiourishing condition of the town of Salem, the seat of justice for this 
county, as well as the fertile and prosperous state of the county generally 
appear to warrant and require the erection of handsome, convenient and 
durable public buildings, it is therefore 

"Ordered, That a court house be erected on the ])ublic s(|uare in the 
town of Salem, forty-fi\'e feet by thirty, to be built upon an arch not less 
than eight feet high, supported b\' fourteen ])illars dt stone, sunk three feet 
deep in the earth, unless founded on solid rock. 'I'he story abo\e the arch 
to be fourteen feet high, and built of brick, b'our windows in court room of 
twenty-four panes each, and two in the jur\- rooms of the same size. Two 
outside and twn i^l^i(lc door,^ made in ])r()portion to the other ])arts of the 
building. A fire-place in each of the jury rooms. The walls to be laid in lime 
and >aii(l mortar, well pointed and ])encilled. To be plastered inside and 
wliitew allied. Tlie curiiish to be handsomely made of brick moulded for the 
purpose. The material tn lie (if the bc^t kind and all the work to be done 
in a good, workmanlike manner. 

"It is further ordered, that a i)ublie jirisdu be built in the said town ni 
Salem. twentv-fi\e by eighteen feet, of scpiare Uigs one foot thick and laid 


cliise together. The outside walls to l)e built on a rock wall sunk three feet 
helow the surface of the earth. The inside walls to stand on a platform of 
rock two feet thick the whole size of the Hoor. The partition wall one foot 
thick let in and extending through the inner wall. To ha\e iron grates and 
double d(..ors. 

"The building i)f the alto\e descrilx-(l court house and prison will be let 
t(i the lowest bidder at the tnwn nt Salem on the third Saturday in August 
ne.xt. It was further urdered that publication of the above I>e made in the 
ir est nil Hat lie and W'cstcni Courier." 

On the day set apart tn award contracts for the building of a court 
Imuse and jad. several bids were presented, and after due consideration 
I if same the contract for liuilding the court house was awarded to John 
Del'auw for twti thousand four hundred and ninet_\' dollars. The contract 
for the jail was let to Marston (_i. Clark for h\e hundred and eighty-eight 
d(_illars. nel'auw :it once exi.'cuted b( jud to the court in the penalty of five 
thousand dollars, conditioned to complete said court house agreeable co con- 
tract, on or before the 1st of .Ma\, iSid. On December i6, 1814, Clark 
filed bond for one thousand two hundred dollars, the condition being that 
the jail lie built according to terms of contract, and that it l>e completed by 
the 1st of May, following. The said Ijond had been executed in July 

The county jail was to be located on a lot reserved for that purpose on 
the west side of Water street, between f'oplar and Cherry. The contract 
for clearing off the pulilic s(piare, which was hea\ih- timbered with walnut, 
poplar, oak and hickory, with a dense undergrowth of redbud, pawpaw, and 
spicewood, was awarded to Philip Shull, for which he received fifteen dol- 
lars. Some of this timber was made into rails and on the 12th of August, 
1S17, John DePauw paid into the county treasury- thirteen dollars, eighty- 
seven and one-half cents for rails that had been made from time to time on 
the square and reserve lots. 

The timbers used in both court hou>e ,'uid jail were cut and hewn on the 
town site, persons having lots to clear u|) being glad of the opport,unity to 
gi\e trees awa\' to be rid of theuj. The shingles for the court h(iuse were 
split and sha\-e(l out of a large xellow poplar tree that stood on court square. 
The r.ifters and joists were whi]i-sawed, while the ilooring was cut out at 
Lindley's new mill, located one mile down the creek, southwest of town. 
The lirick used 111 the court house was burned on the square, as were other 
kilns later on. |,,]in AbAl;ili;iii was allowed to l.)urn one as late as the sum- 


mer of 1824. the only condition made in granting him the privilege being 
that he should leave the ground in as good condition as he found it. In 
181 7 a clerk's office was fitted up in the court house west of the jury room, 
and was used also by the county sheriff. 


The jail was completed early in the spring of 181 5. It was twenty-five 
by eighteen feet outside measurement, with double walls, two feet thick, of 
timbers notched down closely together. It was partitioned ofif into two 
rooms ten and one-half by fourteen feet in the clear. The outside wall stood 
on a rock foundation a foot above the surface, the inside one being on a 
floor of timbers a foot square that was laid upon a rock platform two feet 
thick. The ceiling was ten feet high from the top of this floor made of like 
square timbers. The building stood flush with the street line, the long way 
north and south. The only light admitted into these dungeons was through 
barred apertures a foot square, one to each room on the side next the street. 
The north room was the criminal cell, and could be entered only by a trap- 
door in the ceiling. The south room was the debtors' prison, and in addi- 
tion to the trap<loor above there was an entrance at the south end, made 
secure by double shutters. No means were provided for heating this jail. 

It was soon found necessary to give more light and better ventilation 
to the cells, and September 17, 181 6, the court "Ordered that the jail be 
altered so as to have in east and west sides of debtors' room windows 
twenty-four by thirty inches, and in criminals' room, windows sixteen by 
twenty inches, to be grated in the outside wall and have a sash of glass on 
the inside of each opening." The contract for this work was awarded 
Daniel Movers, which he executed for one hundred eighty dollars, eighty- 
seven and one-half cents. The window grates were made of iron bars an 
inch square, placed six inches apart, and later on, when stoves were placed 
in the cells, the pipes protruded betwee.i these bars. 

jailer's residence. 

In the spring of 181 5, about the time the jail was completed, a con- 
tract was awarded Abel Findley to build a residence for the jailer, to con- 
sist of one log room eighteen by twenty feet, with a chimney in the south 
end of the same and a lean-to kitchen in the rear, the room to adjoin the 
jail building on the south. This was completed in the early part of 1816. 



For this work an allowance of one hundred eighty-nine dollars was made. 
The debtor's cell was entered from the jailer's mom, Imt to reach the crim- 
inal's cell there were board steps leading from >aid room to the attic, from 
which place a small ladder was dropped down tiirough the trapdoor to enable 
prisoners to enter or leave this dungeon. IMeals were all served through the 
trapdoor. The only change ever made in this jail building was in 1835. 
when a brick kitchen fourteen l)y sixteen feet was built, a hall-way of six 
feet being left between it and the jailer's room. Allen &• Clark were the 
contractors. The only bed provided for prisoners was a tick of straw laid 
upon the tloor and boxes were used for seats. .\t the Septem]>er term, 181 5, 
Nicholas Harrison was allowed eight dollars for "'boarding James Scantling 
and Austin Holders, who were confined in jail, and for two boxes for the 
use of said prisoners." They were the first violators of the law to be incar- 
cerated in the new jail. 


The law which inflicted the ]ienalty of imprisonment for debt also con- 
tained a provision which made it possible fur a prisoner to roam at will 
within certain prescribed bounds a ])ortion of the time, li\- giving bond m 
double the amount of debt for which he was committed. These bounds 
were fixed by the court and were not to extend more than six hundred vards 
in any direction from the jail. The yitn.-dty for \iolation of said bond was 
its forfeiture in case the prisoner made good his escape, or close confine- 
ment afterward if apprehended and retur.ned to pri.son. The first prisori 
bounds established in this county were defin.ed on December i(\ iS'14. as 
follows: "beginning at the cornei' of Alain and T^oplar streets in the town 
of Salem, running with said Poplar street westwardly acru-s the creek to 
Mill street: thence with Mill street sontlnvanlh to Small -treet : ihence with 
Small street to Main; thence to starting point, and that e;icli of the aforesaid 
streets he included." On .\ugust 1 J. 1817. tliese bounds were extendetl to 
include Main street and the public si|nare. 

time specified in the 
niille\ , James \'oung 

The c. 

)urt hiiuse was eo 


.■.1 withi 

( )n 

Monday, May «., 

. iSi( 

1. Willi, 

:ird (\ 

Hunter, liaving 1h 



the town of Salem, together Avitli the contract and bond of the undertaker^ 
reported that the said house was completed agreeably to contract and that it 
be received. 

The court house stood in the center of the public square, forty-five feet 
east and west, thirty feet north and south. The court room, thirty feet 
square, was on the east side, with two jury rooms on the west, each fifteen 
feet square. There was a door from the court room leading to each of the 
jury rooms. There was a brick fire-place on the west side of each jury room. 
The two outside doors were in the center of the building on the north and 
south sides of the same. There was a window on each side of these doors,. 
and two in the east end of the building. The judge's stand was placed 
between these two windows. The basement showed four arches the long" 
way of the building and three the short way, six feet wide by about seven 
feet high. Standing thus upon its fourteen pillars, it was dubbed the "stilted- 
castle of justice and equity." After the house had been received it was 
discovered that no provision had been made in the contract for substantial 
steps leading to the second story, a cheap board stair having been set up. 
In order to provide for this omission, the following" order of the court was 
made on May 7. 

"Ordered, That steps be built at each door of the court house in Salem^ 
to be made of hewed timber, nine by twelve inches thick, the steps to be nine 
inches high and ten inches deep, to be built up in the front and on each side 
of said doors, together with a straight wall ne.xt the house, with a platfomt 
six feet square, to be covered with good two inch plank and nine inches 
below the door, the lower steps to be laid on a stone wall three inches above 
the surface of the ground. The corners of the steps to be neatly raised by 
cutting away half of each piece of timber — all of which timber shall be 
either white oak, black walnut or blue ash and to be completed on or before 
the 15th of July next." The lowest bidder for this work was Mathew 
\\'ood who completed the work for ninety-nine dollars. 

The court and jury rooms were provided with seats made of rough 
slabs from the saw-mill. On the bark side of the slab two holes were bored 
at each end and one in the middle, with a two-inch auger, and into these 
holes legs were inserted, thus making a good strong seat, if not a very com- 
f()ital)le one. On Sejitember 16, 1816, Noah Wright was allowed two dol- 
lars and fifty cents for five chairs, for use in the court room, these for the 
lawyers. The first benches provided with backs were made by Thomas L. 


Mclntire, who received four dollars for two seats for jurors. He was also 
paid four dollars for a table for the commissioners. 

In building- this court house no pro\-ision was made for heating the 
court room. There was 10 suitable place for a chimney, so there was n<.) 
other alternati\e but to purchase a sto\-e. Accurtlingl}-, on November 18, 
18 1 7, Jonathan J, yon and John E, Clark were appointed to investigate the 
rhatter and purchase the best stove there was to be had anrl have it set up 
in the court house. This was said to have been the first stove ever brought 
to the town of Salem. It seemed that they were quite scarce some years 
afterward, and the judges of the coiirt accommodating, as well, for on 
November 14, i8ji, it was "Ordered, that Risdan Charles be privileged to 
take and inake use of the sto\-e and apparatus now in the court house until 
the Saturday prexious to the next circuit court, at which time he is to have 
it fixed in the same ]ilace where it now stands, ci~iiuplete for use by furnish- 
ing an addition of five and one-half feet of new i)ipe with an elliow four 
feet abo\'e the sto\'e, on condition that he discount for the use of the county 
five dollars of the price tif said new pipe fur the use of the stove so granted." 

For some three or four years after the court house was built it was 
without lock or key. Inasmuch as it was public pro|)erty, it was thought 
that no one would deface or injure the same; but it was found that the con- 
fidence in the puljlic was betrayed and the building was being mutilated. 
Accordingly, on November 15, 1820, it was "Ordered, that the clerk have a 
lock put on the s<::)uth door of court house immediately, and that the doors 
~be kept shut unless in times of public business, and to be o]iened at all times 
when divine services are wont to be held therein, an<l that the clerk keep 
the key," 

It was again ordered, November 14, t8ji, that the clerk l)e authorized 
to purchase a sufficient lock to put to the door of the southwest room of the 
•court house, which is appropriated to the use of the clerk's office of Wash- 
ington county. This was made use of by the treasurer also. The only 
repairs that were ever made to this buikling were new steps in 1825. The 
logs having rotted badly, they were removed and heavy board steps took 
their place, and the top platform was railed all around. 

The first seal of the court was pro\'ided for Noxember lo, i8'i8, as fol- 
lows : "Ordered, that a seal for Washington county be procured by the clerk 
■of the court as speedily as possible and to have inscribed thereon the words 
'Washington county, Ind." together with the form of a lady or God of lus- 
tice with a pair of scales suspended in her hand," 




At the July term of ccuri;, 1815, a public well was aiiaugsd for. It 
was dug south of the court house at the west edge of the walk, and about 
fifty feet nortli of the present south gateway. A good vein of water was 
struck about twenty feet below the surface, and this well continued to be 
used, not only by the county, but by ahnost every one around the square, fof 
seventy years. In 1885, when the work of building the third court house 
was begun, this well was covered over with a stone slab, and it isn't at all 
likely that it will ever be brought into use again. 

On May 7, 181 6, the court ordered an estray pen built. It was located 
on the north end of the jail lot, beginning at the southeast corner of Water 
and Poplar streets; thence west fifty feet; thence south seventy-iv/e feet; 
thence east fifty feet to Water street ; thence north to place of beginning. 
The specifications called for "the posts to be white oak sunk two and a half 
feet deep, with seven rails to each panel, rails to be of white oak, walnut or 
blue ash, the posts to be mortised, the rails split out flat, six to eight inches 
Ijroad ; a good gate to be hung with strong iron hinges and a good padlock 
and key to same, which gate is to be placed at the corner of Poplar and 
Water streets, and all to be completed by September ist following." 

Elijah Rinker was awarded the contract and completed the pen for 
twenty-two dollars and ninety-nine cents. Nicholas Harrison was appointed 
first keeper. Stock of all kinds then ran at large. Sheep and cattle were 
belled and turned out to the woods early in the spring and they would sel- 
dom be seen except once in every two or three weeks when they came home 
for salt. Occasionally they would stray ofif and join another flock or herd, 
in which case they were (lri\'en to the county pound and held till the owner 
claimed them, or were sold if no owner was found. It was here, also, that 
all persons who had a difficulty to settle or. desired to test their powers as 
wrestlers or fighters, repaired, and many a liloody encounter or exciting con- 
test was witnessed on this spot. y\n ofTicer of tlie law liad no authority to 
arrest nr prevent parties from engaging in fights mutually arranged for or 
ayreed upon, and combatants were alwavs allowed to continue their bout 
until one or the other said "enough," which signified that he yielded the 
palm of victorv to his antagonist. An election or public meeting of any 
kind was considered tame and uninteresting unless there were plenty of 
attractions at the "stray pen." 


county's first bridge. 

The first bridge built by the county was in 1817, across the Lick fork 
of Blue river at the south end of Main street in Salem. The contract was 
lo* to James -Harbeson, who was to build a "good bridge" across said creek, 
bu. no price was fixed for the work. The order of the commissioners pre- 
scribed that if his bill was not satisfactory when the work was completed, 
the price should be determined by a committee, the commissioners and said 
Harbeson each choosing some distinterested workman, who were to select a 
third, if they could not agree in fixing the price. This bridge was built on 
piers laid up with loose rock, with heavy hewn timbers, one by two feet. 
reaching across a span of thirty feet to which the floor of the bridge was 
secured by wooden pins. The bridge was in use fourteen years, or up to 
September, 1831, when it was ordered sold and removed, the same being 
regarded as dangerous for the passage of travellers. 


In the summer of 1824 two prisoners broke jail by boring through the 
log floor and tearing out the stone underpinning. They left an auger 
behind, which had been furnished them by an accomplice, and the following 
order in reference thereto «as made at the Septemljer term of court: "That 
the sheriff of this county proceed instantly to sell at auctit)n to the highest 
bidder for ready money, an auger found in the jail of this county, no owner 
appearing to claim the same, and that he pay the proceeds arising from such 
sale to the county treasurer." The breach in the cell was repaired bv lining 
the floor with sheet iron, on which was laid a floor of three-inch oak plank, 
spiked down to the timbers. Double grates were also ]nit in the windows. 
In 1828 a desperado named Kellcx liored out (jf jail and, with sonic others, 
made good their escape. Tlie\- had also secured an auger some way unknown 
to the jailer and by piling up such bedding and seats as tlie\- had in the cell 
managed to reach the ceiling and liored a log in two. so as make a hole 
twelve b}- eighteen inches, and through this they escaped. 'l"o prexent tools 
of any knul from l)eiiig handed into prisoners, the windows were made 
secure on the outside w itli tight. liea\ >■ shutters, which were locked ni 
nights. A heavy cliaui was i,,rged liy a hlacksmitli and stajiled t.. tlie wall 
of the ceil, and to this all desperate characters were iastciied. .iiier ^nIiuIi 
there weie 11.1 uKire escaiies from the old I,.- pnsMU. 



In the early settlement of tlie conntry there vvas no such thing as a 
platform scale in use, all the weighing being done with steelyards and bal- 
ances and these were mostly of home manufacture. Hence it was necessary 
that there should be some sort of s.avdarci system of weights and measures 
established, so that when a measure or weight of any size was made it could 
be taken to the proper official and niade legal by being "gauged" and prop- 
erly "sealed," or marked with stamp or brand. In May, 1816. Christopher 
Harrison was directed to purchase for the use of the county the following 
measures: "One half-bushel measure to contain one thousand seventy-four 
and one-fifth solid inches, to be made of .strong double tin; also one gallon 
measure to contain two hundred thirty-one solid inches, and a quart meas- 
ure to contain fifty-seven and three-fourth solid inches. Also a pair of 
scales and set of weights, commonly called avoirdupois weights." 

On September 7, 1824, Asher Wilcox was directed to procure new 
standard weights and measures for the use of the county, the measures to 
be of copper, running from pint up to one-half bushel, the- weights to be of 
cast metal, running from one-half ounce to five pounds. The balance was a 
very handsome one, standing about two feet high and three feet long. The 
law made it a misdemeanor for any merchant to use measures or weights 
that were not legally "sealed." 


One of the matters considered by the board of justices at their first 
meeting, September 6, 1824, was the building of a new court house. The 
first court house had been standing only twelve years, but it seems that it 
was considered inadequate for the transaction of public bu.siness, owing to 
the rapid growth of the county; besides it had proven to be a rather unsub- 
stantial structure. The arches upon which the superstructure rested were 
giving way and the walls were cracking so that it was considered unsafe. 
With this move as a starter, there snun came a general demand for a more 
pretentious structure; accordingly on January 3. 1826, the board ordered, 
"That one jiersdu in each township of the county be appointed to receive 
subscriptions tn be a])])ro|)riated towards building a new court house, as 
follows: Jeremiah Koland for Washington township: Aaron Hardin, 
Tosey; .\s1ut Wilcox, liidwii; Roger Sutherland, Wrnon : Elijah Wright, 

Jackson; Ezekiel Logan, Monroe: Plulip Lester, Gibson, and Joel Combs, 
Franklin." Some very liberal subscriptions were secured, but the (|nestion 
afterwaros --ose whether or not the same could be collected by law, and 
none w did in, at least there is no record that any moneys were e\er 

realized .lom this source. However, the matter took definite shape at the 
May session of the board in i82r), when the following entry of its proceed- 
ing.s was made : 

"The board of justices, taking into consideration the decayed condition 
of the court house; Resolved, That a new court house for the use of this 
county be created in the center of the public sc|uare, in the town of Saleni, 
or on the ground where the present court house now stands, fifty feet ..quare 
and not exceeding twent}-four feet in height up to the sfpiare, the outside 
walls to be built of lirick on a good stone foundation and according to the 
general outlines of a plan this day accepted by the board ; that the contractor 
for building said court house be required to complete the same within three 
years from this date, and that payment be made for said building in three 
equal installments — the first on the ist day of January next, the second on 
the 1st day of January, 1828, and the third when the said building is 
required to be finished; and for the purpose of raising funds to defray the 
expenses thereof, that a tax be levied and paid annually for the present and 
two successive years, as near as may be in equal proportii>ns, and that John 
McMahan, Hugh ATcPheeters, .\bner ALartin and Andrew Housh be 
appointed a committee with full power and authority, and whose dut}' it 
shall be to draft the plan, prescribe the kind of materials and the manner in 
which every particular part of said l)uilding shall be completed and finislied, 
and to take all other measures necessary and proper to ensure the complete 
success and completion of said building, not inconsistent with the general 
outlines of said plan and the tone, intent and meaning of this board. That 
the said committee let out the building of said court house to the lowest and 
l)est bidder in the town of Salem on the first Saturday in June next the 
undertaker being re(|uired to give bond for faithful execution of contract. 
And that the said committee sell the old court house to the highest and best 
bidder at same time and place." 

On July 3, 1826, the building committee filed bt.i e the board a plan 
for the new county court house, together with a written contract made with 
John E. Clark, Chas. B. Naylor and William Naylor for the sum of four 
thousand, nine hundred and ninty-five dollars for the completion of same 
within the time specified. The Naylors were to do the carpentering and 


Clark the brick work. The committee also reported tlie sale of the old court 
house to Marston G. Clark for two hundred dollars. With this materia! 
he built a two-story hotel on the southeast corner of lot vi- South Main 
street, which is still standing and in fairly good condition. 


The Ixjard appointed Samuel Peck, William Phelps and John G. Hen- 
derson a conmiittee :o superintend thf -vvork of building the new court house 
and to see that ever)thing was completed according to contract. The new 
temple of justice was built in a much more substantial manner than the hrst 
one, the walls of same being in a good, solid condition when torn down sixty 
years afterward. The foundation was of stone, extending about two feel 
into the ground and laid up "dry"' without the use of mortar, as all founda- 
tions for brick houses were built in that day. Upon this loose wall a water 
table of cut stone eight inches thick was laid in sand ami lime mortar. Tlie 
hard blue limestone was used for this table, as they did not know the value 
of th^ oolitic limestone for building, thinking il would not weather 
or stand under the weight of a heavy structure. The lirick walls were eigh- 
teen inches thick, the lower story fourteen feet high, the upper ten feet. The 
walls were all the same height and covered with a hii)-r(iof. There were 
two outside doors, one on the north, the other on the south side of the 
building. There were thirty-eight windows above and below, all the same 
size. A tower was in the center, extending about thirty feet above the roof. 
All around the base of this tower was a balcony three feet wide, and twelve 
feet above was a smaller one. The top was round or dome-shaped, above 
which a spire about si.x feet in height extended, ornamented with two large 
brass balls aufl a weatherc(xk. The first "rooster" placed on the court house 
was made by John Mills, under the direction of Jeremiah Rowland. Ti had 
been the original intentii.m to put up an immense arm for a weather vane, 
but everybody seemed to want the "rooster," so the change was made. It 
is related that while the work of construction was going on and the frame 
work of the tower was up, a Jackson rally was held in Salem, Januar\- 8, 
1829. Old Amos Jones, an earnest supporter of the hero of New Orleans, 
climbed upon one of the corner posts of the cupola and stantling on the to]) 
beam shouted' as only he could .shout, "Hurrah for General Jackson, ui the 
highest degree of honor and promotion." He then very leisurely de-ceiided, 
and as a matter of course, was the hero of the day. 

The court room, forty by fifty feet, was on the south side of the house. 


and the clerk's office, ten by eighteen feet, was in the northwest corner, the 
stajrway being on the northeast corner. The stairs started up on the south 
side of the hallway and ran east to a landing half way up, from which they 
ran west to a hall on the ^econd floor. Situated about twelve feet apart in 
the center of the building were four huge columns, two feet in diameier at 
the -base and twenty inches at the top, turned out of poplar logs, placed 
there to support the up])er floor and tower. The judge's stand, five steps 
high, was on the west side of the court room. To the left of this stand was 
the jury box ; in front the clerk's table and on the right, the sheriff's desk. 
The bar occupied the remaining space back to the first line of columns, or to 
the pass way running north and south through the room. The court space 
was floored with plank, with railing on the outside. The passway and the 
floor east of the same was paved with brick and without seats. A gallery 
twelve feet wide, extended across the east side of the court room, entrance 
to which was from the landing in the stairway. On the second flour a hall- 
way ten feet wide ran north and south, with two rooms partitioned off on 
each side for use of juries and county officers. ProN'ision was made to heat 
the house with stoves, convenient flues being built in the walls for this pur- 

The contractors were given three years' time to complete iheir work, 
from May i, 1826, but on March 3, 1828, Chas. B. Xaylor, on behalf of the 
contractors, proposed to have the clerk's office finished and the court room 
made comfortable for holding court and sessions of the board of justices by 
the third Monday in April, following, a year in ad\ance of the time set for 
completion, providing they were allowed twenty-two dollars and fifty cents 
for each term of court held and two dollars per month for the use of. the 
clerk's office, until such time as the said contractors were gi\en to complete 
the building, which proposition was accepted. While the court house was 
being built, courts were held in a room furnished by Marston G. Clark on 
South Main street. The first term of court held in the new court house 
began on May 5, 1828, and the house was finally received on July 6, 1829. 

The brick used in this structure were burned on the east end of lots 
198 and 199, west of Brock Creek. Lime was burned in the regulation log- 
heap kiln of that day. This was made by building up a solid pen of logs 
twelve or fifteen feet scjuare and about eight feet high, with a rim of tim- 
bers around the top, into which broken stone were piled about two feet 
thick. Hickory was generally used in making these kilns as it made the 
hottest fire. 


Very few alterations were ever made in this court house. In 1856 
the gallery in t'le court room was taken out and an inclined floor was laid 
on the east side of the room, leaving a ten-foot walk-way north and south 
through the center of the room. The balconies were removed from around 
the tower anil a new "rooster" was put up by B. F. Huston. In 1875 the 
wooden columns were replaced with six-inch iron pipe . the entire floor of 
the court room was put on a level and laid with plank and a door was opened 
on the east side of the court room for convenience in going to and from the 
county officers' luiilding, which stood iiuout twenty-five feet east of the court 

In the fall 'jf 1829 a brick wall was' built around the court house, fifteen 
feet from the Iniilding. This wall was three feet high from the ground and 
was capped with hewn timbers one foot square. Then new gates were placed 
opposite each door of the court hou^e. The work was done by John E. Clark 
and Noral F, Kennedy at a cost of four hundred eight dollars and seven- 
teen cents. 


.\t the September term of the commissioners' court in 1840, the clerk 
was directed to draft and submit plans and specifications for a new jail, 
with cost of same. No further steps were then taken toward building this 
jail till March fr, 1844, when E. Ncwland, John MclNIahan and Henry Young 
were appointed to complete the plans and let the contract to the lowest and 
best responsible bidder. Plans were furnished by George Bradley, for which 
he received five dollars. On July 6, 1844, the contract was awarded to 
Benjamin F. Huston for three thousand four hundred and fifty dollars. 
The site selected was on the lot just north of the old log jail. 

This new jail was a two-story building, forty-four feet long, north and 
south, by twenty-four feet in width, two stories high. It stood flush with 
the street line. There was a hallway running east and west, the prison cells 
being on the north, and the jailer's residence on the south, the stairway 
being on the south side of the hall. A large chimney was built at the south 
end of the residence, with a fire-place on both floors. Board partitions 
divided the two residence rooms into four apartments. The partition down 
stairs ran just west of the fire-place, while on the second floor it was on 
the east side, .\fter the completion of the building the brick kitchen that 
had been built near the log jail was torn down and rebuilt in the rear of the 
new jail. 

The prison walls were eighteen inches thick. The upper cell was 


arranged for the safekeeping of prisoners charged witli high crimes and 
misdemeanors. The floor, walls and ceiling of this cell were lined witii 
timbers twelve inches thick and on these logs heavy sheet iron was secure!}- 
nailed. Over this iron two-inch oak planks were set up perpendicularly and 
spiked through to the logs, and this again was co\ered with heavy sheet iron. 
Two dungeons were constructed on the west side of this cell, built of heavy 
boards and lined on both sides with iron. The doors opening into the>e 
dungeons were only two by four feet and when closed it was as black as 
night in these "sweat-boxes."' The outside cell door was made of four-inch 
oak boards, lined inside and out with heavy iron, all bolted solidl\' together. 
Through this door was a '"feed hole" six by twelve inches. There were r,, o 
windows on the east side of the cells, made secure with double bars of hea\y 
iron. The lower cell was less secure. It was jjartitioned off with two doors 
opening into the hall. These rooms were first lined with twn-inch oak 
boards, over which sheet iron was securely nailed. This prison was com- 
pleted in the spring of 1S45. and no one ever succeeded in breaking out df 
the upper cell during the thirty-seven years it continued to be used for the 
safekeeping of the county's criminals. 


Twenty years after the building of the second court house the structure 
was found to be too small to accommodate the courts and county ufticers. 
Accordingly, on March 4, 1847, I^avid G. Campbell, Elijah Xewland and 
three hundred and thirty- four other residents and taxpayers of the county 
petitioned the board to build new offices for the clerk and recorcler. showing 
the inadequacy of the then existing accommodations and the necessit\- (if 
having hre-proof oftices for the preservation (if the county recnrds. 'I'o this 
petition there was a remonstrance signed liy two hundred and thn-ty-(.-ight 
taxpayers, but the prayer of the petitioners was sustained and the Ixiaul 
appropriated one thousand two hundred dullars to be expended for new 
offices, and directed that the sup[ilemental building should be located directly- 
east of the Cdurt house and about twenty feet distant from the same. Ik-n- 
jamin F. Huston was tlie contractor f(jr this structure, under contract to 
do the work for one thousand one hundred and forty-fixe dollars. 

This supplemental structure was a (.me-story brick house, twent\ liy 
forty feet, standing the long way north and south, with an eight-tiinl hall- 
way running east and west thnnigh the center, the offices l)eing entered 
through this hall, the clerk's office on the south, and the recorder's office (jn 


the north side ot the entry. The floors were ui brick and the space between 
llie joists of the ceiling were tilled with dirt. This, tor a ti*ne, sjave ample 
room for the iransaction of coiint)' business, Init when the new office of 
auditor \\a.-~ created and the county treasurer was required to keep an office 
where taxes could be i)aid. instead of sending the collector through the 
county, more room was demanded, h'or a few years the clerk, recorder and 
sheriff (KCU])ied the south room of the count}' officers' huiWmg, w^hile the 
auditor and treasurer were assigned lo the north. (~)n December g, 1857, 
the commissioners were petitioned to ijuild a second story to this building 
and an order for same was made. John I. Morrison w'as appointed to let 
the contract and superintend the work. James B. Hicks was the contractor, 
for which he received se\en hundred and eighty dollar^. The rooms on the 
second floor were of unifiirm size with those below, the stairway being in 
the hall. 

In September, 1839, another change was asked to be matle in the mat- 
ter of proviiling fire-proof vaults, which was accordingly done. The \aults 
were made l)y running partitions across the halls and turning arches ov^v 
the ceilings, h'.ach of the four oHices then had a secure vault, entrance to 
the same being through lieav\- iron doors. This work was done by Z. S. 
Garriott for the sum of one thousand one hundred seventy-six dollars and 
ninety-four cents. At this time the clerk occu]Hed the south room on the 
first floor; the recorder, the north room: the auditor, the south room on 
the second flo<.)r and the treasurer the north room, .\fterwards it was found 
conx'enient for the treasurer and recorder to exchange offices. .\ stairway 
to the second floor ran U]> outside tlic building. 


()n June 15, 1880, the couiit\- commissioners decided to build a new 
jail and jailer's residence, the grand jurv hax'ing condemned the old one 
several tinu-s as being unhealthful and unsafe. The location of the old jail 
was bad, and all things considered, it was not deemed advisable to try to 
repair the same. Plans and specifications for a new prison throughout were 
ad\'ertised for, and cpiite a number were presented to the board for consid- 
eration on October Ji, i8'8o. The cost of the entire structure was limited 
to fifteen thousand dollars. Joseph Balsley's plans were ci^nsidered best and 
were accepted, for which he was paid four hundretl dollars. 1 he contract tO' 
put up this building was awarded to a combination of contractors, H. H. 
Kouth, of Salem getting the wood work; Alfred Shrum, of the same place, 


the brick work, and Krunibo & Melchoir, of Xew Albany, the stone work, 
their collective bids being fourteen thousand five hundred eighty-nine dol- 
lars and thirty cents. This jail was c()m])leted in 1881, and has proved to 
be a very substantial struciure, safe and satisfactory as a prison. The resi- 
dence part is thirty-six by forty feet, two stories high, with stone front and 
l>rick side walls. It fronts on Main street, with the ])rison, thirt\- by thirtv- 
three and one-half feet in the rear. The residence part has a halUvay run- 
ning from west to ea^t, on the snuth side of which is a compan\- room 
fifteen by fifteen feet. Xorth (jf the hall is the uFfice, fifteen by fifteen feet, 
in the rear of which is a combnied kitchen and dining room, fifteen by 
seventeen feet. There arc corresiKinding chambers on the fioor, the 
up-stairs cell being arranged and designed for female ])risoners. 

The i)rison is entered from the hall of the residence, it contains si.\ 
stone cells, five by seven and one-half feel, rhree facing south and three 
north, with hea\y iron lattice fronts. .Around these cells is a ])risoners' 
walk, three feet wide, luiclosing this walk and cells is a heav_\' iron lattice, 
extending from floor to ceiling and outside of tliis the guards' walk three 
and one-half feet wide. The outside walls are built of hea\y st(jne, eigh- 
teen inches thick, with strongly-barred windows. The floors ami ceilings 
are made of \'er\- hard stone slabs ten inches thick. 


On January 6, 1885, the \\";ishingt 
demned by the secretaries of the boards o 
also by a committee of architects ai)por 
court. On June 8, 1885, the grand jury 
together with public sentiment strongly 
finally induced the coimty commissioners 
■on December 12, 1885, the}- fi.xed upon 
present'ation of plans and specifications, 
the following points : 

I'^irst, the court house to be of brick 
ond, the said house to not cost o\er sixt\- 
in. Third, to be Iniilt on the site of the 
south. Fourth, the house to be fire])roof 
ers. b'ifth, dimensions, ninety feet long by seventy feet wide. Sixth, 
house to be two stories high, with |)roper tower and in due pro])ortion to 
building. Seventh, first storv to contain tw(j rotims for the clerk's office. 



\- • 


bouse was con- 

f 1 

lealth . 


liotb 1 

:o\vn and count}-. 


(1 by 


judge of the circuit 


Iso CO, 



It, all of which. 




f a n 

ew court house. 


take ; 


on 111 

the matter, and 

the 3th 



h, 1 8811, for the 





:ects to consider 





combined. Sec- 





old l)rick thrown 


1 house 

■, a 

nd to 

front north and 

'. \ 

vith in 



beams and raft- 

\\■^sil (NGTOK corNxy, Indiana. 107 

iwo fur the auditor, une for the treasurer, one tor the recoidcr aiui one for 
the sheriff, two sniah room.-, and a hahwa}-, with stairs: second story to 
cfjntain court room, two jury rooms, one judge's room and a pri\-ate stair- 
way. Eighth, roof to be of first-class slate. Ninth, no galvanized iron to 
be used for cornice or finishing. Tenth, cellar to be und'.r entire building, 
nine fe^t in the clear. Eleventh, corridor to be tiled with, one-inch marble. 

On the da}- fixed to consider the matter, four sets of plans and speci- 
fications v\ere submitted, all of winch were taken undei advisement till 
April 17, i8'86, at which time the ])luns presented by ^McDonald Brothers of 
Louisville, Kentucky, were adopted, with some changes. The auditor wa» 
directed to advertise and sell the old court house. .Mfred Shrum was the 
purchaser, at two hundred and eiglity-fi\e dollars. 

On Wednesday, May 5th, the final plans and specifications were 
approved and the auditor was instructed to advertise for bids, the same 
to be presented to the board on June 2O, 1886. (_"ourt and county ofiicers' 
rooms were jirovided for in Warriners' Block, a three-story structure on lot 
Xo. ], south side of the puljlic square. On the day set for awarding the 
contract there were ten bids presented, ranging in price from fifty-seven 
thousand seven hundred and fifty-one dollars to sixty-nine thousand eight 
hundred dollars. The lowest bid was the combination offer of Crumbo 
& ]\lelchoir, of New Albany, H. H. Routh, ^\lfred Shrum and George 
Duncan, of Salem, and the contract was a\varded to them, and they executed 
bt)nd in the penal sum of thirty thousand dollars for the completion of all 
work according to plans and s]jecifications. McDonald Brothers were 
allowed one th(jusand one hundred and fifty-five dollars for plans and super- 
intending the work till the Iniilding was completed. 

This court house has lieen in es'ery way most satisfactory, creditable 
alike to the county and the men wdio planned and executed the work. It 
was built of native stone, taken from the i|uarries one mile southwest of 
Salem. The outside measurement, exclusive of porticos on north and 
south fronts, is seventy-two by ninety feet. It is two stories high with an 
eight-foot basement, mostly above ground. There is a hallway, twenty-four 
feet wide, running north and south through this basement, on the east side of 
which are four rooms, the surveyor's office being in the southeast corner; 
the other rooms rented. In January, 1006. the two north rooms were 
turned over to the Washington County Historical Society, where old-time 
papers, early history and valuable relics are to be preserved and handed 
down to future generations. On the west side of the basement hall there 


are tive rooms, two of wliich. in the northwest corner, are used by the 
county superintendent of sciiools ; one for gents' closet, in tlie southwest 
corner, the others being rented. The Hoor of tiie hall is of sawed stone, 
while the several rooms ire concrete, o\erIaid with Ijoards. 

The main floor is approached l)\' substantial stone steps at the north 
and soutii entrances. The lobbv extends the full length of the building and 
is twenty-four feet wide, -with county offices conxeniently arranged on the 
east and west sides. In the southeast corner is the treasurer's office, with 
a large vault. Adjoining this (ju the north is the auditor's office, with a 
large vault in the northeast corner, aiid the commissioners' room west of 
same, with entrances from botli auditor's office and lobby. The recorder's 
office is located in the southwest corner, with two vaults. The clerk's office 
is the center room on the west side, with private office and stairwav in the 
northwest corner, and a large \ault on the south side (jf the main office. 
On the west side of the north entrance, and opening on the lobby, is the 
sherifif's office. The floor of the lobby is laid with sawed stone. 

The main stairway leading to the second story is on the east sitle of 
the lob])y, turning over the south entrance. The court room is in the 
northeast corner of the building, forty by .sixt)- feet, with ceiling eighteen 
feet high. The judge's stantl and the liar are at the west end. The judge's 
room is in the northwest corner; grand-jury room in the southeast corner, 
with waiting room adjoining the same on the west side; petit-jury room 
in the center of the west side; old records and file room in the southwest 
corner and the ladies' waiting rO(_im and toilet on the south side of the 

The January term of the circuit court. iS8y. was held in the new court 
hou,se and the county officers moved in on March lo. following. The court 
house was completed and turned o\er to the county mi August o. i S<SS. 

The entire cost of building, with all fiirnisliing>, was as follows; Ion- 
tractors' allowance, $S7-7?'^'- lli'it" i^- Kelley, shebes, cases, etc..; 
Andrews & Company, furniture, chairs, etc.. ,~*^3,ooo; Howard &- Company, 
clock and bell. $1,200; John Owens, walks and gateways, ,S^i,7()(); gradnig, 
plumbing, gates and sewer, $857; lightning rods and all extra work, S1.1S4; 
steam-heating outfit. $.^,000; boiler room and steam heater. $'. Total 
cost, $72,882. 

The Inn'lding was first fitted u]) with grates, but tliese were not suf- 
ficient to warm the rooms, and a steam-heating plant was put in. the boiler 
being located in the basement under the tower. In a short time it was 

\VAsiii\(;-i'(t\ corxTV cockt iiotsio. salk.m 


discovered that the furnace was injuring the walls, so a boiler room, with 
brick smoke stack, was built, under ground, some fifty feet southwest of the 
court house. 


The dependent poor emigrated to this county along with the earliest 
settlers, even while Indiana was yet a territory. On April 12, 1814, the 
county was first divided into civil townships, and the day following over- 
seers of the poor were appointed, as follow: Owen Lindley and William 
Moore, for Madison township; James Moorefield and Jesse Roberts, Lost 
River; George Beck and Henry Wyman, Blue River; William Lindley and 
Zacharia Nixon, Washington ; Abram Huff, Driftwood. There continued 
to be overseers of the poor, appointed by the court doing business for the 
county, or elected by the voters of each township, until 1852, when it was 
made the duty of township trustees to look after paupers. Until a county 
asylum was provided, permanent paupers were "farmed out" on the best 
terms that overseers could make with private individuals, and to keep poor 
people from becoming permanent charges, many were given assistance from 
time to time as their necessities seemed to demand it.' 

The first pauper to receive aid from the county was Elizabeth Ray, 
who became a county charge in 1814. She continued to be "boarded 
around" at a cost of about fifty dollars a year until her death in 1833, when 
she received pauper burial, a shroud being furnished at a cost of one dollar 
and fifty cents; coffin, two dollars: digging grave and burial, two dollars and 
fifty cents. 

The industrious pioneer, who labored hard to develop the country, had 
no use for idlers. All able-bodied persons were compelled by law to earn 
a living, but if they would not work, they were arrested and upon convic- 
tion of vagrancy, were sold to the highest bidder for a specified time, or until 
they would give bond tiiat they would thereafter pursue some lucrative 
calling. While thus engaged at hard labor, their wages, or rather what 
they were sold for, went to those dependent upon them for support. 

About the year 1825 two men named William Overman and Stafford 
Smith, residing in Gibson township, concluded that they didn't have to 
work and their families were reduced to sufferance. They were proceded 
against bv the officers of the law and a judgment was rendered that they 
should be auctioned off to the highest bidder. Micajah Williams bid them 
off at twent\-five cents a day. and they were put to work at Robinson's 


iriili, on Delaney's creek. The funds ensuing from their hire was pai<l to 
tiieir respective families at the end of each week. The Hmit to this kind 
of bondage was nine months. These fellow ^ worked ahout two months, 
when they became anxious to breathe the free air a,L;ain. and f'nind the 
necessary security for then future good l)eha\ior. 

On Monday, July 5, 1830, the board of iu'-tices tonk the tir^t stej) ni 
the matter of purchasing a county asylum, by appointing a committee of 
eight to investigate the expediency of purchasing a farm, as well as to ascer- 
tain the probable cost of a suitable location together with the necessary 
buildings for the accommodation of the poor of the county. This commit- 
tee consisted of Joel Combs, John AIcl'hettTs, Stephen Hole, John Pew, 
Andrew Housh, Thomas D. Young, J'llm Hardin an.d William Perdue. 
Having th(jroughly inxestigated the matter they met :it ine ccjurt house 
in Salem and unanimously decided that a [loor farm wDuld be a means of 
great saving in the funds of the county and of ameliorating the condition 
of the jKior. They so made their report to tlie board, and further ad\ised 
that a committee of three person-- be appointed to contract for such farm 
and ii necessary proceed to erect suitable buildings thereon, tlie cost of ^amc 
not to ex:eed one thousand dollars. 

This report was concurred in. by the board arid the comnnttee named 
consisted of Stephen Hole, John C. McPhLters and Joel Combs. I'hey 
were instructed to buy not less than a ciuarter section of land, and were 
given discretionar}- jjowers as to location and improvements to be made. 
This committee reported January 3, 1831, thai they had inspected a numljer 
of places and had finally selected an.d pnrchaseil a farm of Xoah AX'right, it 
being the .southeast quarter of section 25, township 2 north, range 4, 
for one thousand dollars, full possession to be given the ist of May fol- 
lowing. A commodious two-story log hou-e had been built on this farm 
about 1820, sutTicientl}- large to accommodate tho^c who were then likely 
to become inmates of the cottnty asylum, so no additional improvements 
were ordered. 

The contract reported by the committee was adopted. The law pro- 
\'ided that coimty asylums shtjuld lie placed im<ler the management of one 
or more directors, whose duty it should he to select some suitable person 
to take charge of the asylum and care for such paupers as might from 
time to time become county charges. Thomas Hodge, Henry Dawalt and 
John S. Wilson were made directors. A committee was also appointed to 
digest and prepare a code of by-laws for the management of said asylum. 


cc)n^i^^tillg cif John Kiiig^hui-y. .^anuicl Peck and (ieorge AIa\-. In due 
time this committee reported the following rules; 

"It shall he the dut\ of saiil directors on or before the i st of March, 
in each vear, to eniploN some ht person as agent to support paupers who 
may he legally transferred to saitl asylum, and at the expense (jf the county 
to furnish said paupers with sufficient beds and bedding. 

"The said directors are authorized to lease t(j said agent the farm antl 
buildings purchased 1)\- said county for an asxlum for any length of time not 
exceeding one vear. in part consideration for the support of said paupers, 
and ma\ further contract with said agent to pay him ([uarterly out of the 
county finuls a specific sum in addition to the rent of said farm for all or 
each of said paupers. 

"They shall ref|uire said agent to furnish the paupers good wholesome 
food without stint, also with comfortable clothing and rooms: and scrupu- 
lous cleanliness as to their ])ersons. wearing api)arel. beds, bedding and 
apartments must be obser\ed. the cmnity physician to have especial juris- 
diction over such matters. 

"'riicy shall also re(|uire saitl agent to manage said farm consistently 
with good luisliandry. and to cijninnt no waste of timber other than for 
hrewood and the ordniary purposes of farming. The agent shall give bond 
in the penalty of one thousand dollars for the faithful performance of his 

On .\lontla\', March 7, 1831, the directors reported a contract tnade 
with Tilman Hartley as first agent of the county asylum at a yearly salary 
of three hundred and fifty dollars. Dr. Charles Hay was named as county 
])hysician. which rejiort was concurred in. 

The comnussioners at their Januar\ term. 1X3-', ordered the directors 
to let the asylum to the lowest bidder for any term not exceeding five years, 
to take efifect March 1. On March 5 the directors reported contract and 
bond executed by Tilman Hartley as agent, to which report Antony Hinkle 
objected, he ha\ing made a c(.)ntract with the county commissioners. Hin- 
kle was gi\en the ])lace. but it was afterwards held that the appointing 
])0wer rested with the directcjrs of the asvhun. and Hartley was reinstated. 
His services, however, were not satisfactory, for ui)on final .settlement his 
allowance was cut twenty-seven dollars and fifty cents on accoimt of mal- 
treatment of ]iaupers. f)n May (>, 1S33. he was superseded by Samuel M. 
Huston at a salary of two hundred and fifty dollars per annum. Levi 
Wright was made sole director of the asvlum, Xo\ ember 7, 1832, and con- 
tinued in this ca]5acit}- for several \'ears. 


Then followed supenntendents in the order given below : James 
McKinney, September 7, 1835, with an annual allowance of three hundred 
•dollars, and use of farm; Obadiah Thomar.. 1853, who was paid forty-two 
dollars annually for each permanent pauper; John W. Day, 1858, paid forty 
do!lars for each inmate of the asylum, or at that rate per annum ; George 
Williams, 1865, at fifty dollars a year for each pauper, which was raised 
to sixty dollars in 1870 and reduced to fifty -five dollars in 1S76; Thon^.as 
Se^^tin, 1878, with salary of six hundred arid fifty dollars, surplus farm 
products, not used in asylum, to belong to county; James Cavanaugh, 
December 9, 1892, with, eight hundred dollars salary: Luc>- E. Cavanaugh 
was appointed to fill the vacancy caused by the death, of her husband, March 
^o, 1897, at same salary; William A. Hal!, June 3, igoi. salary four hundred 
-and fifty dollars, with hired man furnished by county: Matthew Kinney took 
•chafge January 5, 1903, at a salary of eight hundred dollars. 

The first improvement made on the asyUini i'arm was ordered March 
S, 1837. This became necessary to accommodate the increasing number 
•of paupers. A brick house was built thirty feet square, with a hallway 
"through- the center and two rocjms on each side, with double chimney in 
partition walls. John K, Clark and James B. Hick-^ were the contractors, 
for seven hundred dollars. This liouse was burned in 1858, but the walls 
^ere injured very litde and at an expense of about two hundred dollars it 
was repaired and put in good shape again 

At the September term of commissioners' court, 1872, George Williams 
was given contract to build a "mad house." This was made of large 
hewn logs, a one-story building twenty by thirty feet Tbe floors and 
■doors were made of two-inch oak, and windo\^s were securei\ liarred, and 
Tvas completed for four hundred and twelve dollars. 

The next building was a new residence for the superintendent, built 
in 1878, which took the place of the old log house that had seen ,ser\-ice 
for sixty years. It was a frame cottage, a story and a Iialf high, with four 
rooms below and two abo\e. It was ]nit up liy John I'. Strouse for five 
"hundred and ninet\-three dollars. In 1882 it was decided that a building 
for men was needed, accordingly a two-stor\ frame liouse twenty-five by 
forty feet was built by William R. Grimes ;it a (">f three thousand one 
"hundred and seventy dollars. Three rooms on the fir-^t floor were made 
strong to secure the incurable insane. 

The old brick building of four rooms being inadequate to accommo- 
■date the female paui>ers a new t\\o-stor\ brick was ordered built in its 


Stead on March 5, i8'85. This building was forty by fifty feet with a halJ 
running the long way, east and west, through the building, on both floors. 
The first story was twelve feet high, the second ten. Flues were so arranged 
that each room could be heated with a stove. On the first floor there was 
a kitchen and dining room for women, but the men were served with meals 
in their own building. This house was completed and occupied on Decem- 
ber I, 18S5. Duncan & Shrum were the contractors and were paid five 
thousand three hundred dollars. 

On the 17th of October, 1902, the first county board of charities and 
correction was created. by the following order of the Washington circuit 
court: "The court now appoints the following named persons to consti- 
tute, a board of county charities and corrections, to serve without compen- 
sation, viz: Mrs. Alice Caspar Stevens, Mrs. Ann Wright, Charles Lindley, 
Foster Heacock, Dr. W. C. Cauble and Asa Elliott. The said Charles 
Lindley and Foster Heacock to serve one year, the said Mrs. Ann Wright 
and W. C. Cauble to serve two years, and the said Mrs. Alice Caspar Stevens 
and Asa Elliott to serve three years from and after the date hereof. The 
clerk of this court is ordered and directed to notify the said parties of their 
appointment as members of said board, the said notice to be given by mail- 
ing to Mrs. Alice Caspar Stevens a copy of this entry, with request to her 
to notify other parties of same and of time and place of meeting for pur- 
pose of organization." 

This board was organized on the 1,7th of October by selecting Asa 
Elliott, president, and Mrs. Alice Caspar Stevens, secretary. It was made 
the duty of this board to visit and inspect once each quarter the county poor 
asylum, the county jail and any other charitable or correctional institutions 
in the county and ascertain their condition as to effective and economical 
administration, cleanliness, discipline, comfort of inmates, etc., and make 
a report of same to the proper authorities. On January i, 1903, the board 
visited the county asylum and made the following report as to its condition 
to the county commissioners : 

"Superintendent, Mathew Kinney; salary, eight hundred dollars, said 
superintendent to furnish teams and hired help needed. Tillable land on 
farm, one hundred and twenty acres: timber, forty acres: orchard, six acres. 
Land \ery poor. Capacity of asylum, forty. Inmates, thirty-nine. Incur- 
able insane, two. Sexes kept in separate buildings. Heated with stoves. 
Construction and condition of buildings verv poor. Fencing almost worth- 


less. Needs of institiuions — new building-, liettor sewage an(] pure water 

1 he board also recomnieiided the purch^ase of a new farm, convenient 
of access and good fertile 'and and upon same, the erection of modern, up-to- 
date buildings aderpiate in >n-ery way for the comfort and good health of 

To meet the demand for a better as\lum tlie commissioners decided to 
purciiase more land adjoming the old farm, to remodel the woman's build- 
ing, and to build an addition thereto, put m luiths and steam heat and other 
necessary improvenn nts. A new brick house, forty by fifty feet was built 
about twent3'-five feel south of the old one. the two being connected on the 
east side where kitchen and rooms were provided. In the court 
between tlie buildings a large cistern was made to supply tlie institute with 

In addition to the sitting, dining and liath ro(.ims, tlnrtv-four bed 
rooms were provided, where sixty or more persons may be cared for con- 
veniently and comfortably. The sitting rooms have concrete floors, but 
tiie building ib not fireproof, as it should ha\'e been. This additional 
improvement, including all necessary furnishings, cost the county about 
twelve tlioii.sand dollars. Eugene Routh was the architect and Ambrose 
Shrum the contractor. 

There are now two hundred and fort_\' acres in the count}- farm, but 
the land is naturally thin and unproducti\e, and much of it is so run down 
that it doesn't pay to cultivate it. The im]irovemcnts now are substantial 
and amply sufticient to accommodate all who mav become county charges 
for many years to come. 

From the time the coun;\- was first organized hberal appropriations 
ha\-e been made of the public funds to supply the wants of the indigent. 
The earliest allowances cannot now be ascertained as the early records in 
the matter of county revenue and expenditures are incomplete. Prior to 
i8,y, when the count}- as}luir, was first established, special allowances were 
made fo assist ihe destitute and needy, the aiinuai expenditure running 
from one to two hundred dollars. In 1822 the sum of one hundred and 
ninteen dollars and six cents was paid out of the county treasury to aid the 
poor. In certain succeeding years the county expense on account of poor 
has been as follows: 1830, aid to poor, $187.38; 1840, aid to jjoor, $135, 
county asylum, $^2~,\ 1850, aid to poor, $2t,Ti. county asylum, .$400; i860, 
aid to poi>r, $2^^^, county asylum, $1,322; 1870, aid to poor, $971, county 


asylum, $1,426; 1880* aid to poor, $1,509, county asylum, $2,888; 18^, aid 
to poor, $1,803, county asylum, $2,857; 1900,. aid to poor, $708-, county 
asylum, $1,292. 

Up to the present time the county has paid for poor-farm lands four 
thousand two hundred dollars; improvements on same, about twenty-four 
thousand dollars. Aid to poor, sixty thousand dollars. Expense of run- 
ning county asylum, one hundred and four thousand dollars. The largest 
appropriation ever made in any one year on account of poor was in 1891, 
when the expense of county asylum was three thousand three hundred and 
sixty-one dollars, outside aid one thousand seven hundred and eighty-eight 
dollars. During all these years the smallest number of paupers cared for in 
the asylum was in 1845, when there were but five. A few times there have 
been over fifty inmates. 

For several years past the county authorities have paid the superin- 
tendent of the asylum a stated salary for his labors, allowing the products 
of the farm to be used in maintaining paupers, so far as they were needed, 
the surplus being sold and paid into the county treasury. For a good many 
years after the asylum was purchased, flax was grown , and sheep were kept 
to supply the raw material for the manufacture of homespun clothing for 
the inmates; all of them, or nearly so, being able in some way to lend a 
helping hand in the various processes of its manufacture. The spinning 
wheel and loom were operated here till some time in the sixties when it was 
no longer deemed expedient or profitable to continue the work. 

Some very interesting sketches might be written concerning persons 
who once were well-to-do m the world but through misfortunes of various 
kinds were left penniless and friendless and were forced to end their days 
in the county almshouse. Stories might be told of ingrate offspring and 
near relatives who have allowed those who should have been dear to them 
to drink of poverty's cup, when they were able to have administered to the 
wants of these aged and infirm and have spared them the humiliation of 
ending their days in the ix)or house. The sympathetic tear and sigh come 
uninvited to the listener as some of these intelligent inmates relate their 
tales of woe, picturing the train of unfortunate and itnavoidable circum- 
stances that have carried them down from opulence and prominent station in 
lite to want and poverty. 

One of the unique incidents connected with the early history of t^e 
asx'lum was that of a mulatto girl found on the doorstep of John Mead in 
tiK- ^ijrint,-- of 1834. She was about seven years old and an idiot, having 


iajt little use of her limbs, and could speak but a few words. There was 
r»o place to take her but to the county asylum, and all who heard of the 
incident were quite indignant at the perpetrators of the deed. No one 
seemed to have the least idea where tlie unfortunate waif came from, or 
hifw she happened to be dropped down in Washington county. On May 7, 
1834, the commissioners offered a reward of one hundred dollars to any 
person ■^vho would give information unravelling the mystery and ascertain- 
ing .the legal residence of the child. Advertisements were placed in the 
county and Louisville papers. For five years no one was able to trace her 
back from whence she came and no information whatever could be obtained 
from the child. In March, 1839, one Henry Crittenden passed through the 
county and hearing the matter discussed gave information that the girl 
had been born a slave in Blount county back in the mountains of east Tenn- 
essee, and that her master's name was Henry Bowcrman. She iiad been 
sent north with a party of emigrants who were instructed to leave her 
somewhere on Indiana soil. Not promising to ever be worth anything as 
a slave this means was resorted to in order to get rid of supporting her. 
The com/nissioners ordered the girl, whose name was now ascertained to 
be Caroline, to be returned to her reputed master, and in July, 1839, Henry 
Dawalt, a m.ember of the board, and Levi Wright, the director of the asylum, 
were authorized to take charge of the girl and carry her back to Bowerman 
in Tennessee and demand damages for her keep and expenses of carrying 
her back. The trip was made on horseback, a distance of two hundred and 
fifty miles. Before starting Wright secured an order from a justice of the 
[►eace legalizing the transfer. The girl was in due time delivered to Bower- and one thousand dollars damage demanded. Wright also carried 
with him the necessary papers to show that he was duly authorized by the 
county authorities to adjust the matter on some satisfactory terms. After 
considerable wrangling a coinpronsise \\"as linally effected by Bowerman 
paying the sum of five hundred dollars. The commissioners afterward 
had some trouble in getting a settlement out of Wright, there being cjuite 
a difference of opinion l-etween them as to what 1ie sb-ould be allowed for his 
trouble and expense in going to Tennessee, but the matter was hnalh- set- 
tled without having recourse to law. 



The honieseekers who came liere to change a wilderness, peopled by a 
savage race, into civilized homes, with peace and plenty all around, deserve 
more than a passing notice. They were foremost in the great tide of pro- 
gress that was slowly, but surely, moving westward from the Atlantic coast 
and which, in clue time, was destined to spread across the continent to the 
shores of the Pacific. But the hardships endured by the men and women 
who ventured into this wild and rugged, country to carve out homes for 
themseh'es and coming posterity, can be recounted now only in a very desul- 
tory manner. Their acts of heroism and their many deeds of valor will 
ha\'e to go unrecorded, in many instances, for their recital was forever 
lost in the passing of the illustrious characters that made up the roll in the 
drama of pioneer life. 

L'pon his first visit to this part of the Ohio valley, where he builded a 
cabin home and resided for several years. Governor Harrison pronounced it 
"one of the fairiest portions of the globe." The many other favorable 
reports sent back East from early prospectors, adventurers and traders, 
turned the tide of emigration from Kentucky and Tennessee toward Indiana 
territory and early in the nineteenth century emigrants began to pour into 
this country in great numbers from all parts of the East, but in the main 
from the Carolinas, Virginia and Pennsylvania. Many who had crossed 
the mountains and stopped south of the Ohio concluded they could better 
their conditions and surroundings by going up into the "new purchase." 
Very few foreigners found their way to Washington county, but there 
were large settlements of both German and French established in the coun- 
ties bordering the river. 


The first emigrants to this country were mostly poor people ; some 
fairly well-to-do and a very few, full-handed. Heeding the call of the 
West, they left their old homes in the East, packing all their worldly pos- 
sessions in strong Connestoga wagons, drawn by horses and oxen. The 


ave-horse team v/as the favorite with those who were able to afford it, as 
a single leader in a heavy team could be handled more easily and readily 
than a double team. But many ':ame with two-horse wagons, or vehicles 
drawn by oxen, and some j^ilk cows did service under the yoke. Not a few 
came in ox carts, the ox wearing a horse collar, turned upside down. Then 
there were others who rode through on horseback, with an extra animal 
rigged out with a pack-saddle, trailing along carrymg the indispensable 
equipment necessary for the starting of a home on the frontier. I'hey 
usually came in trains, from a half dozer, to a dozen or more families at 
a time, usually from the same section of country. 

The journey from what was then civilization to the wilds of Indiana 
Territory was difficult and dangerous. A chain of rugged mountains had 
to be crossed over, along roads that were mere trails in many instances, and 
in long stretches of country roads had to be literally hewn through forests 
where there was not a stick amiss and where a white man had never trod 
before, unless it had been an explorer or adventurer. Once across the 
mountain fastness, their way took them through a vast stretch of wilder- 
ness of mighty oaks, giant poplars, spreading beeches and towering ash and 
sycamore, the like of which were never found upon any continent but this. 
In some places where hurricanes had m ;>vved dow n these monster trees as 
far as the eye could reach, it took days to cut their way through, for here 
vvere trees upon trees overlapping each other, among which grew a tangled 
mass of underbrush, grape vines, spice wood and briars, forming a barri- 
cade through which tlie advance guide could scarcely clamber. Then there 
were all sorts of streams to cross and morasses to corduroy, before the 
stream was reached. Not infrequently rivers were too deep to ford, in 
which case rafts had to l>e improvised l)efore a crossing was effected. Much 
valuable time would l;>e spent in the construction of a log craft of sufticient 
capacity to carry o\er wagons and contents, and it was a hazardous apjjara- 
tus at best. All annuals were made to swim across. .V man mounting a 
gocid swimming horse would take tlie lead and the rest were made to follow. 
Where smaller streams were readied, lie fore risking too much a horse would 
be unhitched from the wagon, if tlu-re was not a leader on horseback, and 
.some one v/ould ride across to determine wliere the shallowest and .safest 
place was for crossing. By marking this spot with stakes, or blazing trees, 
the next traveler was sa\'ed con.siderable trouble. One of the earliest con- 
veniences supplied in this Western country was the establishment of fer- 
ries where the main lines .)i tr;i\el crossed the larger streams. ."some of 


these early ferrymen amassed snug fortunes in the business, as travelers 
could afford and were willing to pay a good fare to be set across a large 
stream without loss of time and little danger. 

As night approached a halt was usually made where water was con- 
venient for man and beast; the campfire was lighted, a rough meal was pre- 
pared and animals were hoppled and turned loose to graze. Some time 
would be spent around the camphre discussing the day's ad\entures and tiie 
morrow's possibilities and probabilities, when the women folk and small 
children would retire to their beds in the wagons, while the men and boys 
usually slept upon pallets made underneath, with loaded guns by their sides, 
ready to protect and defend themselves from attack by Indians or wild 
beasts. A huge fire would always keep at safe distance the panther and the 
wolf, but it was likely to attract the attention of the wild men. It required 
days and weeks to make this perilous journey, and sometimes an adult would 
sicken on the way. They were out of reach of physicians, and, despite all 
efforts to relieve the suffering one, a life would be snuffed out. With hearts 
almost broken, a shallow grave would be prepared to receive the remains 
of the unfortunate one, and after marking the spot with a mound of stnne, 
the caravan would again move on, leaving the lost one to nature's care. In 
the southern part of this county, along the old Vincennes trail, two or three 
of these lone graves are still to be seen, marked by a rectangular monument 
of stone, laid up without mortar, more than a century ago. It was under 
such trials and through dangers innumerable, that the pioneer men and 
women of all this country sought new homes. There was not a day during 
the journey that did not have its story — ofttimes its tragedy. 

Prior to 1800, a ferry had been established below the Ohio falls, pro- 
pelled by oarsmen, so newcomers into this territory experienced little dif- 
ficulty in crossing the river. Many emigrants came down the Ohio in flat- 
boats — some on log rafts. The start was made on some navigable stream 
that emptied into the Ohio, where a float of the desired pattern would be 
made, just large enough to carry the team and wagon, when the trip down 
was easily made, with little danger except from attack by the bands of war- 
ring Indians that infested the shores all along the route. Boats were usually 
steered and kept near the shore, in preference to keeping in the swift cur- 
rent of the river, which made it easier for Indians, who were usually con- 
cealed in their canoes a short distance back from the mouths of small 
streams, to surprise and capture a boat and its crew. It has been said that 
there was scarcely a strategic point between Pittsburgh and the Ohio falls. 


where Indians could take advantage of whites, that was not at some time 
the scene of deadly conflict. Once landed at "Tlie I'ails." ihe wagon was 
again started for the point of destination. 


VVlien the homeseeker came to a section of <:ountrY that was tc his lik- 
ing, or had gone as far into the interior as it was deemed ^afe, he went into 
camp and si>ent some days inspecting the la_\' ot the land, in order that the 
most desirable location might be secured. A good spring was the first con- 
sideration, and next a rich soil, gently rolling and not too w-et. Lands 
where the pawpaw grew in greatest luxuriance were considered most desir- 
able in this i>art of the countrw .\s soon as a place was found that suited 
all parties concerned, the family was located thereon and the work of car\ - 
ing out a new home wa*; begun at once. The women looked after the 
arrangement and care of the temporary camp, while tlie men, with >uch 
force as they could command, went to \vork n-\ the cabin. If there were 
tieighbors anywhere near- the} were prompth on hand to lend a helping 
hand. Horses were l^elled and turned loose ;o forage on wild grass and 
pea vines, which grew in great abundance all over this country. The pea 
vine., when cut and cured, made an excellent substitute for hay, and there 
was fa;ri)' gixj^l grazing for stock die wiriter through, when the snow \A-as 
not too deep. In two or three weeks' time the cabin was ready for occu- 
pancy, an.d it was generally occupied before it had received the finishing 
touch. Winter would sometimes find the cabin unfinished, and families 
were known to have weathered it through with a roof finished on one -ide 
only. Verv little time was required to keep up the supplv of meat while 
shelter for man and beast was l)eing pro\-ided, and lands cleared up for 
the coming season's crop, for deer and wild turkey ranged close at hand 
and were not difhcult to bring do\An v/ith the rifle, being accustomed only 
to keeping clear of the range of the Indian's arrow, which was not more 
than half the distance the bullet from the rifle would carry. 


In heavy timber the clearing of the land required a great deal of heavy, 
hard work. Sometimes an open spot of ground could be found not far dis- 
tcdt, when the labor of cleaning up a corn and pumpkin patch was less bur- 
densome. The easiest way to get rid of heavy timber was to "deaden" it. 

\vashixc;ton county. Indiana. 121 

Trees, were hacked completely around, cnlting deep enough to get through 
the bark and .sapwood. Small trees and underbru-h were all cut down antl 
left lying on the ground. At the end of a couple of \'ears, limbs from the 
deadened trees would be falling to the ground and \egetation of all kinds 
would grow luxuriantly — as a matter of fact, the place would be an impene- 
trable entanglement of vines, briars, brush and weeds. Late in the fall, or 
in springtime, when leaves and rubliish had dried out, the "deadening" 
was fired, all the rubbish being entirely ccmsumed. together with many of 
the standing trees. This left the land clean and co\ered with a good coat 
of ashes, thus rendering it as productive as lands could possibly be made, 
easily cultivated and producmg enormous crops the first .season. Upon such 
soil corn would yield from sixty to seventy bushels per acre, and pumpkins 
would be so thick that it was possible for one to walk upon them across the 
field and ne\er stej) on tlie ground. When tii..' -r ^vas needed for rails, trees 
were cut down and the choice cuts were ^\uu u\>. while the "top" of the 
tree w(nild be made into firewood. The remaining heavy timber that was 
considered of no use was chopped into even lengths, usually about twelve 
feet long, and rolled into "heaps," after which the brush would be piled 
thereon and all burned together. These clearings were usually burned at 
night, making an immense light. "Righting up" the log heap atid piling 
together the brands made the land ready for the plow. After the country 
was pretty well settled up neighbors would assist each other at wood chop- 
ping and log rolling, or in cleaning ofT the lands. They thus preferred to 
make a frolic of their work by each helping the other along. When a man 
did the clearing himself it was considered a good winter's work to clean 
up three or four acres. He would do the chopping and heavy work, but 
when it came to clearing up the brush and trash the women and children 
would lend a helping hand. First crops were often made without using a 
plow, the work of planting and cultivating being done with the hoe exclu- 
sively, in regular Indian fashion. Small holes were dug about four feel- 
apart, into which corn and pumpkin seetls were dropped and covered. With 
the planting of the corn the housewife was always a ready helper, and she 
never forgot to plant a bountiful supply of corn-beans, which seldom failed 
to furnish a very necessary part of the coming winter's supply of eatables. 


One of the most difficult problems the early settler had to contend 
with was to provide himself with farm implements and tools needed to 


"uitivate crops. At that day there was no such thing as factory-made imple- 
nients of any kind. The pioneer had to depend upon his own resources 
and ingenuity for these things. Here and there a blacksmith couid be found 
who could lend him some assistance, and those who could operate a forge 
■did a thriving business. The rudest pattern of plow was a forked stick 
with an iron point, shaped so it would root along in the ground, leaving a 
oort of furrow behind that was little better than no plowing at all. The 
first turning plow was called the "barshare."' The blacksmith made a plow- 
share, pointed with long bar all in one piece, which was the only iron about 
the plow. This was attached to a wO(xlen moldboard, which was fastened 
to the "plow stock" by means of wooden pins, the stock being made very 
much after the pattern of modern turning plows. An improvement on 
this plow consisted in extending the plowshare up a few inches, so as to form 
a part of the moldboard, firiishing it out with woot'. An improvement, 
later on, consisted of a coulter, extending dovn from tlie plowbeam and 
resting on the nose of the plow. This prevented the share from fastening 
itself under roots and stumps, the smaller root= being cut in t',\u by the 
•sharp edge of the coulter. The "carey" plow continued to be used up to 
about 1845, when the '^rounder," h one-piece plow, and the "peacock," a 
cast-iron plow, succeeded \t. A few of these old-time plows ha\'e been pre- 
.served in some of the college museums — a fine collection of tlie same to be 
seen at the Indiana State University at Bloomington, collected in Washing- 
ton county and donated to the universitv by W. W. Stevens. The only suc- 
•cessful new-land plow made, and which carne into general use about 1830, was 
the "shovel," with coulter attachment, so arranged that roots too large to cut 
were jumped over by reason of the slanting shape of the coulter, hence the 
name, "jumping-shovel." For many years the shovel plow was the main 
implement used in cultivating corn, which gave way to the "double-shovel" 
about 1850, and it, a few years later, to the more modern cultivator. Wooden 
■doubletfees were made without the use of iron in any way. The doubletree 
was hewed out of a pole in proper shape, and had a hole bored in each end 
and center. Singletrees had notches cut in the ends, with a hole bored in 
the center. These were fastened together by means of clamps and pins — 
a sort of wooden clevis, about eight inches in length, with pins in each end. 
Trace rings were then slipped over the ends of the singletrees and secured 
in the notch by means of small pins. The top of a crabapple tree often 
served in the place of a harrow. A forked stick, with hickory teeth driven 
through holes bored in both arms, also served as an e.xcuse for a harrow. 



The regulation harrow, with iron teeth, was made in the form of an •'A," 
with a grapevine hooped over from the two rear ends of the frame for a 
handle. Horse collars were made of corn-shucks plaited together in a sort 
of pad, and faced with some sort of stout cloth, usually jeans. Hames were 
made from oak and ash 'trees, taking a small portion of the body of the 
tree, together with some of the root, which gave the proper crook without 
any cross-grain, which made it very durable. Traces were often impro- 
vised from a combination of grapevines and hickory withes. Truck wagons 
and carts were in common use, the wheels being made from cross-sections 
of trees, usually gum. of the proper diameter. Sleds were used on the 
farm more frequently than wagons. Drawn usually by oxen, they were 
used for hauling wood, water, fodder, rails and many things, because it was 
more convenient to load and unload them than the wagon. Besides, most 
any farmer had ingenuity enough to make a sled out of a couple of poles, 
with a natural crook at one end, making them suitable for runners. A 
forked dogwood sapling could easily be shaped into a fork for handling hay 
or grain. Wooden rakes were very serviceable in clearing up land, and 
even spades were made of seasoned hickory or white oak, and when kept 
oiled, would stand service for quite a while. Whatever tools or imple- 
ments a man possessed the whole neighborhood had free and welcome access 
to as they might be needed. 


Corn and pumpkins were the staple crops on the pioneers' farms. With 
a good crop secured they felt that winter had few terrors for man or beast. 
Corn fodder was about the only roughness that was laid up for wintering 
stock, and it required less labor to cut it up and save it than hay, with the 
crude implements they had for mowing and handling the same. The fod- 
der could stand afield with very little damage all winter, the pioneer's sled 
brmging in from day to day what was needed for his stock. Wheat, oats 
and rye were raised in small patciies. A few sheaves of the rye were always 
cut a little green, for bat making. The straw was soaked till it was pliable, 
when It was braided and sewed into the "fashionable" shape desired for 
hat or bonnet. Every woman was her own milliner, and fortunate indeed 
was she who could scrape up a piece of ribbon to bedeck h^r straw bonnet. 
Fla.x was early an important crop, as from it much of the clothing and 
beddmg were manufactured. Gardens were assiduously cultivated and a 
corner was a]x\ays set ajjart for pinks, morning glories, hollyhocks, zinnias. 


marigolds and fancy grasse?. Here were al;-o found the "love apple." which 
year? afterward developed iino the edible tomato. Fruits v/ere scarce for a 
good many years after first settlements were established. Of wiiu grapes, 
St rav.' berries and blackberries there was an abundance. But it tc-ok consid- 
erable time to get an apple orchard in bearing. Peaches v.ere started from 
the seed and bore fruit the tifth or sixtn year after planting. But the seed- 
ling apple tree was very slow in maturing, ten or twelve ye.-^ir,-, Ijeing required 
to bring frui«^ of any consequence, and e\eri when seeds were planted and 
trees cultivated til! they were large enough to bear, it was a question whether 
the fruit would be v.'orth the picking, for in a large orchard there might not 
be more than a half-dozen trees that bore luscious fruit. There was but one 
variety of pear grown, the old "sugar" pear. It was not a bad pear to eat 
out of hand; but it was no larger than a good-sized hen's egg. It began 
ripening at the core, and if allowed to hang on the tree till it fell of its own 
accord, v/as so soft that it mashed itself flat when it struck the ground. 
Potatoes, both Irish and sweet, were grown for family use, but it was dif- 
ficult to carry over sweet [jolato seed from one seison to the next. Where 
dry caves were in reach, sweet potatoes could Ik siored therein the winter 
through very successfully, both for table use and seed. A few rows of 
broom» corn were always planted in one corner of the field, for brooms those 
days \\ere all made in the home. In their absence, the "scrub broom" did 
service. This was made from a small, tough white oak or hickory sapling. 
With the bark removed from the stick, which was probably an inch and a 
half in diameter, small slivers of the wood were stripped up from the butt 
end with a pocket-knife, about ten inches in length. The lower end, being 
thus fmcly shredded, the stripping process was reversed, and beginning up 
about a foot above the part already made fine, the wood was peeled down- 
ward, until the stick was reduced to the sizt Just right for a handle. The 
shreds were then bound together, the bottom squared off, the upper part 
of the handle shaped d.nvn, and the broom was complete. It wasn't a bad 
broom for dirt or puncheon floors. 


As crops matured, careful watch had to he kei)t continualh- to prevent 
crows and squirrels from taking the crops by day. or the raccoon by night. 
With "scarecrows" hung up about the field, usually made by stuffing a pair 
of pants and a coat w ith straw, and standing them up beside a post or stake, 
crows were wary about lighting down in the field, but squirrels were hardest 


to deal with. It hardly paid to waste ammunition on them, as powder and 
ball were scarce and high-priced ; besides, a bullet that would kill a squirrel 
would bring down a deer or turkey. A good cur dog was the best protec- 
tion against raccoons, and it paid to kill these latter rodents, for their hides 
were valuable in making caps, and would pass current for any sort of sup- 
plies at the nearest store, and in some instances were received in lieu of cash 
by the tax collector. The farmer of early time aimed to raise jilst suffi- 
cient wheat to do him for bread and seed, and it only required a very few 
acres to furnish this amount. The harvesting of the crop was made a frolic, 
the farmers of the entire neighborhood combining and making the rounds 
to all their farms, reaping, binding and shocking as they went. Not infre- 
quently the women would wield the sickle, some of whom were always ready 
to match their skill with the best among the men. The sickle was used in 
this county almost exclusively up to about the year 1840, when some "Yan- 
kee" invented the "cradle." The latter consisted of a light framework 
which held in place four or five fingers, the same bend as the scythe and 
parallel to it, designed to receive the grain as the harvester swung the cradle 
into the standing crop, and to lay it evenly in swathes. An expert with the 
cradle could cut four or five acres of wheat in a day. It was an impressive 
sight to witness a half-dozen or more men swinging their cradles with a 
military precision, as each brought down a swath of grain ten feet wide. 

While this labor was hard, and was performed during the very hottest' 
summer weather, the men still had courage to carry on the jest and laugh. 
A few men here and there who had the skill and endurance would cut as 
much as five acres of wheat in a day. When a farmer had a surplus of 
wheat, more than he needed for his own use, it Was bartered away for just 
what he could get, there being very little coin in circulation and no demand 
for the grain. During the wheat harvest, farmers' wives vied with each 
other in the preparation of food, and the laborers lived on the fat of the 
land. At that time whisky was considered indispensable in harvesting, as 
\vell as at all kinds of gatherings, except among a very few — the Quakers 
and Covenanters, who stuck strictly to wafer and buttermilk. A "four- 
o'clock bite"' was always prepared, and was carried to the harvest field in 
the middle of the afternoon, after partaking of which the men continued 
their labors till sundown. The scythe and cradle, in time, gave way to the 
"harvester," operated by horses, about 1855, when the growing of wheat 
for the world's market was Ijegun. The "self-binder" was introduced into 
the county in 1870. 


The first settlers used flails altogether to thresh out their small grain. 
A flail consisted of a '"head," or beater, about two feet in length, and a han- 
dle about six feet long. The "head" was an eight-square, flattened a little 
at one end through whici a hole was bored. At one end of the handle a 
notch was cut around the stick, and the two pieces were fastened together 
with a raw-hide "whang." With this implement a man could beat out five 
or six bushels of wheat in a day. To do the work sheaves of wheat were 
opened and ^read out on a hard dirt floor in a sort of row, the heads over- 
lapping each other, the butts being on the outside. When the upper side 
was flailed out the straw was turned over and the beating continued until 
the straw was cleaned. The wheat and chaff were scraped up and put in 
bags or pens, until a windy day, when two men would pour about a half 
bushel on a sheet and then, taking hold of the four corners, would toss the 
grain up two or three feet high, the wind carrying the chaff, dust and dirt 
away, leaving the wheat clean. This process was called "winnowing." A 
speedier way to separate the grain from the straw was to tramp it out. If 
there was no barn floor on which to do the work, a nice smooth dirt floor 
was made. The sheaves were then spreatl down in circular shape, butts 
outside. This outer circle was some twenty feet across. An inner circle 
was then laid down, with the butts to the center, the heads of the sheaves 
barely touching each other. Horses were then turned in, or rather a boy 
would ride one animal and lead another, round and round on the sheaves 
until the wheat was all tramped out. Usually four horses were used in this 
way if they were to be had. While the horses were tramping around the 
circle, a man or two vritli forks would be constantly turning over the loos- 
ened sheaves, so all the grain would be shattered out, when the straw would 
be separated from the grain. Two floors of grain could thus be tramped 
out in a day. The "Duster," or "ground-hog'' thresher came into use in this 
county about 1825, simply being a cv'linder propelled by horse-power. There 
was one machine made in the county that was propelled by two-man power, 
but it was a real man-killer, and was used but ver\' little. The first separator 
came into the county about 1850, steam-power threshers about i860, and 
traction-engine outfits, with wind stackers about 1888. 

In harvesting the corn crop the early custom was to first "blade" the 
stalks, then top them, and when the corn was dry the ears were "snapped" 
off and carted to the crili. In husking, the choicest ears were saved for seed 
the following season. When a crop of flax had matured it was pulled up by 
the root';; wlien dried out thoi'onghly the seed was flailed out and along in 


the late fall the straw was spread out in swathes to rot. This rotting- 
process did not affect the lint, but made it possible to loosen it from the 
shives when passed through the break, swingling-knife and hackel. 

During the harvest season while the men went round from place ta 
place to assist their neighbors, the women folk usually trailed along also, to 
assist in preparing the dinner, carrying with them some sort of prepared 
food which the hostess was most likely to be short on, or not able to provide. 
It was a frolic, too, with them, for the comers and goers were few and far 
between in the early homes and these visits around with neighbors were the 
only means they had to get a little spice out of life and have a little change 
in the monotony of life right out in the wilderness. 


Ordinarily of meat there was always an abundance. No man ever 
stepped out of the house without a gun on his shoulder, for the reason, in 
the main, that he never knew when lurking Indians might attack him, and 
it was convenient to have when a lot of deer or a flock of turkeys came along, 
for one could be easily killed, and thus save the time and labor of hunting- 
them up. There was seldom a day during the fall and winter that a nice 
flock of turkeys was not ranging close about the fields where grain had been 
grown the previous season. It was only a short time after the first settlers 
came in until the country was full of wild hogs that kept fat all winter 
through on acorns and nuts. Wild fruits in their season gave some variety 
to the bill of fare. The honey bee has always been said to be the fore- 
runner of civilization, and they were here in advance of the first settlers, 
how long before no one knew. The bee tree was located by preparing a 
sweet bait and placing it on a fallen tree or stump. If any bees were within 
a half mile, or even more, of the bait, they would soon find it, after which 
it was an easy matter to get the direction of the bee tree, and, by moving 
the bait a few times, to locate the tree. When a colony was located, the tree 
was marked, and the mark was respected the same as marks on hogs, cattle 
or sheep. After the flowering season was over the tree was cut, and the 
su]iply of honey was carefully husbanded, some always being laid by for 
company, the year round. Not un frequently, when the hollow tree was a 
large one, as much as a barrel of honey would be taken. 

The supply of food for winter use consisted of meat, cornmeal, pota- 
toes, lieans and pumpkin. .\11 winter through a string of dried, or drying 


pumpkin was usually found suspended on a string just below the loft and 
over the mantle. 


As soon as corn was sufficientlv ripe in the fail, it was grated, or 
pounded into meal, for cakes and mush. Grated meal made the very 
choicest mush, and, served with m.ilk, was the favorite dish for supper. A 
grater was made by taking a piece of tin, the rem.nant of any worn-out 
vessel, and punching it full of small holes, then bending it in semi-circular 
^hape and tacking the two edges to a board. It only required a few minutes' 
time to grate enough meal for a good big pot of mush. In case supplies of 
any kind were exhausted the pioneers never hesitated to go to a neighbor 
to borrow enough to carry them along till their own larder was refilled, .well 
knowing that such requests would never be denied, if it was in the power 
•of a neighbor to grant them. The mortar for poimding corn into meal was 
made by cutting and burning a bowl-shaped hole in the top of a gum stump 
or block, about the size of a half bushel. A springy sassafras pole, about 
twenty feet long was made fast at the butt end, and to the small end a pestle, 
made of some hard wood, was attached. Every time a stroke was made 
the springy pole was a great help in raising the pestle again. Later on those 
who had the necessary tools and ingenuity to use them, made sets of small 
"burrs out of hard, blue limestone, which were operated by hand. These 
■stones were about two feet in diameter, and, by hard work and several 
shifts, some four bushels of meal could be ground thereon in a day. Some 
of these hand burrs are still to be found in this county, but now doing 
■service in the capacity of door steps, having outlived their original purpose. 


Sausage was made by chopping meat with an ax on a large block, a 
•cut off of a gum log being preferred, as it was not so liable to chip and 
leave bits of wood in the meat. The sausage grinder first came into use 
about 1850, a home-made pattern, and one grinder served fifteen or twenty 
families, and the killing of pork depended on the time the grinder could 
be had in turn. To preserve sausage for future use it was seasoned with 
salt, sage and red pepper, tied up in corn husks that had been carefully 
stripped from the ear, and then hung up in the smoke-house, where it was 
cured with the bacon. The pioneer was a past master in the art of curing 
meat and his bacon was the equal of anything produced by any of the 


inodeni methods of liandling nieats. After he had salted it properly, and 
smoked it with hickory bark and corn C(jbs, and had it thoroughly dried out, 
each piece was rubbed well with pepper and imbedded in hickory ashes, a 
huge trough ha\ ing been pre])ared for that purpose. In this condition meat 
would remain in perfect condition tlie year through. 

With a few crude tools, such as the nearest blacksmith could manu- 
facture, the early settler made all the wooden utensils needed in the home; 
or if he was not skilled, or even handy, in wood-craft, he employed a neigh- 
l)or to work for him. < ir tbe\- "swapped work" in some way to even things 
up. 'frays, large and small, were made from buckeye or bass-wood. 
Trenchers and IiliwIs for kitchen use were hewn from sections of maple logs, 
scrajjed smooth with some sharp instrument. Buckets, piggins and chums 
were considered best when made of cedar, as this wood was afifected by 
water less than any other. Then the women saw that all kinds of gourds 
were rai.sed. These ranged in size from that of a walnut up to a half- 
bushel measure. The largest grew without "handles," and when the tops 
were cut out and the gourds boiletl and cleaned, they were used for sugar 
troughs, wash i)ans and milk pails. Some were jug-shaped, and some had 
"handles"' three feet long and were used for dippers in a variety of ways. 
The small ones served the baby for a rattler, or the housewife as a form 
over which socks were darned. Looms, spinning-wheels, swifts, reels, 
spools and the like were made by some one in the settlement who possessed 
a kit of tools and could use the same readily. 

Old timers usually sat up late of nights. The men had leggings to 
repair, ax handles to finish up, shoes to patch and many little jobs to claim 
their attention, while the women had to knit, sew, darn and sometimes run 
the little spinning-wheel. The children had their little games, "fox and 
geese." "checkers." "jack-straws." "tit-tat-too," and the like. A bright 
fire tnade light for some, while a lami>. modeled from clay in the shape of 
a flat cup. which had been burned hard, was filled with bear-oil, or lard and, 
supplied with a cotton wick, gave a satisfactory light to work by, but one 
could not say it was very brilliant. A little later on the old-fashioned 
"Dutch lamp." came into use, a pattern still to be seen as an old-time relic 
in many homes. "Dipped" candles were made, where there were no molds 
in the neighborhood. Iw wrapping a cotton cloth around a small drv stick, 
(9) ' ^ 


dogwood preferred, and then rolling the same in a skillet of beef's or deer's 
tallow. When this had cooled and hardened, another dip was made, thus 
building up the candle to desired size. Alcohol lamps succeeded the candle 
in a measure about 1850 i.nd coal-oil came to the front ten years later. It 
•was a serious matter when the fire went out, for matches were then 
unknown. Each family had its "tinder box," in which were kept bits of 
scorched linen, tow, punk and flints. Punk was found in the knots of hick- 
ory trees and somewhat resembled a piece of sponge. By striking two flints 
together, or by striking a flint with a piece of steel, sparks were generated, 
which, aropping on the punk, set it on fire, from which start a fire could 
readily be kindled. A little powder mixed with the tow was sometimes 
used instead of punk. With plenty of kindling, a blaze was started, the rest 
was easy. 


Several years in advance of the first pioneers and homeseekers, came 
into this wilderness the early trapper and hunter. Hidden away in narrow 
valleys and along the banks of unnamed streams were laid the trap lines 
that more than a century ago furnished much of the fur that protected civil- 
ized men and women from winter's cold or to adorn their apparel. The 
early trappers never seemed to have much trouble with the redskins; there 
apparently being a sort of connecting link between them and the Indians. 
Many of them took unto themselves Indian wives, and they nearly all 
dressed in Indian garb and had learned to talk the language of the aborig- 
ines. Wherever the trapper went he was a welcome guest, and when he 
located for his season's hunt his headquarters were usually in or near some 
Indian village. Spurgin, one among the earliest white trappers in this section 
ci country, lived three or four winters with the Ox Indians at the salt lick 
two miles east of Salem. 

Early in the autumn, long before the first snow had fallen, these pro- 
fessional trappers started out to locate a suitable spot for their winter's 
work. They made little preparation for the winter, taking with them little 
else beside a gun, ammunition and an ax or good-sized tomahawk. They 
made their own traps, deadfalls and snares and had the line complete before 
severe winter weather came on. A small hut of some kind was provided, 
which often was nothing more than a few poles leaned up against a rocky 
cliff or hollow tree, covered over with cedai boughs. For food thev trusted 
to the rifle. Corn could be bought of the Indians for little or nothing. 


Rawhide thongs were brought into requisition when snares were made 
or traps assembled together. As these preparations were being made the 
nights slowly grew longer and the cold stronger, and soon came the snow 
and sleet — the beginning of winter — the time to begin to take pelts and cure 
them. With the calm and settled weather after the first snow storm they 
went down their line of traps to bait and put ,them in shape, and learn 
something about what kind of animals they were most likely to capture for 
their winter's work. As they traveled round, deer tracks were found here 
and there; signs were to be seen where the fox had been catching grouse or 
pheasants, and now and then the wildcat or panther had left his footprint 
in the soft snow. The denizens of the forest could no longer move about 
unknown. . Each one must leave on the snow a story of its wanderings, 
usually not difficult to read. Some of the larger animals would ofttimes get 
on to the trap line, steal the bait and make lots of trouble for the trapper. 
In such case, the habits of the pilferer being known, a night or two would 
be spent lying in wait for the pest in order that he might be brought down 
with the rifle and his pelt secured. As the cold increased the fur got better 
up to and a little after mid-winter. Presently the days began to grow 
longer, the sun shone out warmer and the snow began to settle. This 
would remind the lone trapper that his season's work was soon to be 
finished, and no doubt he had longings, if not for home, at least to see once 
more a familiar \vhite face. If he had been blessed with good luck his 
stock of furs was more than he could get out to the settlement lone-handed, 
and aid from Indians would be secured. As the weather grew warmer, 
and the snow turned dirty and brown and the streams began to carry floods 
of chocolate-colored water, he, knowing it was no use to remain longer 
in camp, would leave for the nearest trading or shipping point, where furs 
were being bought, and soon would have the results of his season's work 
in his pocket. 


The Indians were always busy in winter time trapping when not 
engaged in war with some othei"' tribe or making raids against tne whites. 
They usually abandoned their summer villages and moved to the remotest 
spots to be found, early in the fall. The first work for the squaws was to 
get up a lodge for the winter. As the braves would bring in provisions, 
such as deer, bear or fish, the select parts would be dried before the fire, or 
if the weather was cold the meats were frozen and put up on scaffolds out 


of the way of dogs. When the time came to set the traps this work 
devolved upon the head of the family, his sons and sons-in-law. While 
the men were killing and capturing large game and the most valuable fur- 
bearing animals, the wom^-n were snaring rabbits and pheasants and fishing. 
The streams were then full of fish, and when frozen over, holes would be 
cut in the ice, to which fish would come for air, when they were speared and 
thrown ashore. All were thus kept busy till the opening of spring, when 
the season's catch was transported to the nearest post and there exchanged 
for red blankets, showy trinkets and a little "firewater" on the sly. The 
Indian women had to have beads, flaming scarfs and all sorts of cheap 
jewelry and ornaments. 

The earliest white settlers spent much of their time hunting and trap- 
ping in winter, for in many instances pelts were the only thing they could 
get hold of that could be bartered for sugar, coffee, salt and such necessaries 
of life as were kept in the backwoods store. The pioneer usually spent one 
day of the week hunting during the crop season, and in winter time, when 
not engaged in clearing up lands he was out with his dogs and gun. Hunt- 
ing was no ramble for exercise or pastime as it now is, but required a great 
deal of skill and calculation on the part of the hunter, if he was to be suc- 
cessful. Setting out early in the morning the wind and weather told him 
where he would find his game — whether in the bottoms or on the sides er 
tops of the hills. In stormy weather he looked in the most sheltered places 
on the leeward side of hills and up' hollows for deer. In rainy weather he 
went to the open woods, the grassy barrens or on the highest ground. In 
many cases he had to learn the course of the wind and then go against it 
so as to keep on the leeside of the game. This he did by wetting his finger 
in his mouth, then raising it above his head, and the side which first felt 
cool showed which way the wind came from. He also had to understand 
tlie points of the compass, to know his whereabouts, and when tliere was 
no sun he consulted the bark and moss on the trees. The bark was always 
thicker on the north side, and the moss more prominent. When a deer 
or bear was killed and the day not too far spent, it was hung up out of 
reach of wolves, after having been bled and the intestines removed. If the 
"catch" was a deer it would be carried home, if not too far away; if a bear 
had been killed a horse was gone for to carry it to the cabin. Usually two 
men hunted together, for safety and convenience. They returned home at the 
close of the day, or when they had secured all the game they could carry, 
or when it seemed that nothing but bad luck was in store for them that day. 


Hunting adventures formed the principal topic of conversation around the 
fireside and when neighbors came together. The one who could spin a 
good hunting "yarn" was always sure of attentive hearers. Some individ- 
uals possessed as much skill in relating an incident as they did in pursuit 
of game, and would sometimes rise to their feet and with appropriate ges- 
ture and flashing eye would display flights of eloquence that would not 
have shamed the bar or stage in any age. 


The early settlers of this county nearly all believed in moon signs and 
always consulted Poor Richard's almanac before engaging in any important 
undertaking. The cutting of timber and of children's hair, the planting 
of seed, making fences and almost all kinds of work had to be done when 
the moon was "right," or not at all. It was a sign of good luck to see the 
new moon over one's right shoulder and of bad luck to see it over the left. 
Indeed, there was no end to the governing influence of the "queen of night. " 
If the new moon stood with both points turned up it was a sign that it was 
full of water, and as one point declined the water was spilled out and it 
would be a wet month; if one point hung low down, the water had all been 
let out and dry weather was sure to follow. Some oracles were so well 
versed in sign astronomy that they could foretell coming events by the rela- 
tive positions of the various constellations of stars, and the signs of the 
zodiac told of numerous things that had to be done just at the proper time 
if one expected to reap the greatest reward for his labor. Some individ- 
uals were much more proficient in sign lore than others, and they were very 
frequently interviewed by their less intelligent neighbors who were not sure 
that they could read the signs aright. Strange to say, even in this age and 
generation there are, here and there, individuals who firmly believe in the 
moon's influence upon things terrestial and no sort of argument will con- 
vince them of the error of their way. But as a rule people nowadays have 
very little respect for the moon. They look upon it as an impostor, living 
upon borrowed light. As a substitute for electricity, gas, or kerosene, at 
certain stages of its luminosity, it is a serviceable guide to people when out 
late at night, but in other respects it is merely an object for the apostrophes 
of 'raptured youth, who are never tired of appealing to it under all sorts 
of pet appellations. As for believing that the moon affects the weather and 
that by studying its "quarters" we may prophesy whether it will rain or 
shine, modern science has proved that all such notions are humbug. The 


moon, it must be remembered, is continually on the move, and ever pro- 
gressing with the earth and all the while moving around it. It therefore 
must necessarily, and does, in turn, .shine on all parts of the earth. Wher- 
ever the sun shines the i^ioon shines also. The sun, being the source of all 
our heat, generates the conditions which give us more or less moisture in 
the atmosphere. Tlie moon, being a mere reflccter of light, has no such 
power — it generates no heat and cannot possi1)ly exert any intluence upon 
the earth's surface. The same moon, as it circles around the earth exery 
twenty-foia- hours, encounters at its meridian heighth, all kinds di' weather 
— from hot to cold, wet to d.ry. In one place it iviay be clear ;nid lirigbt. 
in another clouds and storms. The old almanac prophecy rif the weather 
based upon any such ideas as that the moon has any influence in ]jr(iducing 
these results is most al)surd. If il had any such jmwer it would produce 
the same restilts every time, but we see that it does not, but rather, witli all 
sorts of moons, we ha\e ;dl sorts of weather. One hundred x-ears ago ihose 
individuals who didn't believe in some sort of "moon signs" were few au'l 
far between, and many a man earned a lix-elihood by his re])iUation of lieing 
an expert prognosticator and foreteller of weather condition'^ that wotdd 
prevail in the distant future. 


The "waterwitch" was generally conceded to 1)e a man jjossessed of 
some sort of supernatural endowment, inasmuch as he possessed the aliility 
to look down into the earth's crust and point out the s]iots here and there 
where wells could be stmk and a ne\'er- failing supply of paire water ubtaiiieil. 
In earl)- days no one ever thought of sinking a well without tirst calling 
in the neighborh(.x)d "waterwitch." to go o\er the premises and lucate the 
liest point to start the work. He came promptly at exery call, armed with 
a forked peach-tree limb, if it was available, together with a hazel switch 
about four feet long, the fir'^t to locate the stream, the second to ascertain 
the exact depth dow n to the water. The forked stick was taken hold of 
firmly in both hands, the forked part of the stick lieing turned upward. 
In this position the waterman leisurely walked about the yard where it 
was most desirable for the well to be located, and if a stream of water was 
crossed, the forked end of the stick would suddenly turn down, hi spite of 
every effort on the ])art of the "waterwitch" to hold it in upright position. 
This spot was then marked and it was approached then from other direc- 
tions, and if the stick persisted in going down at this same spot every time 


it was crossed, that was the place to dig the well. If the divining rod 
turned down very suddenly and with great force the stream was large and 
not very far under the ground. 

In order to get the exact depth, the hazel switch was next brought into 
play, and holding it by the small end, tightly gripped in both hands, the 
"wizard" stood calmly beside the spot that had been selected foi^ the well. 
In an instant the switch began to bob up and down. These up-and-down 
bobs were counted and when the rod again became steady he had the exact 
number of feet it was down to the water. To question the ability of the 
"waterwitch" to perform his miracles was well nigh sacrilege, and to prove 
his abilit)' to do wonders along this line he had only to recount the many 
instances where he had been successful. The instances when his prog- 
nostications pro\Td to be correct were easily remembered, and the failures, 
if not forgotten, were easil}- accounted for in some way satisfactory to all 
parties concerned. To take pay for this kind of work was not thought of, 
as by so doing the practitioner was sure to incur the displeasure of the 
Creator of the uni^■erse, from whom this special divining ]X3wer had been 
received. That all of these diviners were impostors was hardly true, for 
thev were in most instances men of sterling character and sincerely believed 
they possessed the powers of divination which they professed. A century 
ago very few persons were to be found who were not superstitious in a 
greater or less degree. They sought for presages of their future and dis- 
cerned "signs" of good or bad fortune in everything around them. The 
croaking of the ra^■en. tiie howling of the dog, the hooting of an owl. were 
all pro]ihetic of ':onie imjiending misfortune. When anyone was sick and 
a screech owl was heard, there was no hope of recovery. The breaking 
of a mirror was a "sure sign'' that there woidd be a death in the family. 
All dreams portended good or evil, according as they were interpreted by 
the neighborhood fortune teller. There was always at least one dame in 
the settlement who could interpret dreams and tell fortunes, and her ser- 
vices were in great deiuand, esjiecially among the young people who had 
felt the sting of cupid's dart. 


Our c-arly pioneers engaged in many pleasures to relieve the monotony 
of life iiKideiUal to their isolated conditions. Of course there were no 
"(linir show-," liall <.ratues. fairs, circuses and the like to which we are 
.■iccustoine<l today, but there was no lack of fun and frolic. Even in neigh- 


borhood tasks and undertakings, the work was entered upon with a frohc- 
some, jovial spirit that robbed it of its slavishness, no matter how burden- 
some. A hard day's labor usually wound up with some sort of social stunt. 
Among other things that brought settlers together were log-rollings, corn- 
huskings, house and barn raising.-,, \v(jod-choppings. apple-parings, quilting- 
bees, shooting-matches, spelling and singing schools and pul)lic meetings. 
In clearing up lands, when the pioneer had felled tlie trees thereon, cut 
them into proper lengths and cleared away the limbs and brush, he was 
ready to call in his neighbors to assist him in "rolling" the logs, or putting 
them into heaps for burning. These gatherings came along in early spring. 
Nothing but a serious case of illness in the family was a legitimate excuse 
for any to be absent, who had received notification that his services \Aerc 
needed. Handspikes were made to accommodate the numljer of person^ 
expected to be present. They were u.sually made from sa'^safras. because 
of the light weight of the wood and the liea\-y weight they would carry. 
These spikes were cut from poles about the size of a man's arm; six or 
seven feet long, with the bark peeled and each end sha\ed down to a blunt 
point. The smaller logs were rolled or carried to the larger ones to save 
unnecessary lifting. A log-rolling" meant a day of hard, heavy work, when 
one and all would be required to exert their utmost strength, time and again, 
to carry the heaviest logs to the heap; nevertheless the toil was turned into 
play. Two men would be selected as heads, or captains, who would divide 
the help into* two squads, and the clearing was apportioned so as to give 
each division the same annnint of work to do, as near as possible. The 
race was to see which side could complete its task first. Thus it was a ru?h 
from start to finish. Quite frequentl}- there was a ri\"alry among the 
stoutest men as to whom the title, "giant of the day" belonged, and it fre- 
quently required a real test of strength to decide it. A handspike would 
be placed n.nder a large log and the contestants were required to lift at the 
same, and the one who could raise his end of the spike highest was pro- 
claimed champion. He was said to have "pulled the nose of his contestant 
to the ground." This was considered no little honor, for to be the strong- 
est man in the settlement made one quite a hero, and his fame soon spread 
abroad and he was compelled to defend it if other champions challenged 
him to a test. The festive candidate for public office would often ride 
miles to log-rollings in order that he might mix among his fellows, present 
his claims for office, or defend himself against false reports or unfounded 
charges. He was usually given an opportunity to show his mettle, espec- 


ially would this ha\e to be done if two rival aspirants happened to meet. 
If tliev could not be induced to test their muscle, an opportunity would be 
offered for them to make "'stump speeches."' and leave the hearers to decide 
in their own minds which of the two should receive their vote. The day's 
work being finished the yotmger men were still equal to engaging in foot 
races, wrestling matches, jumping, pole \-aultmg and other feats of skill or 
strength in which they felt the\' were champions. 

CORX-Hf.SKIi\'G "bees" FOIU'LAR. 

Corn huskings were quite common affairs late in the fall when the 
crop had all been thrown in on the barn Hoor or shed, beside the corn crib. 
This was more of a young folks frolic, but the older ones came in also to- 
lend a helping hand. The mothers and daughters also came to prepare the 
supper. Huge pot-pie.s were a favorite upon such occasions, and sweet 
cider the main be\erage. When the bulk of the corn pile had melted away 
and buskers had exhausted all their songs and stories, a race was put on 
by making a di\-ision of the men and the corn. F.ach sitle having its cap- 
tain to urge his forces on to victory, the work progressed with surprising 
rapidit}- till the end. Supper was then served, and after the old folks had 
quietly left, some time was spent by the youngsters in playing or dancing. 
Frequently while the men folk were husking corn, the women would employ 
their time quilting, the quilting party usually being invited to come in during 
the afternoon previous to the husking and begin their work. It was an 
occasion wdien they could talk as they worked, and the news current in the 
entire settlement could be handed around. 

A feast, a social mixing and games always accompanied or followed 
the hard labor incident to neighborhood gatherings of all kinds. It may be 
truly said of the people of those early times that they were merry-hearted, 
cheerful, kind and neighborly. Although their hardships were many, they 
brought much sunshine into their everyday lives. They were in the main 
much like the people of today, their circumstances and surroundings only 
making them different There were many vices practiced in those day, as 
there are now, for many rough people came into the new country. In some 
places cock-fighting, horse racing and betting, drinking and gambling were 
common. Whisky was kept by almost every family in the country, being 
used as a medicine in many ways, and small distilleries sprang up here and 
there in every settlement. Whisky was considered indispensable in the 
decoction of \-arious kinds of "Ijitters." being used as the base of untold 


remedies — in tact roots, herbs and whisky, formed the sovereign remedies 
for aU diseases that human beings were then heir to. The people meant 
well: their wants were simple, and they worked hard to live within their 
means They were b\- nv means \oid of an aesthetic longing, but being 
without means to i)rt'\ide themsel\"e-~ whh beautifvil homes, elegant sur- 
ri'undings and handsome clothing, they were content to adorn their little 
cabins as best they could, and lived close to nature, which is always beau- 
tiful. Rut. for the early banishment of whisky from common use at neigh- 
Li irhood gatherings and in everyday use in the family as well, much credit is 
due to the teachings and habits of those strict (lisciplinarians. the Quakers 
and Covenanters, who liecame quite numerous in this county a very few 
\ears after the first settlements were established. 

Nearly e\ery man and nearly every boy wIk^i was old enough to carry 
a gun was a marksman or lioped to become an expert with the rifle. A 
shotgun in tliat early dav was scarcely considered fit to be found in respect- 
able society. A man was not cijuntenanced as a true sportsman in any 
sense cif the word who could own or use a "blunderbuss," as the shotgun 
was termed. When a boy was old enough to be started out with a rifle and 
.'i shot-pouch hung across his shoulders, he began to feel that he was a man 
.'uid thereafter had no time to devote to boy's play, and whatever honors he 
ma>- ha\e achieved in more mature manhood, they fell far short of making 
him a hero in his own estimation in com]iarison with the super-eminence he 
fel: when he threw his first trophv of the hunt upon the threshold of the 
cabin, wiiii the exulting remark. "See what I got!" To be a good marks- 
man was not on!\- the ambition of aii\- man \\dio ventured out upon the 
frontier of civilization, but a necessit} as well: for the rifle was his main 
dependence for sustenance and safety. The gun and the backwoodsman 
were inseparable companions. He carried his gun with him when the first 
acreage was being cleared u]), and the first corn crop was being cultivated, 
or kejit it loaded and within easy reach when any emergency might call for 
its use. 

The test of skill in the use of the rifle was not only displayed m hunting, 
but in contests at shooting matches as well. Shooting at the mark for a 
small purse was a form of contest of frequent occurrence, but the shooting 
for turkeys, venison or beef were regular holiday sports. If the match was 
held at a still house a half-barrel of whisky was frequently put up as a re- 


ward of skill. Often a live turkey or goose furnished the target, they being 
hampered sixty or seventy-tive yards distant. A certain amount would be 
charged for every shot. The shooting had to be done "off-hand," and the 
aim had to be directed at the head, and the first one who drew blood secured 
the bird. Those who were known to be "sure shots" were frequently barred 
from these contests, as the owner of the birds stood a poor show to realize 
on the venture. When live birds were put up at "long range," the marksman 
was allowed to shoot at the body, and could use a rest for his gun if he so 
desired. Shooting at the mark was the usual practice. Each participant 
was charged his proportionate share of the value of the prize, the charge 
depending on the number of chance takers. Or, if the purse could not be 
made up at the price fixed, the Owner of the prize took the remaining 
chances and shot for himself, or had some one to shoot for him. A shoot- 
ing match would bring out most of the men and boys in the entire settle- 
ment. Those who did not participate in the shooting, gathered in groups 
along the sides of the range, speculated upon the outcome of the contests and 
got off their practical jokes. Each man who entered the contest prepared 
his own target, which was usually a board, having in the upper end, near the 
center, a spot blackened with powder or charcoal. To this background a 
piece of white paper about an inch square, with a diamond-shaped hole in 
the center, was tacked. The center of this diamond was the true center of 
the target, and from this center was described a circle with a four-inch 
radius. Each participant was allowed three shots. If all of them struck 
within the circle they were measured by a line from the center of the target 
to the nearest edge of the bullet hole; however, if a ball grazed the center, 
the line was drawn from the center of the diamond to the middle of the bullet 
hole. The three distances, were added and estimated as one, and the man 
who had the shortest line was winner. If a shot struck beyond the described 
circle, even by a hair's breadth, all other shots, even if in the center, did not 
coimt, and that particular marksman was out. Quite frequently a man who 
happened to be in extraordinary good luck would carry off most all the 
prizes, which would give him quite a reputation as an expert rifleman. 
Beck's Mill was always the center of attraction during the season of shoot- 
ing matches, and at every match there were side attractions of some sort to 
amuse the crowd. 


The form of pioneer diversion now to be described furnished amuse- 
ment for all, except the gander. The game was introduced into the settle- 


raent about 1813 by a Kentuckyian who happened to be present at a shoot- 
ing match. There were two ways that this rather fiendish amusement was 
carried on. The first was to take an old gander and, after plucking his head 
and neck perfectly bare, give it a coat of grease or soap. Then with a piece 
of buckskin the gander's feet were tied to the end of a low beech limb, with 
head down. The other way was to get a lithe, slim hickory sapling, about 
thirty feet long and plant the butt end in the ground, inclining the pole, at 
an angle of about forty-five degrees, at the top end of which the gander 
would be made fast. It was customary to charge a small fee for participating 
in the sport, and then the contestants would draw lots to sf ■; .who should go 
first, second, and so on. This being all arranged, "while the goose hung 
high," the bystanders ranged themselves in two rows, aliout twelve feet 
apart, leaving room for a horse and rider to run through. Each spectator 
was armed with a whip of some sort to lash the horse as he came down the 
line — running the gauntlet as it were — in order to put him to his utmost 
speed. Horse and rider had to start one hundred and fifty yards back of 
the gander and come at full speed. As they entered the two files of men 
and boys the whips were. applied and the frightened animal rushed through 
pell-mell, and while his horse was thus running the rider had to grasp the 
neck of the gander and wring or jerk it oiY. This was not an easy matter, 
for the gander would be flopping and swinging about and the limb would 
spring up' and down and a mud puddle would usually be made just under 
the gander to cause the horse to stumble and flounder. It took the best 
of horsemanship, as well as nerve and skill,' even to seize the gander by the 
neck, and if it was done the neck was so slippery that it was almost impos- 
sible to hold on. Sometimes the rider wuuld hold on to the gander till he 
would lose his balance and would tumble into the mud hole, and then shout 
after shout would rend the air at the unfortunate gamester's mishap. It 
was seldom that the gander's head would be wrung off. 

On one occasion, at Beck's mill, a long, ugly looking specimen of 
humanitA' showed up, who said he was from Kentucky and called 
himself Stephen Hurton. He Ava^ poorly clad, wore a linen shirt 
and a pair of "yaller" pants, kept up by one suspender. He wore a 'coon- 
skin cap and his long locks came down to his shoulders. He was a sort of 
clown and every one was poking fun at him. He borL' it all good-naturedly, 
and finally some one asked him if he thought he could yank off the gander's 
head. He said "]\Iaybe I mought and then, ag'in, I moughtn't." Finally it 
was agreed to give him fi^-e trials and if he succeeded in twisting off the 


head he should receive five dollars. He said, "Boys, I'll try 'er," and sprang 
on the bare back of his old gray mare and went back to the starting point. 
He took a good look down the line and the word was given. Crouching 
forward like an Indian he sang out, "G'lang Nance!" and horse and rider 
came down the line like a thunderbolt. The crowd yelled, shouted and 
whipped "Nance" as she flew by, but, nothing daunted, Stephen kept his eye 
on the gander. With his heels pressed into the old mare's flanks, his long 
arm went up as he neared the gander; his huge hand clasped the neck and 
off came the head in a twinkling, in the hand of the victjjr. Amid the 
shouting that followed, Stephen rode slowly back and threw the head on 
the ground, saying "Me an' ol' Nance ^r' sum, ain't we. Guess I'll take yer 
money." He was the hero of the day. The day's sport being ended, he 
shouldered his old gun, rode calmly away and was never seen or heard 
from again in that section. 


The people of the old time in this county did not look upon dancing 
with a favorable eye, except in a few localities. Early ministers anathe- 
matised it, upon all occasions, because drinking and disorder were prevalent 
at such gatherings. Young "bloods" would frequently imbibe plenty of 
corn juice and meeting a hated rival or enemy, would undertake to settle 
matters, with a fight. It was a fist and skull combat, as no concealed 
weapons were then carried more dangerous than the pocket-knife. Still in 
some places neighborhood tasks were followed at night by a dance. The 
country fiddler was called in and with the "soul-stirring" strains of such 
tunes as "Sugar in the Gourd," "Devil's Dream," "Arkansas Traveller," 
"Jay Bird," "Money Musk," and the like, the dance went on well through 
the night. "Hoe-down'^," in which all who desired could participate, and 
cotillions were the dances indulged in. Round dances, glides and flourishing 
swings were considered in very poor taste, and it was many years afterward 
that they were introduced in the country. While the fiddler would violently 
flourish his bow and pat his foot in accent, the "prompter" arranged his 
couples and indicated in a loud voice, usually in tune with the music, the 
various figures of the dance. Some of the lasses were sufficiently expert 
that when it came to "balance all," they, too, could "cut the pigeon's wing." 
or throw in a "double shuffle" with as much eclat as any of the young men. 

Those who danced "paid the fiddler," a matter which was looked after 
by a "floor manager," who also saw that everyone present had an enjoyable 


time and that none were overlooked or slighted. Refreshments were served 
about the midnight hour, consisting of candy, apples and pies, for the prep- 
aration of which the hostess was amply compensated. Where dancing was 
not allowed, the youngst<"rs would engage in "forfeit" games, marching 
to music and song dances. "Whirling the ])late," "keeping postot^ce," 
"picking cherries,'' and "building bridges" were forfeit games. "We're 
Marching Down to Old CJuebec," "King \\'illiam," "Indiana IJoys Come 
Volunteer," were marching-song plays, ending with kissing all 'round, as 
the words might indicate. The song dances included "\\'eev'ly \\'heat," 
"Dusty Miller," "Four Hands Round." "Sailing in the Boat When the Tide 
Runs High," and others too numerous to mention, were in great favor with 
the belles and beaux. In every settlement there were most always some 
ancient maidens _ who had passed the beaux age. wh(_) would attend play 
parties and lead in the singing, being familiar with all the play songs that 
had ever been composed and introduced into the country. They usually 
carried a song-book into which e\ery play-song they had ever heard had 
been copied, the tunes that fitted the words having been learned by ear. 


Attachments were often formed at these social parties which in due 
time would end in matrimony, and whenever a couple showed signs of 
endearment, they were at once ostracised by the rest of their associates, for 
flirting or having a multitude of lo\ers was' not countenanced or encouraged. 

When it was too far to walk to a party, the bo\s would take the girls 
behind them on horseback. If it was winter time they would go in a sleigh. 
Before the country was cleared up. snows lay on the ground much longer 
than they do now, for there was liardly a winter then that there were not 
at least three or four weeks of '^<<ni\ -;K'ir,hing. Sleighing parties were 
common, even if the roads were stiiiii].\ .uul rough. The sleigh in general 
use was called a "jumper," and wiili a high scat it would easilv clear all 
stumps left in the roads. These sUmK were made of two long hickory 
poles, which answereil for hoili runnns and shafts. St)nie four feet from 
the butt end the ih.Ics were chased .1o\mi ijim s, , ihe\ wi.add bend up easily 
and fasten to the hanuss. |',acl< oi ihc liend, holes would be bored in the 
])oles to recene sU|iporl- .niu luMn-- lor ilu' two l)eiiches, upon which the 
l.)odv of the slciuli reste.l. .\ would make a sled of tliis kind very 
easdv in a dav and it wa- .luite ^crMrea.l ile. 



With the building of the first school house came the spelling school. 
These were among the chief entertainments of the early settlers and old as 
well as young attended and took part in the exercises. To be a good speller 
in those days was a long step in the way of acquiring an education. There 
were neighborhood "spellings" and sometimes one school would be pitted 
against another. If it was a district "spellmg," they all came together 
promptly, at "early candle lighting.'" .-Vfter the room was made snug and 
warm, two young people chose sides and the teacher, ^vho was master of 
ceremonies, pronounced the words. The "spell-down" process was the 
general custom. The master would call up two spellers, either from the 
head or foot of each side and "give out", the words that were to be spelled 
and would continue until one or the other misspelled a word and the other 
spelled it, when the one "turned down" would take his seat and another 
from the same side would take his place. This "turning down" process 
would continue until one side or the other was victorious, when two good 
spellers would be pitted against each other they would often stand up for 
an hour before one. would misspell a word. An intermission of half an 
hour would be given between "spells" to give the youngsters a chance for 
play and the older ones an opportunity to discuss the affairs of the time, 
religious or political. 

Singing and writing schools were also very popular in early time, as 
they served the double purpose of social gatherings and schools of instruc- 
tion. "Singings" were usually held on Sunday afternoons, writing classes 
meeting of nights during the week. Singing and writing masters received a 
small compensation for their services, usually about fifty cents per pupil, and 
a term was thirteen les.sons. These meetings were always open to the public, 
and there were quite a number of spectators usually in attendance. At the 
singing schools they used the old-time books, either the "Sacred Mekxleon" 
or "Missouri Harmony," in which the tunes were represented l)y what was 
termed "buck-wheat" notes, the triangular one called "fa," the round one 
"sol," the square one "la" and the diamond-shaped one "mi." About 1850 
the "Christian Psalmist" was introduced, the numerals from one to eight 
being" called "do, ra, mi, fa, sol, la, si, do." Soon after the round-note 
system was introduced. In many instances the young Quakers were 
enrolled as pupils at the singing schools, and it is probably due to the fact 
that they learned to sing and liked it, which changed the attitude of this 



religious organization towards music. I )el)atin^ clul)s and nmck k^nslatine- 
became common as the country dcneloijed, especially in Salem and the 
■different villages throuj;hout the countw Salem had a club called the 
"Zelo-Pidusian Society," ■.diich \va> kept up for se\eral years, and from 
-which emanated a number of men who afterward achieved national fame 
and reinitation. 

wi:i)niNos A.Moxo Tin-: imoxi^icrs. 

Weddings were social events of first importance in e\-ery settlement, as 
.they meant a season of feasting and frolic for both ymng and okl for at 
least two whole days. \A'hen }Oung folks made up their minds to marry. 
\'cry little objection was made by parents, for there was no ine(iuality in 
social position or wealth. If the plighted couple had health and were not 
afraid to work there was little uneasiness manifested about their getting <in 
in the world. They received \ery little aid from parents, as old folks had 
nothing to gi\'e. The best that they could usuall)- do was to gi\e a horse, 
saddle and briflle to their children as they m;irried and left the ])aternal root 
to which would sometimes be added a cow and some i)igs and sheep for 
starters. There was plenty of good, land still open to entry in the county a.-, 
late as 1825. About all the ready money necessary to finance a wedding ui 
those days was a small fee for the license. The preacher e.\i)ected but little 
for lying the matrimonial knot and made no charge for his services if his 
.->atldle-bags were well filled with some of the many good things to eat which 
were prepared with bounteous hand upon such occasions. The entire neigh- 
borhood expected and always recei\ed an in\-itation to the marriage cele- 
bration. In fact in most instances no in\itation was needed, the "latch 
string" being otit for all who wished to come. ( ireat pre])arations were 
made for the wedding feast, tribute lieing le\ ied upon the whole neighbor- 
hood, hence all the neighbors were interested in the e\'ent. ("uiests from any 
distance came on horseback and all had on their best clothes and wore their 
sweetest smiles. 

Wedding garments, in those days were entirely home made, like 
ever\-thing else, with (xissibly an extra tuck in the bride's linsey-woolsey 
dress, while the groom made an extra effort to get a fancx' shine on his cow- 
hide boots, with blacking made of the burned pith of a cornstalk, mixed up 
with the white of an egg. On the nuptial day the bridegroom and his best 
man, or men, as the case happened to he, met at his father's house, and rode 
to the home of the bride, timing their progress so as to arrive about the 



noon hour. E\erything was ready for their reception, and without delay 
the ceremony, which made the couple man and wife, was soon over with. 
Congratulations over, everyone there was room for, was seated around 
the board, the bride and groom at one end, the bridesmaid and groomsman 
at the other. The older people dropped in between. The dishes, mostly 
pcAvter, had been collected from all over the settlement, as was also the 
bounteous feast. A monster pot-pie, a favorite dish with backwoodsmen, 
holding a half dozen or more chickens, occupied the center of the table. 
A'leats of other kinds, usually wild, corn-bread right out of the oven, stewed 
pumpkin, potatoes, onions, butter, pies and preserves of various kinds, 
honey and delicious pound cakes made the improvised table fairly groan 
under its weight. Upon such occasions the table would be covered with a 
home-made cloth that had lain in the garden for weeks to bleach. The 
table would be filled three or four times before all the hungry ones present 
were accommodated. 

The dinner o\er, the old folks returned to their homes, while the young 
ones remained to have a good social time, which, lasted well through the 
niglit. The in fare, on the following day, was in the main a repetition of the 
first, the effort being made to outdo the wedding feast, if possible. In 
going from the bride's home to that of the groom, the road wound through 
the woods much of the way, and frequently mischievous fellows would cut 
down trees and brush so as to make the way impassable in several places. 
The procession would thus be delayed some time in making their way 
through or around these obstructions, and if they were late in arriving at 
their destination e\eryone knew what was the matter. The newly-wedded 
pair, with their attendants were again lined up to receive congratulations, 
after which followed another feast. Merry-making again at night ended 
the festivities, and as soon as possible thereafter the new voyagers started 
out to make themselves a new home, somewhere in the wilderness, where 
there was possibly not a stick amiss, and much of their lives was a struggle 
with primitive surroundings very similar to those experienced by their 


Every article of wearing apparel worn by early settlers up to about 

1820, was made in the home. Buckskin, tow linen, linsey and jeans were 

the chief materials from which clothes were fashioned. There was in some 

instances a kind of rough cloth that could be bought but few could afford 



it. Little, attention was paid to style, in fact there was but one style, service 
and durability being the main considerations. The very first emigrants were 
compelled to use the skins of animals, principally, for clothing, and were 
rigged up very much like Indians. But as farms were opened up and the 
country became more thickly settled, and sheep could be raised, woollen 
garments came in vogue, togetlter with flax, and some seasons when frosts 
were late, cotton was cultivated successfully. If the fla.K failed they went to 
the creek bottoms and gathered loads of nettle stalks, from which a lint was 
procured that made a fairly good coarse cloth, that would answer for bed- 
ticks and towelling, and in a pinch would do for skirts and trousers. Fla.x 
was an mdispensable product, as from it shirts, sheets and all summer wear 
could be made, besides it made a good warp for cloth of various kinds 
where wool was used for the woof. 

The women worked almost continuously making cloth and clothing for 
the family. Spinning, weaving, sewing and knitting were nei\er-ending 
tasks. As the children grew u]5 — and there was usually a house full of them 
— they relieved the mother of a portion of her hard toil, but even then she 
had few leisure moments; even when visiting she carried along her sewing 
and knitting. Spinning yarn on the big wheel was one of the hardest tasks, 
requiring one to be constantly on their feet and walking back and forth 
across the floor. The spinner would tluis travel several miles a day turning 
out her hanks of yarn. In spinning fla.x on the little wheel the only tire- 
some part about it was the working of the treadle. One loom was often 
used by several families in a neighborhood. They were large and cumber- 
some, and were not kept in the cabin any longer than absolutely necessary 
to weave the cloth for which materials had been prepared. 


Wool was carded by haml-cards and made into rolls for se\ eral years 
after the first settlers came in, as there were no carding machines in tiie 
county until about 1820. The "cliain" and "filling" of all cloth was dyed 
before wea\-ing. Dark browns were cnlort-il witii walnut hulls and bark, 
grays with white oak bark, blacks, with logwood, yellow with copjieras, and 
l)lue with intligo. The latter was the nio-t ixjpiilar color and was made with 
a "yeast" which was kept over winter by hurving i: in the ground, lielow the 
freezing point. Blue jeans was \ cry po]nilar for Sunday suits. 

For perha])s a dozen years after the eotuUr\- was first settled, deerskin 
was most used for men's clothing, for the reason it was more a\-ailable 


than anything else, and because it was a great protection against nettles, 
briers, brush and snake bites, and was warm withal. The trouble with it 
was that it would stretch when wet and then shrink up to half its original 
size when dried out, and become stiff as a board. In making a pair of 
trousers, allowance always had to be made for shrinkage or a smaller sized 
boy or man would be sure to fall heir to them. 

In making any sort of cloth pants they were fittea snugly, and over 
them a pair of buckskin leggings would be worn, fringed down on the 
outside seams like those of the Indians. Cloth leggings took the place of 
deerskin later on, and these were worn by the old-timers up till about i860. 
Linsey was used for shirting in winter and linen in summer. A hunting 
shirt was an indispensable, everyday garment, while a long tail frock coat 
was kept, when it could be afforded, for Sunday and to wear to town and 
to musters. It was ornamented with huge brass buttons. The hunting shirt 
was often adorned with fringe down the seams, and bead ornaments on the 
belt. It sometimes had a cape attached to it, coming down to the elbows. 
Moccasions were worn very generally, particularly by the women, but in 
wet weather they were little better than no footgear. The men universally 
wore their hair long, coming well down on their shoulders and they wore 
a full beard, sometimes minus a mustache. 


The costumes of the women were not as elaborate as the men's. The 
bodice and skirt were sewn together at the waist, the former snug fitting, 
while the skirt was made quite full. When visiting each other the hostess 
never felt that she had done her whole duty to her guest until she had shown 
her through her entire wardrobe. The young bride in a well-to-do family 
would often have two dozen dresses in her trousseau, which she took great 
delight in exhibiting to friends. For extra wrap the shawl was universally 
worn, a sunbonnet in summer and a knitted or quilted hood in winter. Small 
children were provided with tow shirts in summer that came well down to 
their heels, while in winter their dress was very similar to that worn by old 
persons, thus making them appear aged and sedate before their time. Boys' 
pants were cut full length as soon as they could walk, and made a few 
sizes too large, expecting the youngster to grow to fit them before they were 
worn out. 

The early settler soon learnetl to tan his own leather and make his own 
shoes, which was a decided impro\ement on the moccasin age. To tan a 


cowhide it was first put into a trough or vat of lye which loosened the hair. 
After the hair was scraped off the hide was then placed in another trough 
containing a liquid made from oak bark, when it was allowed to remain for 
six months or longer in vinter. It was then taken out, washed and scraped, 
and given a good dressing of bear's oil, which made it soft and pliable, ready 
to be worked up into shoes or harness. 


Sometimes one man would make shoes for an entire neighborhood and 
occasionally a traveling shoemaker would go from house to house making 
and mending shoes. There were also traveling spinners, usually old ladies, 
who would shoulder their little spinning wheels, and go from house to house 
where their services were needed, thus earning a small wage to lay by for a 
"rainy day." The clock tinker was, early in the history of the county, a 
regiiiar visitor at cabin homes, to clean out. adjust and regulate the old "wall 
sweep" clock that told the passing hours of the long, long ago. 


M?jiy of the first settlers brought hogs into the country, and fattened 
a few for home consumption. A good fat porker could always be exchanged 
for something needed in the home, if it could not be sold for ready cash. 
With the setting in of regular winter weather, preparations were made 
for hog-killing. In those days pigs were killed right off the mast ; there 
being so much free range where acorns and nuts were abundant that it 
was not necessary to feed corn in making pork. Mast-fed hogs made the 
very finest of pork, but it was softer and more greasy than that fattened 
on corn. A good lot of dry hickory wood was the first requisite in prepar- 
ing for the killing. There was only an occasional farmer who could afford 
iron kettles for heating water needed in the scalding and cleaning process, 
so the common method was to build a good-sized log-heap, and on top of it 
place several sandstones about the size of a bucket. When these stones 
became red hot a few of them were dumped into the scalding barrel, which 
soon raised the water to scalding heat. The sandstone was used because 
it would not crumble to pieces when thrown into water like limestone. If 
kettles were to be had they were suspended from a pole at a height of alwut 
six feet, out of the way of fire, on what were called "pot trammels." The 


trammel was made of two pieces of iron, adjustable in the center, with a 
large hook to go over the pole and a small one to hold the kettle. 

Long before daylight the fire was started. Butcher knives had been 
ground and whetted sharp for the occasion. If the hogs were in a closed pen 
they were knock-d in the head with an ax ; if they were in a lot they w'-e shot 
with the rifle. Neighbors usually helped each other with this work. As 
fast as the hogs were killed and dressed they were strung up on a long 
pole to cool. It was a busy day for the women, who had to look after the 
cleaning of entrails and the saving of fat to be rendered into lard. The 
day following the killing the hogs were properly cut up and salted down 
in a big trough made for that purpose. After taking salt, which required 
several weeks' time in winter weather, the meat was then hung up in the 
smoke-house and subjected to the usual curing and preserving process. 
The hog killing of modern times differs very little from methods prac- 
ticed in early days, except in the better facilities for handling the porkers 
and methods of curing meats. 


In many instances in olden times the "sign" had to be just right when 
the work was done, otherwise the meat was not first class and was much 
more liable to be damaged by "skippers.'' When one farmer killed hogs, a 
nice set of backbones and spare-ribs, or some choice sausage was sent to 
near neighbors, who in turn sent back as good as they had received, if not 
a little better. They vied with each other to see who could be most neigh- 
borly, and got more pleasure from giving than receiving. 


Tables, like all other furniture about the log cabin, were rude and 
imsightly. They frequently consisted of hewed "juggles," pinned together, 
with a leg stuck in each corner. An old Scotchman named Cluny was 
among the first cabinetmakers in the county. He lived in the southern 
part of the county and furnished many settlers with tables, chairs and beds; 
in many instances the first respectable furniture they ever owned. John 
Reyman supplied many people in Salem, as well as in the surrounding 
country, with their nicest furniture after 1810. A man named Bowman 
had a cabinet shop four miles north of Salem, and about 1820 made some 
very handsome pieces of niahogau}' \'encer work, such as bureaus and side- 


txiards. A few of his spacious sideboards are still in use in the county, 
and are artistic in design, and will last for several more centuries, no doubt. 
The veneering was laid upon wild cherry, which was least liable of all woods 
to shrink and swell whei exix^sed to extreme dampness or dryness. A 
table cloth was a luxury that few people could afford in early times. Some 
families ^kept one for company, a product of the home loom, of course; but 
it savored too much of extravagance to think of using it at every meal. 
Emigrants usually brought with them a short supply of dishes, and in a 
few instances some nice pieces of china were packed up so they withstood 
the rough and tumble to which they were exposed on the long journey 
across the mountains. They were never used on the table after reaching 
this country, but served as an ornament on the mantle, and were greatly 
admired. A few of the old blue teapots and trays are yet treasured by the 
descendants of early settlers. 

Pewter plates and spoons were used more than earthenware. They 
would not break, and a few dents did not keep them from being service- 
able. Besides, when a piece was worn out it could be recast and made new 
again, as there was always someone in the settlement who had moulds of 
different styles and patterns. Pewter was one of the items kept for sale 
in the store, coming in bars, very much like the lead bars, out of which 
bullets were moulded. Knives and forks were scarce. Wooden forks were 
often whittled out of a hard piece of hickory or white oak, while the 
butcher knife or the hunting knife was passed around the table so that each 
in turn might use it as necessity required. Blacksmiths would put in much 
of their spare time fashioning knives and forks, spoons and ladles, and the 
supply never exceeded the demand. Knife and fork handles were fre- 
quently made of staghorn jwints, with the cmok turned so it would fit 
the hand. 


The first cupboards were made "three-cornered," so they would fit in 
the corner of the room and thus be out of the way. If the owner could 
afford glass doors in the upper part, great pains were taken to displav the 
teapots and dishes to all guests and visitors. 

If there was a distinguished guest for supper a cup of tea was usually 
served, sweetened with the genuine old "loaf sugar" of the dav. It was 
the only white sugar made at that time, and came done up in blue paper, 
the loaf being moulded in the shape and about the size of an old tin quart 
cup — considerably larger at the bottom than the top. For safekecpmg the 


sugar loaf was kept suspended from the loft joists, out of reach of the 
small boy. As he grew up the sugar would vanish, and no one ever knew 
what became of it, unless it was gradually dispelled by some mysterious 
process of evaporation. Where the head of the house was handy with 
the gouge and scraper, wooden plates were made for bread, potatoes and 
the like, and were quite serviceable. Pots and pans would be moulded out 
of clay and burned in the fireplace, and were useful in many ways. 


After orchards came into bearing much of- the fruit was made into 
cider. The old seedling apple made good clear cider, and that was about 
all it was fit for. It partook of the nature of the crab, its great-grandparent, 
and seedling trees were long-lived, some of them standing for over a cen- 
tury and measuring three feet in diameter. The cider mills, as made and 
used almost a century ago, were immense machines and cumbersome to 
make as well as to operate. The mill was constructed of hard wood, usually 
white oak, as it was most durable. The rollers were turned round, about 
eighteen inches in diameter, one three feet long, the other eight. These 
rolls were set upright, and on top of the long one a sweep was made fast 
by mortise and wedges. At the lower end journals were turned and fitted 
into a large framework, with wedges so adjusted that the rolls could be 
held together securely as a horse, hitched to the sweep, turned them round 
and crushed the apples. At the top of the short roll wooden cogs were set 
in, which meshed in corresponding mortises in the long roll. A hopper 
was attached to one side of the machine to receive the apples ; a huge trough 
underneath the framework received the crushed fruit. With this mill 
apples could be crushed about as fast as one man could pour them into the 

The press was also a huge ai¥air. It consisted of a heavy table, usually 
made of hewn timbers, and a log some twelve inches in diameter and 
thirty feet long. The table was set against a big tree, sometimes an apple, 
and about eight feet from the grovmd a large mortise was made through 
the body, into which was fitted loosely a tenon on the large end of the 
timber. At the small end a mortise was made through the timber to receive 
a sort of flat post, usuallv a flat rail, with holes bored through it about 
every six inches. With a lever resting on pins inserted in the holes through 
tlie upright the lieam was raised, ready for jiressing the crushed fruit. On 
the platform Ijeside the tree, and by means of a rye straw rope about the 


size of a man's arm, a round vat was made to receive the crushed apples. 
Afi the vat was built up apples were poured in, and m.ashed down as tightly 
as possible with a maul. The vat was built up about two feet high, and 
would probably be tv/o ind a half feet across. When filled, boards and 
j^anks were placed on top, and the timber let down gradually when the 
cider poured out in a stream. Grooves were cut on the sides of the platform 
so as to direct the cider into the receptacle prepared to receivr it. The straw 
tub or vat served as a strainer and kept pomace out of the cider, which 
was as fine as human ever drank. 


To reserve cider for winter use and keep it from souring, three gal- 
lons were boiled down into one. A few barrels were filled for vinegar, and 
After the owner's wants were supplied, his neighbors were invited to make 
free use of his fruit and his mill till they, too, had all they cared for. \\'hen 
neighbors lived near each other it was the custom to make frequent even- 
ing visits back and forth, when a4)ples, cider or something good to eat or 
dnnk v/as always passed arouiid. The women and children would gather 
on one side of the ample fireplace, while the men would occupy the other, 
thus spending the evening very pleasantly in social confabulations. 


The pioneer fathers, who first penetrated the primeval forests of this 
county, found numerous trails leading in all directions, and terminating 
at points where there were still to be found Indian villages, or places where 
Indians had dwelt in former times in considerable numbers, judging from 
the piles of burned and blackened stone scattered about where their wig- 
wams had once stood and where the camp fire had once shone brightly. 
These trails usually lay along the most convenient and least toilsome 
routes to be found between stopping places, and in many instances 
they afterwards became leading highways for the wiiite ad\-enturer and 
permanent settler as well. Possibly one of the largest Indian towns 
that ever flourished in what is now the confines of Washington county 
was at Beck's Spring, judging from the cleared lands and the trails that 
centered there from all points of the compass. The Indian did not 
"blaze" his way as did the white man; lie seemed to possess a sort of 
.intuition, like a wild beast, which told him whure he desired to go. and 


the most direct route to get there. It was almost an impossibihty to lose a 
red man, no matter how dense the forest, or how far from his village his 
wanderings led him. This was possibly more an acquired habit than an 
inbred one, as many white men who spent most of their lives hunting and 
trapping became as proficient in wood lore as the wiliest savage. 

Royse's Lick was the main country seat in these wilds from 1805 ^i^^ 
1 8 14, when Salem became the county seat. As new settlers came in they 
"blazed" trails from their cabins to the "Lick,"' as here they had to go for salt 
and such supplies as Doctor Lamb kept in his little store — the first one in all 
these parts. Trails were gradually widened into wagon ways. These first 
roads were laid out regardless of section lines or party divisions of lands. 
They wound around hills and swamps, and even big trees, as it was easier 
to wind about a little than it was to fell a huge tree and get it out of the 
path. In opening up roads every man in the settlement lent a helping hand. 
They were opened up just wide enough for a wagon to pass through, and 
stumps were cut low to be out of the way of either sleds or wagons. Where 
the ground was boggy and miry at certain seasons of the year, a corduroy 
was constructed of poles laid as closely together as possible, over which 
some earth was thrown to hold them in place and ease. up the jolt as wagons 
passed over them. 


A roadway to the Ohio Falls was made soon after the first settlers 
located here, as everyone had to go there for supplies. When Beck's Mill 
was started in 1808, all roads in the whole country led to that point, but 
they were miserably rough and sometimes impassable for teams, most of 
the milling being carried on horseback. Even then detours had to be made 
quite frequently around the worst places, where there was danger of 
floundering the horse. When Salem was located and the county organized 
among the first matters to receive consideration was the laying out of roads 
to different parts of the county. There was no attempt made to bridge 
creeks, grade up or drain highways. They considered themselves very 
fortunate if they got them established and the timber out of the way. As 
roads were chopped out they presented the appearance of an alley-way with 
a huge brush fence on both sides. The roads as first established have 
remained \er\- nearly on their original lines, excepting a ])lace here and 
there where farmers succeeded in getting minor changes made to square up 
their fields. 

In 1847 the plank road fe\'er ran high, and it was planned to build 


roads out from Salem in several directions. The Salem and Millport road 
was first to be put on foot, as a good many flatboats had gone down the 
river successfully from Millport, which then served to be the most con- 
venient outlet for Washington county products to the southern market, 
which was all the market this whole western country then had. Xearly 
•everyone thought the investment would be a paying one, and the necessary 
stock to complete the road was soon made up. The county subscribed one 
thousand five hundred dollars. The road began at the present corporation 
limits of Salem on the north, and in the main followed the pike as it ullw 
is. In going down the knobs many of the hollows were bridged with heavy 
hewn timbers, instead of making short turns and winding around the heads 
•of the hollows, as the road now does. The way was graded and surfaced 
with poplar and oak boards ten feet long, one foot wide and two inches 
thick. Most of the planks used were yellow poplar, and were cut at the 
Millport saw-mill. There were three toll gates established, one at each end 
of the road, and another about a mile south of Kossuth. This road was 
kept up in good shape about ten ye.irs, but stockholders ne\'er received any 
dividends, it taking all the earnings to keep it in repair. In 1858 it was 
surrendered to the county and abandoned. It was practically along this 
grade that the first turnpike was built in the county at public expense, in 
1897 ^"d 1898. 


The first turnpike road built in the county was from Xew Albanv to 
Vincennes. A company was granted a charter in January, 1830. to build 
the road at least twenty-five feet in width, surfacing it with "wood, stone, 
gravel or other proper or convenient materials." good bridges to be built 
■over all streams, except the two ^^'hite rivers. The road was to run from 
New Albany, through Greenville. Paoli. Mt. Pleasant, Washington, and to 
terminate at Vincennes. The road was surveved its entire length, but it was 
never completed further than Paoli. In 1837 and 1838 the state set apart 
funds to build a road from Xew Albany to Salem. The road was graded 
most of its entire length, and ran through Pekin and Borden, then called 
New Prox'idence Stone was quarried and hauled to the creek banks for a 
l>ridge across Blue river just southeast of town, but the whole project was 
abandoned two years after the construction work was begun. The road 
was ever after known as the "Old Grade." The Jefifersonville and Craw- 
fordsville Turnpike Company started a road at one time through this same 
■country, and some work was done in the wav of clearing up the right of 


way and grubbing out stumps, when lack of funds to continue the work 
caused it to be abandoned. A hard surface road was at one time projected 
through the northeast part of the county, to run from Chariest own to 
Brownstown, but no work was done upon it in this county. An effort was 
made to build a toll road from Harristown to Brownstown, but the project 
failed because stock could not be sold. This venture contemplated a road 
that was to lead from Brownstown to New Albany, as nearly as possible 
on a direct line, but in leaving out Salem very few persons in this county 
encouraged the enterprise. 

Back in the forties a road one hundred feet wide was projected from 
Indianapolis to the Ohio river. This road was to run through the western 
part of this county, and here trees were cut down and grubbed up for sev- 
eral miles, when the building of railroads was begun, which caused the 
enterprise to be abandoned. Indianapolis was to furnish the money for 
the completion of this road in order to get a direct route to the southern 
markets. Quite a number of persons made trips back east on horseback 
as the country was being settled up. If it was winter time the traveler care- 
fully protected himself with leggings and overcoat made from animal hides. 
In a bulging pair of saddle-bags he carried his clothes and other articles 
indispensable to a traveler. 


Log cabin days began in this country in 1607, more than three hundred 
years ago, one hundred years after De Leon threw up a log fort and called 
the land he had discovered "Florida," in honor of its flowers. The story of 
America is written in log cabins, and her greatest men whom one hundred 
and forty years of American independence have produced, were born, reared 
and matured in cabin homes, without the silver spoon. Some one very 
pointedly says that "Poverty seems to have been the step-mother of genius," 
in this country. When adventurers had satisfied their appetites for voyage 
and discovery, they began to form permanent settlements, and each colony 
was an assemblage of cabins. All down the past through centuries, the 
log house has marked the outpost of civilization. Deeper and deeper into the 
heart of the new continent pressed the woodman's ax. Farther and farther 
extended the line of huts as the years sped by. Soon log cabins were dotted 
'along the Ohio river, just as they had been planted along the Hudson and 
the James. They were not long in striking the old trail of DeSoto on the 
Mississippi, when plains and prairies, "the great American desert," inter- 


vened. Still the course of empire pressed onward until the mountains rose 
skyward. But the log cabin never stopped until myriad miles of ocean, the 
great Pacific, barred the way. The log house is branded deep into the 
story of American liberty and American men. 

It was from the log cabin that patriots went forth to fight for and 
establish that immortal declaration that "all men are created free and 
equal." It was from this same primitive home that the greatest men of the 
nation have come forth, forever annihilating the standard that once meas- 
ured a man by the luxury of his home. "It has been the mission of the 
United States," wrote the historian Ridpath, "to ennoble toil and lionor 
the toiler. In other lands to labor has been considered the lot of serfs and 
peasants; to gather the fruits and consume them in luxury and ease, the 
business of the great. To be a nobleman was to be distinguished from the 
people; to be one of the people was to be forever debarred from nobility. 
Thus has been set on human industry the perpetual stigma of disgrace. It 
is the genius of American institutions, in the fullness of time, to wipe out 
the last opprobrious stain from the brow of toil, and to crown the toiler with 
the dignity, luster and honor of a full and perfect manhood." The heritage 
of every American boy is his opportunity. His birthright is his country .md 
her priceless privileges. He is not handicapped because he is poor. The 
same opportunities, the same privileges that have raised American kings 
from cabin floors, are his if he is able to grasp them. 


In colonial days there were a few leaders of men who were born into 
comforts and luxuries. Washington was far from penniless, yet the most 
momentous months of his existence were "log cabin days." Never did the 
immortal commander face darker hours, never did his cause seem drearier 
than during the winter at Valley Forge. Sufferings beyond the power of 
pen to describe were endured. But it was only by the erection of log cabins 
for the failing hosts of liberty that the remnant of an army was kept alive. 
And so the story of America goes on, always written in log cabins. 

John Adams, the first vice-president, with the assistance of a devoted 
father, received a liberal education, but he had to fight his way from poverty 
to prominence. Patrick Henry was an uneducated moimtaineer, but when 
he PS])oused the cause of liberty and left his humble home, he startled the 
world, and made the mighty George III quake upon his throne by his elo- 


qiience and boldness. Benjamin Franklin was designed by his humble 
parents to become a manufacturer of soap and candles, but he seized his 
opportunity, rose triumphantly and was known to two hemispheres ere he 
passed away. Alexander Hamilton, as a boy, was familiar with poverty 
and misfortune, but he rose to the pinnacle of fame and always gloried in 
the homeliness of his birth. Andrew Jackson, fatherless, and with a desti- 
tute mother, received his early training in the house of logs, but in the brief 
space of half a century won his way triumphantly to the sacred precmcts 
of the White House. Soon after came William Henry Harrison, who was 
elected to the presidency by a "log cabin campaign." In honor of his labors 
for the country on the frontiers of the Northwest Territory the log cabin 
was adopted as his political emblem. He had built and lived in a very "elab- 
orate log mansion" at his home, six miles west of Corydon. 

Other great minds of that day were conceived in lowly homes. Henry 
Clay was born and raised on the farm and was familiar with the log cabin. 
Daniel Webster was 1)orn in a log house. John C. Calhoun was a farmer 
boy of the backwoods country and Millard Fillmore was apprenticed to a 
clothier. Zachary Taylor came into the world on the frontiers of Kentucky 
when there were then few houses better than the cabin. The character and 
personality of all these mighty men was moulded in the atmosphere of the 
cabin home. Most striking in the tale of his career are the scenes (jf the 
humble birth and youth of Abraham Lincoln. Born in a log cabin in Ken- 
tucky, reared in a pole cabin in Indiana, he here acquired the vigorous hon- 
esty and many sterling qualities of character which placed him at the head 
of the nation during its darkest days. His vice-president, who .succeeded 
him in the White House, was apprenticed to a tailor. 

U. S. Grant was born with meager advantages, and during tlje days 
when he earned his living in the tan-yard, or by hauling wood to St. Louis, 
lived in a two-room log house of primitive pattern. James A. Garfield's 
early days were spent in a log house on the farm, where he spent much of 
his time cutting brush for fences, grubbing up stumps, harvesting crops and 
working on a canal boat. Robert Fulton. Samuel Morse and Eli Whitney, 
the great inventors of the age were self-made men, starting at the bottom of 
the ladder. Many of the able men now in both branches of Congress are 
"log-cabin" statesmen. Thus, from the first permanent settlement at James- 
town, in dreary 1607, down to the present day. the story of America is the 
story of the house of logs. 



Coming down to our own Washington county, we see our first settlers. 
more than a century ago, building their log huts. The tirst year after the 
founding of Salem there was to be seen nothing but a cluster of log cabins 
and a few log stores, very much alike, some being only a little more preten- 
tious than others. And upon every spot selected by the pioneer to carve out 
a home in the wilderness, the log hut was in evidence. Here the leading 
lights in the country's development were located, and here were reared the 
men and women who in after years figured prominently in all public mat- 
ters, not a few of whom emigrating to other parts of the realm, won even 
national fame and reputation. Not only were the homes of rustic pattern, 
but the school houses and churches for the first half century of the county's 
existence were fashioned of logs. Then truthfully may it be said that the 
first century's history of this part of the country is a story of the log cabin. 


From a historical standpoint Salem is one of the most notable towns 
in the state. It can truthfully claim to be the birth-place, or home for a 
time, of some of the most eminent men of the state and nation. Shortly after 
the town of Salem was laid out, Christopher Harrison located here and was 
afterward lieutenant-governor and served several years as circuit judge. 
He, it is said, selected the site of Indianapolis as the capital of the state. 
Gen. Walter Q. Gresham, who won laurels in the Civil War, and who was 
secretary of state under Grover Cleveland, was partly reared and received 
most of his education at the old Washington county seminary at the time 
when Salem was called the "Athens of the West." John Hay, secretary of 
state under President Garfield and President Roosevelt, was born and 
received a good part of his education in Salem. Governor W. T. Durbin 
was born in Washington county and grew to manhood at New Philadelphia, 
a tanner by trade. Gov. Newton P.ooth. of California, and afterwards United 
States senator from that state, was a native of .Salem, and got his education at 
the old seminary. Thomas Rodman, the inventor of a gun that bore his name. 
and which was considered the leading piece of field artillery during the Ci\ il 
War, was born and bred on Washington county soil. Robert Bonner, who 
rose to great distinction in New York as an editor and publisher, spent most 
of his boyhood days in Salem. Volney T. Malott, one of the greatest finan- 


ciers of the state and for several years president of the Vandaha railroad, 
was brought up in Salem. John I. Morrison, one time state treasurer, 
together with James G. May, conducted the Washington county Seminary 
for many years. John M. Bloss, a Washington county production, was a 
noted educator and for several years was state superintendent of public 
instruction. Col. John C. Lawler and Warder W. Stevens were each 
selected at different dates, candidates for lieutenant-governor, upon then- 
party's ticket. 

Washington C. DePauw, for whom DePauw University was named, got 
his financial start in Washington county and was county clerk for two 
terms.- Dr. Benjamin F, Trueblood, a lecturer of national repute upon the 
subject of world-wide peace, and for a great many years secretary of the 
Peace Society of Boston, was born and reared in this county. Judge M. B. 
Hottle, judge of the state appellate court for several terms, was indigenous 
to Washington county soil. Cyrus L. Dunham, one time secretary of state,^ 
and acknowledged to be one of the greatest orators that ever addressed a 
jury or political assembly in southern Indiana, made his start in Salem and 
it was his home for many years. Barnabus C. Hobbs, one of the most noted 
educators of the state, was a native of old Washington county. So was- 
Joseph Moore, who was for several years president of Earlham College. 
Isaac Blackford was first clerk and recorder of the county, afterwards a 
noted lawyer, and reporter of the supreme court, and compiled a number of 
the first reports which bear his name. James A. Cravens, a farmer boy, 
won distinction in the Mexican War, was afterward state agent for several 
years and was twice elected to Congress. Col. Dick Thompson taught 
school in this county, studied law, was called "the young lawyer with fiery 
tongue," and in after years was sent to Congress, and then served his time 
as secretary of war. Many other native and adopted sons of Washington 
county have gone forth into the world and won fame and reputation, during- 
the past "log-cabin century." 


In some out-of-the-way places the log cabm is still being built, but the 
box house is fast crowding it out in all of this part of the country. A few 
of the old-time huts are vet to be found here and there, but generally irl a 
dilapidated condition. In the mountain ranges of Virginia, Kentucky and 
Tennessee these little homes are in use almost exclusively, as logs are in 
most cases the most convenient and cheapest material that is available for 


home building. The habits of these mountain dwellers aje still very primi- 
tive, the most so of any people in the United States. They still spin and 
weave in the home, and wear their homespun, happy and content with the 
^ifts the gods provide, tven if luxuries of life seldom come their way. 
They are as conveniently and comfortably situated as their neighbors, a 
■condition that makes people content the world over. 


In the matter of construction the log cabins varied principally in size 
and in the hewing of the logs, sometimes leaving them in their natural state. 
The first settler in any neighborhood had no outside help and made his cabin 
■out of small poles that two or three men, or the members of his family could 
handle conveniently. The full kit of tools usually carried by the early emi- 
grant consisted of a chopping ax, a broad-ax, a crosscut saw, iron wedge, 
drawing knife, one inch and two-inch auger and a frow. If the homeseeker 
•came through on horse-back a common chopping ax was about the only 
tool carried and with it alone a fairly good pole cabin could be put up, cov- 
ering same with boughs, reeds and wild grasses. Th°e regulation cabin of 
early time was a one-room house, made of hewn logs and stick chimney, 
■or sometimes, if the settler was real full-handed, two rooms were made, 
the pens being set about four feet apart, thus giving room between them for 
a double fire-place. One room then served for kitchen and dining room, 
also containing a bed or two, the other being used when company came ; a 
sort of parlor. 


When a cabin was to be built the first thing was to hew the logs. Trees 
•of an even size, and as straight as possible, were cut down, and cut ofif even 
Jengths according to the size of room wanted. The bark was scalped ofif, 
near the top of the log on lx)th sides, so the timber could be "lined" for 
hewing. This marking was usually done with a line that had been soaked 
in water and powdered charcoal. Standing on top of the log a man with 
a chopping ax cut notches alx)ut two feet apart into the stick and up near 
the line. The wood between these notches was split out coming off in 
slabs, called "juggles," and they called this "juggling" the log. When both 
sides of the timber had been "juggled," it was then "scored." or lightly 
hacked all along to expedite the work of hewing. A broad-ax, with blade 
some ten inches across gave the finishing touch to the log. They "hewed to 



the line" exactly if a nice set of timbers was provided. When finished the 
hewn log was seven or eignt inches through, the depth up and aown being 
regulated by the size of. the tree. The two sills were hewn upon three sides, 
the third side being put uppermost to receive the sleepers upon which the 
floor was laid. Upon each end of the sills a "saddle" was made by notching 
and cutting off blocks, the center of the "saddle" coming up to the top of 
the logs, with a downward slope on either side. The next log. was notched 
so as to fit this "saddle," and on up the logs were fitted, so they wotild 
barely touch each other, or leave a small crack between. Where rafters 
were used to support the roof the plates, or two top logs on each side, were 
hewn square. 


If the builder was short of nails, as was the case for inany years after 
this country was settled, the top of the house was "ribbed" to make a sup- 
port for the board roof. In "ribbing" the gable ends were finished with 
hewn logs the same as used in the body of the building. The first end log 
was laid upon the plates, and beginning back about two feet fi^om each end 
the top was chamfered, or chipped off, so the timber came to a feather end 
where it rested on the plate. Upon these end logs, two feet from the plate, 
a rib was notched in, extending clear across the building, and out a foot or 
so beyond the gable. Another and a shorter log was laid upon these ribs, 
and it was chamfered down as lifers, and so on to the "comb" wh^n a "ridge 
pole" completed the roof support. 

To make boards or "shakes" for roof a nice white or red oak was cut 
down and cuts were sawed off about three feet long. These cuts were split 
up into "bolts," using about eight inches of the outside of the log for board 
making. After the bolts had been split out with maul and wedge, the frow 
was used in the riving, or splitting of the boards, which were about one- 
half inch thick. These boards were then laid upon the ribs in a double 
course, the top ones being laid so as to break joints with the lo\yer one. The 
next course was laid so the lower ends lapped over the course first laid about 
six or eight inches and the courses were continued until the roof was 
finished. If there were no nails to fasten the boards to the ribs, "binding 
poles" were laid upon the loose boards, the lower pole being fastened to the 
plate, while the ones above were held in place by "spacers," or knees cut of 
proper length to reach from one pole to another. The spaces between the 
legs that formed the walls of the building were "chinked" as tightly as pos- 


sible and then daubed with clay mortar. The first cabins had puncheon 
floors, trees being split in halves, the flat side hewn quite smooth, and laid 
upon the ground, bark side down. Not unfrequently the loft was covered 
with puncheons. 


At one end of the room a hole was cut or sawed out, about six feet 
wide and nearly as high as a man's head. This was for the chimney. A 
log pen was constructed outside, joining the house at either side of the 
opening made for the fireplace. This pen was lined inside with rock laid in 
plaster or mud, the "jams" extending into the room flush with the inside 
wall. Sometimes an arch of stone was turned inside to protect the logs 
above the fireplace from burning. On the outside, above the log pen, the 
chimney was built up of sticks and clay, plastered on the inside with mud 
t9 prevent the sticks from catching fire. The sticks ordinarily used in 
building up the chimney were rived out of short pieces of timber and looked 
something like laths. Fireplaces were made large, because considerable heat 
was needed to keep the room warm in winter time, and wood was no object 
— it was to be had at the very door simply for the cutting. 

An opening for a door was usually cut on the south side of the cabin 
and beside it a small space for a window. To support the ends of the logs 
where the door was made, and to provide a place to hang the shutter, a sap- 
pling about six inches through was flattened on both sides and pinned on 
the ends of the logs. A sort of window frame was made in the same man- 
ner. The door was made of rough, flat pieces split from logs, and pinned 
to battens which extended out on one side about six inches and through these 
projections holes were bored, through which wooden pins fastened the door 
to stubs let into the side logs, thus making a very strong and durable hinge, 
but a mighty squeaky one when not kept well soaped. A wooden latch was 
arranged inside, with a string or piece of rawhide, reaching out through a 
small hole in the door, by the pulling of which the latch w as raised. When 
the "latch string was out" it was a sign that the visitor was a welcome guest. 
Nearly all ra1>ins built liy the earliest settlers had port holes arranged on all 
sides of the house, as a means of self-protection in case the inmates should 
be attacked by Indians. 


A large hearth was always pro\ ided in fnmt of the lireiilace. ukkIc of 
flat stones imbedded in mortar and upon iliis hearth the coal> were raked 


out upon which the spit, trying pans and bread ovens were placed in pre- 
paring meals. Tea kettles and pots for boiling were held above the fire by 
"cranes" or "pot-trammels," the former swinging out from one side of the 
fireplace, the latter extending down from a log just above the chimney 
arch. Boards and flooring cut out by means of the whip saw, superceded 
the puncheons and hewn slabs used in cabin construction. With sawed 
flooring, lofts overhead were u.sed for sleeping quarters for the boys. The 
loft was reached by scaling a ladder, or ]50st by means of pegs inserted into 
the same. The first addition built on to the primitive cabin was usually a 
"lean to" for the loom which was indispensable in every well-regulated back- 
woods homestead. After the log stable was up, for the protection of the 
team and cow, a meat house was the next necessary improvement. As a 
rule the site selected for the house was near a spring, but the word "near ' 
might mean a hundred yards or a quarter of a mile, and all water for house- 
hold use had to be carried in buckets, for wells were unknown. Most fre- 
quently a steep hill had to be cbmbed in returning from the spring to the 
house, which usually stood on high ground. Hickory withes and wooden 
pins were used where annealed wire and nails are now employed. When 
cut nails came into general use, pole rafters were used instead of "ribs" in 
roofing farm buildings. Sheeting instead of being sawed was rived out 
of a stick of timber that .split easily. 


In the home of the pioneer the furniture was as rough and crude as 
the surroundings. Three-legged stools took the place of chairs, and benches, 
hewn out of logs, served for seats at the table. Often a hollow tree was 
shaped into a chair with high back, rather a cumbersome affair, but made 
a very comfortable seat beside the firejilace. The back log that was carried 
in evenings for the morning fire, was utilized for a seat, the occupant hav- 
ing the wall to lean against. Tables were made of hewn boards, two or 
three pieces being l>attened together, holes being bored in each corner into 
which legs were inserted. Reds were fashioned in many styles. .\ sort of 
foundation mattress was often made by fastening small poles to a cross 
bar at each end. This mattress rested u])on four blocks, or upon pins 
extending out from the wall. Evergreen boughs were ])laced upon the poles, 
and upon these was a sort of hedtick, filled with leaves, straw or grass, and 
altogether it was not an uncomfortable bed. Skins of animals were often 
used for bedding. Several skins sewe;l together made a comfortable bed- 
spreafl in cold weather. 



When there were visitors over night- — and it was not considered a 
visit unless the guest rema'ned over night — the men were requested to step 
out of doors, while the women put themselves to bed, when the men were 
cSHied; in, the fire was covered up so there would be a fine bed of coals next 
morning, and all would soon be slumbering in a room somewhat crowded, 
but supplied with an abundance of pure fresh air. 


. A mantle, of some sort, was an indispensable adjunct to the log cabin. 
In many instances it was simply a shelf, a single board resting on pins set 
high above the fireplace. On this stood a candle-stick or grease lamp, some 
pewter ware, possibly a clock, and perhaps a family bible and a few books. 
In summer time a box or crock containing morning glories, or some wild 
vine, would ornament this mantle and the fireplace would be filled with 
blooming shrubs from the forest snch as dogwood, redbud, crab-apple or 
brancnes of cedar. This spirit of adornment would crop out among the 
female pioneers in some way, no matter how crude the house and its sur- 
roundings might be. Those cabins were inhabited by a kind and true- 
hearted people, and the great men and women who came forth from these 
humble homes have made our nation the freest on earth, the greatest 
asylum for down-trodden peoples, from all parts of the globe. 


Ride out across the country in most any direction and you will still 
find an occasional primitive homestead: places that were once inviting and 
around which pleasant recollections still sling. It is with a feeling of sadness 
and regret that we look upon these old, neglected places and very naturally 
ask why it is that men whose boyhood days were s])ent in those rural homes, 
ana who now occupy prominent positions among their fellow men, will 
allow the old farmstead to fall into such dilapidated and desolate condi- 
tions. There are many reasonable arguments, no doubt, which might be 
presented to give answer to this inquiry, but the task will not be attempted 



These old homes, besides being the birthplaces of many successful men 
and women who have gone out into the world, have been cne scenes of 
stirring events in days gone by. They tell of hardships and selfdenials 
borne by the sturdy pioneer ; they speak of long nights of suspense when 
at any moment the wily savage was expected to make his raid, and with 
tomahawk and firebrand leave a .^cene of carnage and devastation behind. 
They sent forth gallant defenders of home, fireside and country at duty's 
call, many of whom today occupy forgotten graves — on distant battlefields. 
Here, too, stood the blushing bride, giving into the keeping of some worthy 
man her young life, her beauty and her happiness, her lips uttering fear- 
lessly the vow then held sacred "for better or for worse" while life should 
last. Here rang the peal of merry laughter that bespoke the innocence of 
childhood. Here fond mothers' hearts beat quicker as baby lips first 
uttered that heaven-lxjrn name; lips that in manhood's years were destined 
to move men's souls and help to shape the destiny of state and nation ; names 
that will go down the corridors of time and live in history in centuries to 
come. And in many of these old homes were once heard the voices of 
faithful followers of the great Master, chanting doleful hymns and exhort- 
ing sinners to repentance. 


These old homes represent all this, more, for they have done much 
to give to our country its noblest heritage — that priceless gift, in the safe- 
guarding of which depends the stability of our government, the preserva- 
tion of its institutions and the prosperity and welfare of our people — the 
highest type of citizenship. Gifted indeed would be the tongue, mighty the 
pen, that could do justice to the memory of the pioneers of our land. To 
the lofty character of these noble men, who, with one hand on the plow and 
the other on the rifle, first established our log-cabin homes, most of which 
have long since gone to ruin and decay, our country owes much of its great- 
ness. Their influence has been felt throughout the length and breadth of 
the land, from generation to generation. Wherever their children have 
gone forth, progress has followed their footsteps. The great region of the 
M^est owes its social, material and industrial development, in a good meas- 
ure, to the thrift and energy of young and vigorous men who left this state 
to keep abreast of the advancing tide of civilization. 



To this vast army of adventurers Washington county has contributed 
der full quota of able, progressive men and women, and we can hardly visit 
a community in all the vast region of the West without finding some of theni 
engaged in the active pursuits of life. With their characteristic courage 
and hardiness they began at an early day to push out upon the boundless 
{>raifies, and even across the Rocky mountains, enduring all kinds ol hard- 
ships, in many instances battling a savage and relentless foe, to found and 
develop new territories and states to add to the strength and possibilities 
of our great commonwealth. The pioneer homes were ever the source from 
which our country has, in her development, called forth men at the hour of 
need; and they were even ready to respond to that call, in peace or in war. 
Truly may it be said of them, "They deserve well of the Republic." 


In locating a claim- in the first settling up of the country, one of tlie 
indispensable adjuncts was a good sugar grove of rock or hard maple. A 
bountiful supply of sugar and molasses meant almost half a living for the 
backwoodsman and his family. Outside of the "barrens," or open country 
that lay in the southwest part of the county, there was ever} where an 
abundance of hard maple, in some places the trees were four feet in diam- 
eter, and many of the larger trees were of the curly variety, used in the 
manufacture of furniture. A luxuriant growth of sugar trees also indicated 
a fine, rich soil, not readily exhausted, an item not overlooked by the home- 
seeker. They considered land that was not rich enough to grow sugar trees 
was not worth bothering with. 

Around every Indian village in the county, or wiiere villages had form- 
erly been located, the first settlers found indications where the red men, 
or rather the red squaw, had tapped the sugar tree and boiled down the sap 
into molasses. They notched the trees and inserted reeds or a piece of chip 
into the lower corner of the cut to conduct the sap into some vessel below. 
The sap was boiled down by dropping hot stones into it. Sand stone was 
always used, as it could be cooled and reheated any number of times with- 
out crumbling and falling to pieces. In some cases they allowed the liquid 
to freeze, and by throwing out the ice considerable water was removed, 
which was a great help in reducing the sap to sugar. 


In pioneer days maple sugar was manufactured as a household neces- 
sity, and not as a luxury. "Boughten sugar" was not used to any great 
extent, on account of its high price. Probably nine-tenths of the early 
farmers had their "sugar camp," and with the breaking up of winter, they 
went down into the wood to "open up the camp." One of the earliest meth- 
ods of tapping was to box the trees. This was done with the ax, chopping 
out a notch as wide as the blade of the ax, the notch slanting down so as to 
catch and hold the sap. An auger hole was then bored just below the 
notch and slanting upwards into the notch. Into this hole an elder spile was 
inserted to, convey the sap to the trough. For catching the drip, troughs 
were most commonly used. They were made by cutting logs about a foot 
in diameter into lengths of about two and one-half feet, splitting them in 
halves, and chopping out the middle portion, thus making a receptacle that 
would hold from three to four gallons. At the close of the season these 
troughs were turned bottom side up, when they were left till the next season, 
or the careful sugar maker would drag them to the camp and put them under 
some sort of shelter. Basswcod or poplar were used generally in making 


The sap was conveyed to the boiling place in buckets that were home- 
made. These buckets were hung to either end of a yoke made to fit a man's 
shoulders, and the task of gathering in the sap was very laborious. If the 
camp was a large one a barrel would be put on a sled and by the use of a 
horse the work of collecting the sap was not so hard. Extra barrels were 
kept at the boiling place to store sap in. The sap was boiled down in huge 
iron kettles holding from forty to sixty gallons. A forked stick was set 
into the ground, upon which was placed a pole fifteen or twenty feet long, 
one end of which protruded a few feet beyond the stake and upon this end 
was hung the kettle, much like the bucket at the end of an old-fashioned 
well-sweep. The long end of the pole was weighted down to hold the kettle 
in the desired position. Into this kettle was poured the sap with its accum- 
ulation of leaves, twigs and dirt, some of which was skimmed ofi with a 
small gourd after the kettle boiled. When several kettles were used they 
were usually set in a row in a sort of furnace, made of rock and mud. If 
the camp was a large one a considerable amount of surplus sugar was manu- 
factured, which always found a ready market at Salem, or the village store. 

A barrel of saji would make a little over ten pounds of syrup. The 


sap woiild vary in its saccharine qualities, that produced by trees in a forest 
not being as sweet as that produced in an open grove. The sap first secured 
from trees wass also sweeter than that gathered later in the season. The 
opening ot the sugar sea -on varied considerably from year to year. Some 
years favorable sugar weaiher began early in February, if the season was 
iatP It would often be Match b<^fore there was any good sugar weather. A 
suodeh thaw after a sharp freeze was sure to bring work in the sugar camp. 
A dry, continuous warm spell, with wind, after trees were opened, dried up 
the sap rapidly, often making a fresh tapping of the trees necessary. 


They often made a sugar called "maple drip" that commanded an extra 
price. It was made by packing the lumps of sugar in kegs or wooden 
buckets with holes in the bottom to allow the uncongealed sap to pass away, 
'making the sugar drier and whiter. Old-time "sugaring-off" parties were 
once a very common sport for the youngsters, and in every camp there was 
at least one of these gatherings of neighborhood lads and lasses durine the 

About i860 there was a change in the process of sugar making through 
the adoption of an iron pan in place of the old kettle. This pan was about 
thirty inches wide, eight feet long, with wooden sides six inches high. This 
pan was set upon a furnace made of stone or brick, when a small amount of 
fire would do a great deal of boiling. Some time about 1870 the regular 
evaporator came into use, and with it a much better grade of syrup and 


Unless new plantations of trees are started the sugar camp will soon 
be a thing of the past. There is today not more than one good camp to 
be found, where there were a hundred a century ago. While the product 
derived from the sugar tree was once a necessity and used more or less in 
every family, now it is a luxury and is only to be obtained a few weeks 
in the year. Where lands were susceptible to cultivation, they have long 
since been cleared, the only sugar groves remaining being now found on 
rocky hillsides that are worth but little except for the timber that trrows 
wild thereon. 


Sorghum was introduced into the country during the Civil War. The 
supply of cane sugar from the South was cut oft as soon as hostilities began. 


and the government took the matter in hand of substituting sorghum 
instead. There were no iron mills to be had to grind up the cane, so the 
first grinders were home-made. Rolls were turned out of hard oak, about 
eighteen inches in diameter, and these were boxed in a heavy frame. One 
roll extended up some seven feet high, upon the top of which was fastened 
a sweep by means of which a horse propelled the mill. Its squeaking could 
be heard for miles around in spite of all the soft soap and grease that could 
be applied. A little later on iron mills were made, one of which was to be 
found in every neighborhood, and this was kept busy for several weeks 
every fall, together with an evaporator, manufacturing syrup for all who 
were within reach. The sorghum first made in kettles was rather a poor 
substitute for molasses, but it was used extensively, for there was little 
else to be had in the way of sweets, as sugar was very limited in supply 
and the price was almost prohibitive. Maple sugar again came in very con- 
veniently, and every place in the country where there were trees enough to 
open a camp was run for all there was in it. 


The pioneers" chief articles of diet were bread and nieat. The meat 
could be had most any time for the shooting, but the bread problem was 
more difficult to solve. When tlie mill was situated ten, fifteen or twenty 
miles away the supply of breadstuff frequently ran short, and then all sorts 
of artifices were resorted to in the effort to get corn cracked up so it could 
be made into pone or go into the mush-pot. Flour was almost out of the 
question, and it was only the very well-to-do folks who could afford wheat 
biscuit for Sunday morning breakfast or when company came. For a few 
weeks in the fall of the year, before the corn got too hard, the "grater" 
was used to make meal. This was made by taking a piece of tin or sheet 
iron six or seven inches wide and a foot long, and with some small, sharp- 
pointed instrument punch it full of holes, not more than one-quarter of an 
inch apart. This tin or iron was then bent round and tacked to a board 
four inches wide and some longer than the grater, rough side out, and with 
this mill it was surprising how little time it took to grate enough meal for 
a mush-and-milk supper. Sometimes when the meal supply was exhausted 
the dry corn in the ear was soaked in water a few minutes, when it was 
taken out and allowed to soften or swell up, when it could be grated very 

The wooden mortar and pestle were frequently used to crush corn and 


were operated by both hand and water power. The mortar was made out 
■of a log, black gum usually, al)0ut three and one-half feet long and eighteen 
inches in diameter, (^ne end of this log was chiseled or burned out till 
there was a cup-shaped hile that would hold about one-half bushel or more. 
In this about one-half gallon of corn or wheat was put to be subjected to 
the "grinding" process. If operated by hand, a pestle was made by split- 
ting a peeled stick alxmt the size of a man's wrist, and after banding the 
same an iron wedge was inserted, allowing the larger end of the wedge to 
e.xtend an inch or so beyond the end of the ?tick. This made a pestle about 
two feet long. 


In some instances hea\'ier pestles were made to be operated ])y water 
power. It didn't require a very large stream of water to run a mill of 
this kind, but there had to be considerable fall to get the necessary i)ower. 
A race having been provided, two forks were set u]) about ten feet fmm 
the falling water and in front of it, and about six feet apart. .\ g(.)()d strong 
pole was placed in these forks. To this axle another larger pole was 
attached, ajjout twenty feet long, and in the end of this reaching liack to 
the waterfall a tight box was hxed. and on the other end the ])estle. To 
<jperate this mill the lio.x end of the beam was turned under the water fall, 
and when the trough was filled it descended and raised the pestle. There 
was a valve in the bottom of the box which, on striking a pin, opened and 
allowed the water to rush out and, thus l)eing released, the pestle fell on the 
grain in the mortar. This Avas rather a slow process, but it worked day 
and night till the grist was pounded up as fine as desired. 


A mill unlike an} thing else that was e\ er used in the county for crack- 
ing corn and wheat was that made l)y John Knight, who Ii\ed northwest of 
Salem on Twin creek. Comitig to town one day, he was met l>\- Xathan 
Trueblood, who told him his cart wheels needed grease to stop their squeak- 
ing. Knight told him it was his portal ile mill he heard and then showed 
him that his cart wheels were not turning at all, that a key fastened the 
wheels to the axle, which turned with the wheels. I'pon this rexolving 
axle were cogs or gears attached to ijther cogs that turned a small bar 
fastened up in the body of the cart. He could thus grind whenexer the cart 
was in motion. If he wished to use the cart for any other purpijse he 
remo\-ed the key and the wheels then turned upon the spindle the same as 


any other wagon wheel. He could grind a bushel of com in going from his 
home to Salem, which he would exchange for groceries and other neces- 
saries. The mill-stones had been made by his father, Andrew Knight, in 
North Carolina, who was a millwright by trade. The Knights were all 
very ingenious, made their own plows, wagons and farming tools of all 
kinds. It was a descendant of this Knight family that during the past few 
years won fame and fortune by inventing a sleeve-valve automobile engine 
that is used extensively all over the world. 


Ihe "stump mill" was among the earliest patterns. These were built 
in parts of the country where there was no water power available, and one 
of these mills was preserved and used up to 1900, on a farm about one mile 
south of South Boston. These mills were built upon a stump, hence the 
name. In choosing a mill site an oak or walnut tree was selected about 
two and one-half feet in diameter. The tree was sawed down, leaving a 
stump, with a level top, about a foot high. A circle was struck on top of 
this stump and it was made exactly round, and on the side cogs were mor- 
tised out, made good and strong. A larger wheel was framed together, 
about four feet in diameter, upon the side of which there were cog gears 
made to match those in the stump. This large wheel was geared again 
into a small pinion, which extended up into the mill house and upon which 
the mill buhrs were fastened that did the grinding. 

The mill was framed and set upon a sort of tripod, one point resting 
on a pivot in the center of the stump, the other two points being supported 
by wooden wheels, with six-inch face, possibly sawed off the tree that had 
been cut down to get the stump. A track made of hewn timbers extended 
around the mill upon which the two wheel supports ran when the mill was 
operated. A mill sweep was attached to the mill frame timbers, to which 
two horses were hitched to furnish the power necessary to operate the mill. 
When the mill was in operation everything about it, horses and all, went 
round and round, except the stump. The mill stones were about two feet in 
diameter, and were capable of turning out from twenty to twenty-five 
bushels of meal a day. when two shifts or more of teams were used. It 
was the rule for each customer to furnish a team to do his own grinding, 
paying toll to the mill owner for the use of the mill. A sort of wheat and 
rye flour was made upon these mills, a kind of reel being attached to the 
machinery that took out the coarse bran, which was considered quite an 
improvement on the whole wheat meal or flour of that day. 



Horse mills were, of two kinds, one operated with a sweep to which a 
team or teams were attached, the other was a tread power. To construct 
the former a good stroiiJ? frame building was erected about twenty feet 
square, with a loft overhead about eight feet from the ground A huge 
drive wheel was made, some twelve feet in diameter, with cog gears on the 
outside. This wheel was raised up just under the loft floor and mounted on 
a large eight-sided spindle, some ten inches through. About three feet from 
the ground a hole was mortised through the spindle to receive the sweep, 
which extended out near the wall of the building, just so the team would 
have room to circle around. Meshed into the cogs of the large drive-wheel 
was a small pinion which extended up into the loft, and was attached to the 
grinding buhr. The face of the cogs on both drive-wheel and pinion were 
five or six inches broad, thus giving the mill strength and endurance. These 
cogs were lubricated with soft soap to prevent squeaking and wear, as well 
as to lighten draft. Steps were provided outside the building to facilitate 
the carrying of the grain up to the mill. The meal dropped down into a 
bin in one corner of the mill house. Those who patronized these mills 
always brought a team along to turn the mill. Sometimes two sweeps 
would be attached to the drive-shaft and, with four horses grinding, could 
be rushed along quite rapidly. 

The tread-mill, in which both horses and oxen were used to give power, 
consisted of an immense wheel, aljout t\venty-ii\e or thirty feet in diameter, 
with a solid surface, braced underneath so as to support securely the horses 
or cattle that "tread" thereon. This wheel was attached to a spindle in 
the center, from the top of which a bevel gear was arranged to operate the 
mill buhr. One side of the tread wheel was elevated to an angle of about 
twenty degrees, and as the horses climbed up the side the wheel was set 
in motion by force of gravity. The larger the wheel and the more weight 
that was put upon it, the more power was generated. 


These primitive mills wx-rt kept in repair and operated as late as 1850, 
some still later. Before any of these were built the early settlers in this 
county had to go to the Ohio Falls for their meal and flour, usually exchang- 
ing pelts 'jr same. This was a four-day trip, and it took a good team 
to make it in this time, as the roads were stumpy and rocky and in the 
rainy season very nmddy. 





Early emigrants experienced a great deal of trouble in getting across 
streams that were met with almost every day during their journey. Streams 
that run dry now the greater part of the year ran bank full during the fall, 
winter and spring months before the country was settled and cleared up. 
Water courses were then filled with drifts of large trees, which dammed 
them up and rendered currents very sluggish, and after heavy rains and 
spring thaws it took the water a long time to find its way to a free outlet. 
"On account of high water and floating ice." it was deemed necessary for 
the county to construct a bridge across Blue river at the foot of Main street 
in Salem, soon after the town was laid out. Accordingly, on November i8, 
1817, James Harbison was awarded contract for the construction of same, 
for which he received four hundred and seventy-five dollars. It had log 
piers, with three heavy hewn timbers about forty feet long spanning the 
stream, to which hewn slabs were pinned. This was the first bridge built 
in the county. Before it was constructed travelers and teamsters were often 
held up here for several days at a time waiting for the flood to subside. 
This was but a fair sample of iiif/St streams that drained the county in 
early times, and made it necessary tor ferries to be established where lead- 
ing highways crossed the larger ri\'ers. 

The first emigrants would often construct crafts to cross on. when 
there was no chance to ford streams, and these would l)e tied up on shore 
with grape vines so that the next traveler could .save time and trouble by 
appropriating same to his own use. I'he first ferry that was ever kept regu- 
larly in the county was across Blue river at Fredericksburg in 1815. It was 
a raft made of ]ioplar logs, and was used for several years. Theodore 
Catlin built a ferry boat about 1820, and in 1823 was licensed to operate 
the same regularly, and to receive tiie following tolls: Footman, six and 
one-quarter cents: horse and rider, twelve and one-half cents; two-horse 
wagon, twenty-fi\e cents: four-horse wagon, fifty cents; one-horse wagon, 
eighteen and thrce-r|uartcrs cents: stcjck of all kinds, five cents per head. 
For a few years i)rior to 1818 there was a log raft ferry at Millport, when a 


good boat was built. John DePaiiw put up a mill at this jxjint in the same 
year, and in 1820 he was regularly licensed to keep a ferry across the Mus- 
catatuck, and was authorized to charge the following rates : Horse and rider, 
twelve and one-half cents two-horse wagon, thirty cents; four-horse wagon, 
sixty-two and one-half cents: footman, six and one-quarter cents; cattle, 
hogs and sheep, four cents Some years later femes were established every 
four or five miles up and down the Muscatatuck and White rivers, and ferry- 
men derived a nice little income from the same. 

Boats were built about forty feet long and eight feet wide, large enough 
to carry a four-horse team. Two gunwales were necessary in their con- 
struction, which were hewn out of yellow poplar trees, six inches thick and 
two and one-half feet wide The two ends turned up after the fashion 
of a sled runner, and a double thickness of two-inch flooring was nailed 
to the lower edges of gunwales, and also to a stringer running through the 
center of the boat, its full length. The boat was usually swung to a long 
rope that spanned the stream by means of two short ropes and pulleys, one 
at each end of the boat. The ferryman, standing at the end of the boat 
farthest from shore, took firn> hold of the rope to which the craft hung and 
walked slowly from that end of the boat to the other, starting it and its 
load across the stream. When he had walked the length of the boat, he 
went back, took a new hold and walked again. An extra charge above the 
legal fee was allowed in operating the ferry between the hours of nine 
o'clock p. m. and four o'clock a. m. The law compelled a ferryman to be 
at his post and cross over all parties passing that way, unless he considered 
it extremely hazardous to attempt a crossing on account of high water or 
floating logs and ice. 

In ferrying cattle, unless the weather was extremely cold, a few leaders 
would be taken across and the remainder of the herd would be urged into 
the stream and made to swim across. There was danger in getting too 
many cattle on a boat at a time, as they were liable to get frightened and 
push one another overboard, or crowd to one end of the boat and sink her. 
Sheep were considered the meanest thing to take over. When they got 
scared one was liable to jump over and then the rest would follow. A sheep 
is a poor swimmer when his fleece is wet and when they jumped overboard 
many of them would drown. 

In winter, when rivers began to freeze over, boats were drawn out of 
the water and hauled up the bank to a point where there would be no danger 
of being carried away by the floes when the spring thaw came on. Acci- 
dents would occasionally happen when horses became nervous and fright- 


ened. If an animal was at all liable to cause trouble he was unhitched from 
the vehicle before being taken onto the boat. Once in a great while a horse 
was found with such an unconquerable aversion to the boat that he could 
not be led into it. In such case he was blind fidded with a coat or blanket 
when he could be put aboard without much trouble. 


An incident is told of a couple tnat ran away from Jackson county 
and started to Salem to get married. When they came to the ferry the 
young lady remained in the buggy while the swain stood by the horse's head. 
When the boat was landed across the stream the horse snorted and backed a 
little. The girl screamed and the man yanked the horse's head and struck 
at him, which frightened the horse all the more, and in backing again sent 
the hind wheels of the buggy over the boat. Of course the buggy tipped 
up and the girl went out backwards into the water. "Save her," the man 
cried, but he still held on to the horse. The ferryman saw that the woman 
was hanging on to the back of the buggy all right, and as soon as the horse 
had been unhitched from the buggy he went to the girl's rescue and pulled 
her out of the water. She was taken up to the ferryman's house where her 
clothing was dried out and ironed up, and the couple were soon on their 
way rejoicing. On their return trip, late in the day, the horse was unhitched 
from the buggy before boarding the boat, and the young bride stood up in 
the boat in preference to taking any chances by remaining in the buggy- 

On tiie opposite side of the ri\er, from the ferryman's house there 
usually hung an old-fashioned dinner horn, which was blown when anyone 
wanted to cross from that side. Quite frequently the ferryman would be 
out in an adjacent field at work, and a Ijlast from the old cow horn would 
tell he was needed at the ferry. A skiff was usually a companion of the 
ferryboat, floatino along l)esi(le it. to l)e used in case of necessity or acci- 
dent. It was also used in ferrying over footmen, as it could be handled 
more easily and (|uicker than the lioat. b'erryboat days are passed and 
bridges span all our streams where travel justifies, and the places that knew 
them onre will know them no more forever. 


The most important question that confronted the farmers and mer- 
chants of a century ago was that of securing a market for surplus products, 


SO as to bring some surplus money into the country. The people living in 
Washingion county, and the country lying north and west, had no means 
■of reaching a market except to haul their proaucts to the Ohio Falls, and 
prices that netted them f;>r corn, wheat and pork scarcely justified the haul- 
ing, to say nothing of cost of production. In the early spring flatboats car- 
ried down the Muscatatuck and White rivers a considerable amount of prod- 
uce of one kind and another, but there was no back haul, all supplies hav- 
ing to come overland at great expense. 

To improve transportation facilities the project was conceived of build- 
ing a steamboat to run up the river as far as Millport, collecting a boat load 
of grain, meat and whisky, as it journeyed down the ri\er to the Ohio. The 
inland streams then had sufficient water in them to float a small boat about 
nine months in the year. Everybody favored the enterprise and accordingly 
a meeting was called for February 3, 18 19, to be held at Bono, to consider 
the advisability of the project and the possibility of carrying it through to 
completion. This meeting was well attended by leading men from all the 
surrounding country, and two days' time was spent in discussion and start- 
ing the preliminary work. Salem was represented by John DePauw and 
James R. Higgins. DePauw was very much interested in the enterprise, as 
he had just completed a saw- and grist-mill at Millport, a large plant for that 
day. At this meeting commissioners were appointed from all surroundmg 
towns, as far north as Blocmiington, and south to Paoli. the river route 
"being considered the only practical outlet for all this country. A committee 
was appointed to draft a constitution and by-laws for the government of 
the company, setting forth the aims and the kind of craft that would be best 
suited to handle inland traffic. 

The meeting was an enthusiastic one, and adjourned to meet .at Pales- 
tine on February 27, 18 19. The Tocsin contained quite a lengthy article 
favoring the new project and urging everyone who was able, and felt so 
inclined, to take stock in the enterprise. Tt showed how the whole country 
and people would be benefited by this steamboat service, for both freight 
and passengers, even if stockholders did not derive great returns on their 
investment. The information was given that from a recent estimate of the 
number of steamboats on the Mississippi and its tributary streams, there 
appeared to be thirty-one boats in operation, or ready for use, and thirty 
more nearly completed : besides the keels of many more were laid, and still 
more projected. All this had developed since the first steamboat in west- 
•ern waters was launched at Pittsburgh in i8tt: and it was asked if any 


American could reflect on this development without feeling proud of his 
country. Appealing to a man's patriotism in those days was an argument 
that was irresistible. The following is a complete report of the meeting at 
Palestine, the then capital of Lawrence county : 


"At a meeting of the commissioners of the White River Steamboat 
Company, convened by public notice, ^t Palestine on the 27th of February, 
1819, Gen. John Milroy was called to the chair and Patrick Callan appointed 
secretary. The names of the commissioners being called over, the following 
persons appeared and took their seats, viz. : Jas. R. Higgins, Salem ; Dr. 
Robt. C. Ford, Brownstown ; Samuel Barlow, Dr. W. Foot and John Milroy, 
Palestine; Benj. Blackwell and Moses Fell, Orleans; Wm. Hoggatt and 
James Pearson, Paoli ; Wm. Hardin, Bloomington ; Thos. Beezley and Pat- 
rick Callan, Bono. The proceedings of the meeting of the 3d of February, 
1819, held at Bono, being read, it was on motion. Resolved, That the con- 
stitution now submitted to this meeting by the secretary be read by articles 
and such alterations and amendments made as may be deemed essen- 
tial to the interest of the company. After which, the articles being severally 
read and duly considered, the blanks were filled up, and the following unani- 
mously adopted as the constitution of the White River Steamboat Com- 
pany, viz. : 

■'We, the subscribers, in order to facilitate the exportation of our sur- 
plus produce, the introduction of foreign articles, and to extend our com- 
mercial intercourse into distant places, associate ourselves together and do 
mutually promise and agree to, and with each other to be governed and 
bound by, the following articles of association, to-wit : 

"Article i. A capital stock of twenty-five thousand dollars, to be 
divided into five hundred shares of fifty dollars each, shall be raised by 
subscription. The affairs and funds of the company shall be managed and 
conducted by seven directors, to be annually elected by the stockholders 
by plurality of votes; but no one stockholder shall have more than one 
vote for each share as high as five, and one vote for every ten after, at any 
election for directors. 

"Article 2. Subscription books shall be opened under the direction 
and management of the following commissioners : Salem, Christopher Har- 
rison, Jas. R. Higgins, John DePauw, James Wiley ; Livonia, Jas. McKin- 


iiey; Paoli, W'm. Hoggatt. Jno. B. Clendenneii, Jas. Pierson, Thos. Coffin; 
Orleans, Benj. Blackwell, JVIoses Fell, Jas. Fulton; Brownstown, Robert C. 
Ford, Alex. C. Craig, Jesse Durham, Jonas Crane ; Bloomington, Wm. Har- 
din. W'm. Lowe, Samue! Rollins, Jno. W. Lee; Palestine, John Milroy, 
Saml. Barlow, Ambrose Carlton, W'inthrop Foot: Dubois and Davis, Doc- 
tor Austin, Doctor Porter, Thos. Hope, Fred Schultz; Bono. Jno. Ham- 
mersly, Patrick Callan, Thos. Seezley. 

"Article 3. Each person at time of his subscribing shall pay into the 
hands of the aforesaid commissioners the sum of five dollars on each share 
subscribed for; and the further sum of forty-five dollars on each share 
subscribed for in such installments, at such time or times and in such man- 
ner as the president and directors of the compau}', hereafter to be elected, 
may order and direct. 

"Article 4. The ab(jve named commissioners shall have the power to 
appoint a suitable person to take charge of the money subscribed and paid, 
until the first directors of the company are elected, or appointed, and as 
soon as the hrst directors of the company are elected, the aforesaid 
commissioners and the person appointed in manner aforesaid to take charge 
of the subscription money, shall deliver and pay over to the directors, or 
their authorized agent, all l>ooks, papers and money received by them, 
belonging to the company, in their hands. 

"Article 5. The subscribers of stock, or a majoritv of them, shall 
meet at Palestine, Lawrence county, Indiana, on the first Thursda}" after 
the first Monday in June next, or at any time previously, after two hundred 
shares shall have been subscribed for, and choose by \-ote seven directors, 
being stockholders, to manage the business of the compan\-. 

"Article 6. The seven stockholders having the highest number of 
votes shall be the first directors of the company, who shall serve for twelve 
mnnths, and until other directors are elected, and shall have authority to 
make all and any rules and l)y-laws, not inconsistent with these articles of 
association and by-laws, for the interest of the company, and its well man- 

"Article 7. If an}- sul)scriber shall fail to make the second payment 
of the sum of five dollars on each share by him, her or them subscribed at 
the time and in the manner required by the directors of the company for 
such payment to be made, he, she or they shall forfeit the sum so by him, 
her or them first paid, for the use of the company, but no forfeiture shall 
take efl:'ect when the ]ierson owing any share shall die before the time of 


payment of such installment, or payment, but in such case the heirs of such 
deceased shareholder shall be chargeable with the interest of such sum or 
installment unpaid until the same shall be paid. 

"Article 8. Shares shall be assignable in such manner as the directors 
may direct. 

"Article 9. The directors shall not make any contract so as to bind 
the subscribers more than the sum by them subscribed. 

"Article 10. This association shall continue for five years. A division 
of the profits to be made after each trip. 

"Article 11. The directors at their first election, and at each succeed- 
ing election for directors, shall choose a president out of their own body, 
to serve one year. Vacancies shall be supplied in the same manner as often 
as they occur. 

"Article 12. The directors shall have the power to appoint all their 
officers and workmen, to allow them such compensation, and to make such 
contracts for the benefit of the company, as they may think proper, consist- 
ent with the ninth article of this article of association." 

Considerable discussion took place on the subject of the tonnage of the 
boat, the place most proper at which the boat should be built, and the fur- 
ther arrangements necessary to be made, previous to the opening of the 
books for subscription, after which the Cjuestion was severally taken on the 
following resolutions, and carried in the af^rmative. 

"Resolved — That the burthen of the steamboat shall be seventy-five 
tons, including the engine and other works. 

"Resolved — That the place shall now be mentioned at which the steam- 
boat shall be built, and the same be decided by ballot, whereupon Bono was 
the place appointed. 

"Resolved — That a suitable person be chosen to act as treasurer to the 
company who shall give bond with sufficient security for the faithful dis- 
charge of his duty, which bond shall be taken by the chairman of this meet- 
ing in the name and in the behalf of said company; whereupon, Judge Wm. 
Erwin was appointed. 

"Resolved — That the secretary be instructed to have printed a sufficient 
number of subscription papers and forward a copy to each commissioner 
with a request that he will use due diligence in obtaining subscribers. 

"Resolved — That a pro])er person be appointed to whom the commis- 
sioners shall report in the state of the subscription by them respectively 
taken monthly, and that the same be as often published in The Tocsin at 
Salem: whereupon, John Rrown, Postmaster at Palestine, was chosen. 


"Resolved — That the sum of five dollars on each share subscribed for, 
wliich IS to be paid into the hands of the commissioners by the persons sub- 
scribing, shall be as soon as practicable paid over to the treasurer. 

"Resolved — That tht constitution as adopted, together with the pro- 
ceedings of this meeting, be published in The Tocsin; that the secretary be 
directed to see the same carried into effect. 

"Resolved — That the expense of printing the subscription papers, 
together with the constitution and proceedings of this day, be equally 
defrayed by the commissioners now present. 

"Moved and seconded — That we now adjourn to meet again on the 
first Thursday after the first ^londay in June next and that the secretary 
be directed to notify the commissioners of the time and place of meeting, 
through the medium of The Tocsin. Carried. 
( Signed) 

"John Milroy, Chairman. 
"Patrick Callan, Sect. 
"Palestine, February 27, iSig." 

construction of bo.\t begun. 

At the meeting m June 'The Tocsin gave a glowing account, and the 
stock taken justified the managers of the enterprise to order work upon this 
wonderful water craft to begin at once. A superintendent of the work was 
appointed, but who this was, there is now no means of ascertaining. No other 
information concerning the building of the boat is now available, except 
information obtained some years since from Sydney Pidgeon, who was 
miller and superintendent of DePauw's mill and store at Millport, and his 
story of the boat and what became of it is reliable. Sydney Pidgeon said the 
boat was completed in the summer of 1820. A considerable portion of the 
lumber and timbers used in its construction were sawed at the DePauw mill 
and tioated down the river to ESono in rafts. But in the spring of 1820 the 
company exhausted all the funds it could secure, and it looked as if the boat 
would ne\er be completed. The work on it ceased for awhile, when a new 
company was organized of some three or four men, who arranged to take 
over and complete the boat, put it into service and pay those who had orig- 
inally subscribed stock and paid money on the same, as fast as the craft 
could earn it. As soon as fall rains gave sufficient stage of water the boat 
was floated down to the Wabash, and anchored at Mt. Carmel, where the 
machinery was duly installed during the winter of 1820. The following 


sp •ing, as soon as the ice was out of the river, the boat came up as far as 
Millport. Here it took on bacon and whisky, and finished its load as it went 
on down the river. The river was full of old trees and snags and the boat 
sustained some damage in getting out into the Ohio, but its first trip was 
made successfully and the owners realized a small profit on the cargo. Two 
other trips were made up White river the next fall, which were reported .to 
be unsuccessful, and after this the boat was kept in the Ohio river and New 
Orleans trade, how long no one knows. One thing the original promoters 
of the enterprise were never able to do was, to find any profits realized from 
operating the boat, and their first investments were lost entire. 


As late as 1850 some small boats would occasionally run up White river 
to the mouth of Driftwood and take out grain and bacon, but by this time 
the country had largely been cleared up, and except in time of freshets there 
was never sufificient water in the stream to make navigation possible. The 
operation of flatboats ceased about the same date, for railroad bridges began 
to be constructed across all inland streams, and they were built so low that 
even flatboats could not be floated out in times of high water, or even when 
streams were in good boating stage. 


The horn that once upon the breeze 

It's soul of music she<1. 
jN'ow hangs all mute against the wall — 

The bugler's long since dead. 
How oft it made the wellvin ring 

Before its days were o'er. 
But toll-gate men and horse keepers 

Xow hear that sound no more. 

No more to roadside inn, alas! 

The mail horn's music swells; 
No more upon tlie midnight breeze 

The mail's arrival tells: 
No more is sleeping traveler 

Roused in the early morn. 
To take his i)lace in the old stage coach 

Along with the noisy horn. 

Though the coa<-hmen of old are dead 

And the passengers turned to clay, 
There are memories still of the bugle horn 

And the mail of the olden day. 


A great deal of romance was swept from the road with the advent of 
the iron horse. In no field of improvement has the incoming of machinery 
operated more toward relentless artificiality than in that of transportation. 
What is the privilege of hiding shot along a pair of steel rails at sixty miles 
an hour compared to the glorious exhilaration of bowling u\er a country 
road of an autumn afternoon, seated on the top of an old-fashioned stage 
coach drawn by four splendid horses — swaying, lurching, rolling up and over 
the hills, across vales. "Twas a mad race from start to finish. If you sat 
mside the coach it seemed that you would, at every tremendous lurch, lie 
sent through the the roof or window. If you were perched lieside the driver 
or on top the coach y(ui had to keep a tight grip upon the rail to avoid the 
catastrophe that you felt was liable to happen at any moment, namely, being 
hurled head first into the ditch. 

Although the excitement, danger and vicissitudes of the road were many, 
their very existence helped toward a sort of magnetic charm in this mode of 
travel that never can be experienced when traveling by steam or electric 
train. Then, ofttimes there was the dread of highwa}' robbers, who might at 
any time emerge from a willow copse with pistols a half-yard long to separate 
the passengers from their valuables and go through the mail bags. As long 
as there were stage coaches in this country a common item of news was that 
of telling where a lot of people had been held up and what they lost. 


The word "coach" was derived from Kotze, the name of a town in 
Hungary where the first vehicle of the kind was built, in 1457, for Charles VII, 
of Paris. The earliest record of the stage coach jiroper goes back to i6f)2, 
when there were si.x of them in England. It was not long after this date 
that they were introduced into this country. The\- were \ery much after 
the style of the first model, the body being flat on top and rounded at the 
bottom, and swung on heavy strips of leather fastened to heav)- trace,^. On 
the front end was the e)Te, or seat for tlie dri\-er. and a strimg iron railing 
about a foot high extended all round the top, to secure surplus baggage and 
]>assengers. There was a "boot" on the rear end made expressly for liag- 
gage. So nicely was the contrivance balanced that the least jar would set 
the box rocking like a cradle. They used the iron linchpin to hold the 
wheels. Later, wooden pins were used, as they were not so likely to work 
out, and, finally, when axles were made of iron, steel nuts took the place 
of pins. The regulation horn was either a four-keved brass bugle, or a 


"yard of tin." so called from its being made of that metal and about three 
feet long. 

Few there are who appreciate aught ot the mechanical skill expended 
in the manufacture of a Concord stage coach, for it was in that town am^ug 
the Xew Hampshire hills that the "coach" of the states had its origin and 
most of them were made. Every piece of wood, leather and iron entering 
into the construction was literally of the best and strongest that the eye o^ 
a superintendent hired for the sole purpose of selecting stock could secure. 
E\ery piece of oak, ash, hickory and elm had been allowed the exact and 
proper time for seasoning. Every piece was cut and formed by hand for its 
particular use and place hx an expert who gave his whole attention to that 
particular work. 

G(jtten out at Hrst with no thought ot supplying nther than the numer- 
ous roads of Xew England, the call for the genuine "Concord" steadily 
increased, until, finally, this favorite vehicle, clothed in a color of brightest 
yellow, was to he seen on most all the roads of this western country, and 
finally it made its way across the plains, climbed along the tortuous slopes 
and gulches of Colorado, Utah and Oregon, or toiled over the blinding 
sands of Arizona and New Mexico, on to California 


The weight of an average coach wa.s from sixteen to eighteen hundred 
pr)un(ls. There were seat? for six persons inside, and outside as many were 
taken as could pile on, sometimes there being twenty passengers aboard. 
The ideal coach horse was of medium sixc and weight, and the old Morgans 
were considered best of all. .\n animal that was too stocky could not travel 
fast enough. One too long-limlied amid not pull the load. He had to have 
sjjirit and action as nearly perfect as possible. The typical weight was 
about ele\en hundred pounds. "A hcjrse to a mile" was the rule with large 
coaching conipanies. As a rule a hor'-c wa~- not reijuircd to work more than 
one or twt) hours out of the t\\enty-four, but it was hard work while he 
A\as at it. He \\as expected to go at a break-neck speed, and unfailingly 
made hi^ ten or twelve nules an hour, "i'his done, he was groomed and fed 
with the utmost care. Craui was his ])rincip;d food, liay not being considered 
a proper ration for "roading." T'^ach driver groomed and bandied his own 
team. Xeatsfoot oil wa-. used on the a.\les ; cantor oil was considered too 
llii.-k. and would not gne liglitner-s of draft or last a- long a^ the neatsfoot 


Accidents would happen occasionally to coach and passengers. Some- 
times a linchpin would work out and the wheel come off, when passengers 
would find themselves in a bruised heap by the roadside. An upset would 
bring about the same results. Then, there was the aggravating trouble of 
getting stuck in the mire, which not infrequently happened at the breaking 
up of winter. In such case tourists had to entertain themselves as best they 
could, while the "guard" or helper, if he was along, was dispatched to the 
nearest farm house for a yoke of oxen to pull them out. But the jest and 
spirit of the thing made up in a great measure for all annoyances and mis- 
haps. After the delay out in the road, there was the glory of dashing into 
the village and up to the tavern, knowing that the advent of the coach was 
an event of interest to the entire neighborhood. Their coming was always 
announced by a few spasmodic blasts of the coachman's horn, which was a 
signal for young and old to run out and get a full view of the galloping 
steeds coming down the street. While the horses were being changed, and 
"the small boys inspected the baggage, which usually took about fifteen min- 
utes time, the travelers stirred around and looked up something to eat, or, 
mayhap, something to drink, as well. But the time for lunch was all too 
short ere John was at tlie door announcing "all alx)ard," when boxes, bun- 
dles, and a promiscuous mess of individuals would again be crowded into 
the caravan, the horn sounded, the whip cracked, and away they went for 
the next station. 


The stage coach was first started regularly from Salem to jeffersonville 
about 1830. Baird & Scott were proprietors of the first route established. 
Col. William Baird afterwards became sole proprietor, and the route was 
extended to Orleans, and from there to Bloomington. In 1835 Mcl'heeters 
& Orchard owned the route. McPheeters living in Salem and Orchard at 
Bloomington. Thomas W'i throw was proprietor of the rtiute from Salem 
to Jeffersonville in 1844. J'"-' Burwell was proprietor in 1S48. and until 
the New Albany & Saiem railroatl was comiileted to the foot of the knolis, 
or about two miles abo\e Providence, or what is now Bordt-n. I'"or a \ear 
or so James F. Persire ran a hack from Salem to meet the train e\er\- daw 
which ran up as far as the road was completed 

The Salem and Jeft'ersonville stage line made three trips each week, 
leaving- Salem on Mondays. Wednesdays and Saturdays, I-"or relax- purposes 


teams were stationed at Salem, New Pro\'idence, Silver Creek and Jefferson- 
ville. Four horses were usually the stage team; sometimes six. The 
oldest wagon route from Salem to the Falls was by way of Martinsburg, 
Greenville and Galena, but about the time the stage line was started the 
route was from Salem down the Martinsburg road to a point near the cen- 
ter of section 14, in Pierce township, thence by way of Pekin and New 
Providence. Taverns were kept at New Providence by Mrs. Borden; at 
Siher Creek, aliout one mile southeast of Rennettsville, by John A. Smith. 
Often when the roads were real nice and the weather temperate the run was 
made from Salem to Jeffersonville in four and one-half hours. The time 
allowed for the trip as advertised was se\en hours. A few times there 
were competing stage lines, and then it was a grand race from start to 
Finish to see who would get through first. 

Drivers were \enturesome if not reckess fellows, but they seldom met 
with any mishaps. They had no fear of collisions. All other vehicles were 
required to give the main road to the mail stage and in no manner delay 
its speed. Hence, when the coachman observed any kind of a vehicle either 
approaching or going from him. the horn was sounded, and at the signal 
everything turned out of the way. If, perchance, the. warning note was not 
heard, the driver would straighten himself, grasp his lines firmly, crack 
his whip and make a bee-line for a wheel of the heedless wagon, and as 
sure as it was struck down came the wagon, with the wheel spinning across 
the road. As if nothing had liap]iened the driver would urge his team 
swiftly onward, and the greater the wreck the l>etter the coachman enjo\ed 
the assault, while the passengers had a stirring incident to talk about. Among" 
tlie names of drivers who are still remembered are those of C. W. Mobley, 
James King, Jesse Patterson, Bill Martin, George Howard and Sam Rigney. 


Usually coachmen were considered rather tough characters, with lots 
of nerve, but almost without exception they were kind and accommodating 
to ])assengers. At one time there was a lanky, well-educated son of Erin 
named O'Donnell, a\ ho drove from Jctfersonx'ille to Silver Creek. He had 
a tailing that sometimes contributed much to the discomfort of passengers. 
^\'hene\er he fell into the state called "three sheets to the wind" travelers 
might look (^ut for a terrific exhibition of this jehu's skill. He then bowled 
along the road at a breakneck speed, seemingly regardless of consequences. 
Should anyone beg him to "pull in the run," he wouUi laughingly reply: 


"Never fear, Captain, you are in safe hands." On such occasions the run 
from Jeffersonville. to Silver Creek was uncomfortably brief. When safely 
over, the Irishman would claim a compliment of his lately pallid passengers 
and say, "But didn't I bring you through elegantly?" Many were always 
apprehensive of this fellow's driving, but he delivered his passengers into 
the care of a driver much more to be dreaded. His name was Bill Martin. 
He was a man of enormous physical power, about thirty years of age and 
of uncommonly fine appearance. He was for a time the "swell' of Salem 
and quite popular. His countenance gave no indication of his real charac- 
ter. No one was capable of putting on the apparent gentleman in any par- 
ticular than was he. It afterward developed that in stage driving he was 
just taking a vacation from his real profession of gambler and highway- 
man. He left Salem and secured a position on the New Albany and Vin- 
cennes stage line, when he was detected in robbing the mails. Some post- 
master had carelessly left the key to the mail pouch sticking in the padlock, 
and, securing this, it was an easy matter for him to unlock an}- of the Dags 
he wished and go through them. He was finally detected and arrested, but 
managed to get away. His robberies extended through Kentucky (his native 
state), Tennessee, Mississippi and Arkansas, The last ever heard of him 
was in the early sixties, when he returned to this part of the country, and 
finding out that he was suspicioned of being the prime mover in several 
schemes of robbing, and fearing detection, he left for parts unknown. 

Another famous character was a driver named James King. He was 
also a born thief. It was known that the mails on his route were being 
tampered with, and detectives being put on his track he was detected rob- 
bing the mail between Salem and Livonia. His trial resulted in his convic- 
tion and a sentence to the state's jjrison at Jeffersonville. Tie was a free 
man only a short time till he was again convicted of theft and sent back for 
a longer term of service. When his time expired he begged the prison 
authorities to allow him to remain in prison, as he had no place to go and 
no funds to care for him. But he was sent away, and in a short time com- 
mitted a theft at Paoli, on purpose, as he afterwards said, to get back to 
prison, where he ended his days. 


For a numljcr of years prior to tiie building of the railroad Salem was 
a great stage coach center. There were regular lines to X'allonia, Paoli, 
Bedford and Bloomington. There were no bridges across the larger 


Streams, crossing being done on ferries, or on the ice in extreme winter 
weather. Stage coaching, while it lasted, was an institution of unfailing 
interest to old and young, and the first blast of the "winding horn" from 
the road coming down the slope southeast of town beyond the old Hatta- 
bough place, or from the brewery, was the signal for a general rush to 
! front doors, windows, or in the streets, to get a glimpse of the "overland," 
as it whirled around to the postoftice and brought up suddenly at the tavern 


From the time that the first small jiack of hounds took up ihe trail 
of the native gray foxes of Virginia and Maryland, in the latter part of the 
seventeenth century, until the present time, hunting Master Reynard with 
hounds and horses has never failed of enthusiastic devotees. George Wash- 
ington kept his pack of hounds, and before he became engrossed in affairs 
of state he loved the chase. Most every Virginia gentleman then owned his 
pack of hounds, as he did slaves and horses. In most parts of the South 
today planters ha\e their hound kennels and indulge in the chase when there 
is time to kill or a guest to entertain. 

Foxes were once numerous in Indiana, and there are still many of 
them left in the hilly regions where lands are too rough and poor for till- 
ing. In the knob lands of this county foxes are plenty, and there are still 
a few hunters to be found who own hounds and go out for an occasional 
hunt. The early settlers hunted them more for their pelts than for sport. 

Of all the sports devised by man fox hunting is one of the most fasci- 
nating. "Once a fox hunter, always a fox hunter" is an old and trite saying. 
The season for the chase always began at Thanksgiving day and ended on 
St. Patrick's day, so the huntsman who was keen on the hounds had to face 
some pretty severe weather, and they often sustained some serious mishaps. 
But hunting did not hurt the hunter to any great extent — a broken bone 
was not long in knitting together again, and the great consideration of 
liealth gained by such splendid outdoor exercise always more than offset 
the momentary need of the surgeon. It has been well said that "the best 
tiling for the inside of a man is the outside of a horse." 


Among the last of the old-time fox hunters who re\eled in the sport 
was Tom Payne, who resided down on Delaneys creek, and who up to the 


time of his death, about 1898, kept his kennel of fox-hounds. From him 
was obtained much information relative to foxes and fox hunting as prac- 
ticed in Washington rounty. When asked how long he had engaged in the 
sport, his reply was: "Av^out all my life. I was only a small boy when I 
first bestrided the old family mare and tried to keep up with the bands of 
hunters that did little else but trail about over the knobs all through the 
hunting season. I've hunted in Indiana and Kentucky and first and last 
have had a great deal of pleasure out of it. To my mind, there is no finer 
music than the cry of a pack of hounds in full chase after a fox, each one 
giving mouth at every jump as he strikes the scent. Why do they bark? It 
is possibly their way of expressing their love of the chase. Some people 
think, the dogs understand one another, but I cOuld hardly say that. It 
may be that they are trying to urge each other on to a supreme effort. The 
leader of a pack of hounds goes along steadily and is known by his long, 
deep note. He is not always in front, for there are some hounds that are 
more excitable than others and will take short cuts to get in the lead, and 
will make a terrible noise about it, and a young hound is more boisterous 
than an old one. 

"The pack always knows when a bark means business, when a fox trail 
has been scented, and if an old hound that they have confidence in begins to 
bark they all join in the chorus. Every dog barks on his own hook, but each 
has a diflferent voice. When starting out for a hunt they always seem to 
know what is expected of them ; they seem to be on to their job. Occasion- 
ally a hound takes up side issues, and when not engaged in a warm chase 
will track a possum, coon, or perhaps a rabbit, until it is treed or put into 
a sink-hole. But such fellows are looked upon with contempt by the true- 
blue foxer, who never for a moment thinks of pursuing any sort of game 
other than the fox, even if it happens to cross his path in plain view. 

"And I think the fox enjoys the chase as much as the hounds and 
sportsmen do. It calls forth all his wits and he enjoys fooling the dogs, 
though he doesn't always realize the danger he is in. Even a narrow escape 
doesn't seem to scare him. You may jump a fox today and run him within 
an inch of his life, but if he gets away you can start him up in the same 
neighborhood tomorrow. It's almost impossible to scare him awa\- from 
his old haunts. A fox when pursued always runs in a circle, around and 
around in the territory near his home : except wiien the chase is a long- 
dr^wn-out one, then he sometimes takes a bee-line for some different loca- 
tion, perhaps miles away, whicii offers him better protection, or caves into 


which he can take refuge. How long will a fox run ? That depends. Some- 
times they lose the dogs and sometimes they keep on running even when 
tired out and holes are plentiful where they could securely hide themselves. 
It is only when hard pressed that a fox will dart into a hole for safety, 
but once in a hole the chase is over, for foxhounds never dig. They a»v 
trained not to and they know better. They prefer to spend their energy 
after another fox. But if a fox doesn't lose the hounds or takes to a hole 
he will sometimes run nine or ten hours with. the dogs on the jump all the 
while. The experienced hunter knows perfectly well tlie voice of each dog 
in his string and can always locate him in the chase by the sound. Each 
dog trails for himself, never running along listlessly in the wake of .sotne 
faithful leader that might be depended on to keep his trail. Thus they will 
sometimes be strung out in a line several hundred feet long. On a still 
night their voices can be heard a long distance, and it is this music that 
charms the hunter. 


" 'As cunning as a fox' is a. trite saymg, but I have witnessed some of 
their tricks that it would seem that nothing but art intelligent human being 
could plan and execute. I have seen a fox tjiat had become somewhat 
exhausted with long running pass by a thicket where a fresh fox was hid- 
den, and switching squarely off the straight track, would dodge into the 
brush, and his place would be taken by the new substitute, and the race 
would go merrily on. Sometimes, when not too closely pursued, a fox will 
strike a path or trail and take the back track for a few yards, and then by 
making one long leap sidewise will put the hounds out for awhile, thus 
enabling him to get a long lead towards freedom and safety. 

"The fox seems to know that a burnt-over field or wood does not give 
out any scent, so if he reaches such a place he runs off to one side and lies 
down to rest, knowing that it will take the dogs a long time to get onto his 
trail again. An old trick of his is to jump upon a stone wall, run along on 
top of it for some distance, and then jump off on the same side, thus fool- 
ing the bounds, which have leaped the wall and are hunting the scent on 
the opposite side. A \nrginia fox hunter tells how a fox, hard pressed, 
leaped off a sixty-foot bluff, alighting in a river below, and was followed 
by every one of the dogs. The river was fifty yards wide, but the fox 
swam it, the dogs close behind. They all landed safely, but the fox was 
soon run down, not being able to make much speed with his wet coat oi 
fur and bedraggled tail. I have heard a story about a fox that in the chase 

came upcui a dead hog. Here he halted, and patting his feet up and down 
in the ilead carcass, gave two nr three sharp barks, ami with a wide spring 
darted utY into the wood. When the hounds came up they were unable to 
take up the scent again. 

■'When a ti)x was holed it was usually stopped m and a box-trap was 
made and placed in the hole so that there was no means of escape except 
through the box. Reynard was thus caught ali\e and carried out and 
turned loose for another chase. After being turnetl loose they would 
ne\er run \er\" far until they w^ould stop to play or feed. The hounds were 
put upon the trail and usually the race did not last long, as the hounds soon 
picked him up. These races were put off in daytime and the whole neigh- 
borhood usually turned out to see the sport. Guns were positively barred 
in fox hunting. A man who would shoot a fox while the hounds were 
after him would be disgraced fore\er and be regarded almost as a personal 
eneiuy by all true sportsmen." 


Fox hunting as a sport could not exist without foxhounds. They are 
as essential to fox hunting as the fox himself. The foxhound has been . 
evolved from a cross between the bloodhound and the greyhound, with 
perhaps some outside blood. He probably gets his running qualities from 
the greyhound and his scent and trailing qualities from the bloodhound. 
The greyhound runs only by sight. They have no set type of color, more 
commonly having a grayish body with black and tan spots. The true fox- 
hound has speed and endurance and will sometimes run ten hours at a 
stretch, tiring out l>oth men and horses. His sense of smell is very acute, 
and he follows every crook and turn, every in and out made by the fox. 
The two leading strains found in this country now are the Walker and 
Jul\', the former bred in Kentucky and the latter in \'irginia. But all fox- 
hounds are not good ones, and the poor ijues are always discarded wdien, 
after being given a fair trial, they fail to come up to standard requirements. 


-Ml sports have their vernacular, but the idioms of hunting have been 
e\ohed during nianv vears, and their import is often a mystery to the nov- 
ice. A few of them may be interesting: A hound is always a hound; to 
call it a dog is a term of reproach, although it is correct to speak of a dog- 


hound. "Skirter" is a hound which does not run with the pack, but raxiges 
off on its own account. A "babbler" is a hound that cannot desist from 
"giving tongue" even when it is not following scent. "Giving tongue" is 
the baying of the hounds when they have found their fox. "Voice" is the 
cjuality and quantity of the music made by the pack in full cry. "Earths" 
are fox's burrows. "Stopping an earth" is the filling up of a burrow so a 
fox cannot "hole." "Holding" a fox is driving him into his burrow. 
"Drawing a covert" is sending a hound in to raise a fox. "Drawn blank" 
means that M. Reynard is not at home. "Biddable" describes a well- 
trained pack. Hounds are always spoken of as so many couple; not thirty 
hounds, but fifteen couple. "Gone awa\" means that the hounds have 
started a fox and that the hunt is on, and "first flight" refers to the riders 
who ride straight and hard and keep the hounds in sight. But this they 
ne\er do in this part of the country, but switch around from one place to 
another where the experienced hunter knows pretty well that they will cross 
the trail where the fox and hounds are wont to pass. The passing of the 
hunter, as well as the fox and hounds, is gradually going on, and soon the 
country that knew them so well in days gone bv will know them no more 


The wolf was the most to be dreaded of all wild animals by the ear- 
liest settlers. It was almost impossible to raise sheep or hogs on account of 
their depredations, and lone travelers, especially if on foot, were constantly 
in danger of attack. A single wolf would seldom attack man or beast, but 
when they got together in considerable numbers, and were hungry, they 
were dangerous. Movers were often annoyed by these beasts of nights, 
but a huge Iranfire would always keep them a*^ a safe distance. Not an 
uncommon method of protecting animals from Indians as well as wolves 
was to build a sort of lean-to of logs against the cabin, with an entrance 
into and through the cabin. Horses and other animals were then led into 
this ])en through the cabin and there was no chance for Indians or wild 
animals to gain access to them from the outside without storming the "cas- 
tle" and overpowering the inmates. 

When stock, turned out on range, failed to return home at the proper 
time, search was at once instituted, and not infrecpiently the skeleton was 
found where tlie wolves had devoured a cow or a horse. When there were 
several horses t\irned out together they could care for themselves. A pack 


of hungry wolves, on the rampage, made considerable noise with their 
barking and screeches, and when their voices announced their coming a band 
of horses would collect together in a small circle, their rumps touching 
each other, and heads on 'he outside of the circle. In this form they could 
bite and paw the wolves and keep them in abeyance. In attacking other 
animals wolves were very much like dogs, their aim was to get hold of the 
hind quarters, by which means they could soon throw the animal on the 
ground where the rest would be easy. But when horses collected together 
in a bunch, as above, they could do nothing with them, unless a single ani- 
mal could be induced to get out of the defensi\e position, when he would 
easily be gotten away with. Shooting amciUg and killing some of the wolves 
in a pack would not frighten them away when on the war path. A wounded 
wolf would be eaten up by his fellows, and this taste of blood would only 
make them all the more, ferocious. The coming of daylight would usually 
cause them to retire. If the}- were successful in securing a good square 
meal in a certain place, the same point would likely be visited the following 
day or night, and the second coming would most likely be in increased num- 

To ward off attacks from wolves, Indians nearly always kept a fire 
burning, or had a heap of logs, brush and poles built near the wigwam 
ready to fire if occasion demanded. But wolves did not remain long, in 
large numbers, after the coming of the white man into a country. Along 
with the red man they retired to less frecpiented parts of the country, where 
they could roam at will undisturbed. A few wolves were to be found m 
this country as late as 1825, but they were seldom seen, except in the dense 
forests. They would occasionally come down and breakfast upon a nice 
fat lamb or a nice litter of pigs. The fox was a lover of pigs, also, and not 
infrequently would carry away a whole litter if the\- were not secured in a 
good pen at night. 


Modern inventions ha\e robbed warfare of much of its romance and 
the soldier of much of his old-time picturesqueness. Although the powder- 
horn as an implement of war disapi^eared long before the magazine gun 
of today was dreamed of, it was not so long ago, as a matter of fact, that 
men were carrying them to "keep their powder dry." Some of the soldiers 
in the Mexican War carried the old flintlock gun and the powderhorn. 
The powderhorns carried by the fighters in the early days of this country 

AN OLD FlUi;ri,AC'!-: 


were often of comparatively simple workmanship, each individual manu- 
facturing his own horn to suit his own fancy, and when their days of use- 
fulness ended they were thrown aside and destroyed. A few fancy ones 
were cherished and handed down from father to son, and from friend to 
iriend, but they were so very few that collectors have had a very hard 
time in locating any great number of the powderhorns used in this country; 
notwithstanding the fact that every man in the country three-score years 
ago was the proud possessor of one of them, and they had been used in large 
numbers as far back as the sixteenth century. During the Revolution there 
were, according to the best estimates, over ten thousand powderhorns in use 
by the patriots. The Indians carried them as soon they came into posses- 
sion of guns. 

Powderhorns are supposed to have come into use simultaneously with 
the invention of gunpowder. A way had to be found to carry it safely and 
conveniently, and men quickly found that there was not anything better or 
cheaper for this purpose than the horns of an animal swung to the shoul- 
der. They were brought to this country by the very earliest settlers. The 
oldest horn known to exist in this country bears the datp of 1683. It was 
generally the horns of their own cattle that the former fighters and hunters 
of America used. A strain of cattle that grew large horns were prized and 
perpetuated for that reason, even if they had no other particular merit to 
recommend them. The bull usually had the largest horns. When cattle 
were killed good-sized horns were always preserved, if not for use as a pow- 
derhorn, they were carried to the comb-maker of the neighborhood and 
made up on the shares. 

Nothing carried the powder so well as the horn, for it never rusted, 
could not be dented or mashed in ordinary usage or wear, and in the rain 
and through streams it might be carried without getting the powder even 
d.'im]). 11ie>- were always worn under the left arm by a strap that went 
over the right shoulder, the curve in the horn conforming to the shape of the 
bod\', and thus serving to keep it out of the way of the wearer. Usually 
a piece of cedar was turned to exactly fit the large end of the horn, on the 
outer end of which there was a sort of knob or button to which the shoul- 
der-trap was attached. .A^ notch was cut on the small end of the horn to 
which tiie other end of the strap was fastened. Sometimes the shoulder- 
strap sup]jorted a shot-pouch as well as the horn, thus doing double duty. 
There was a stopple in the small end, and without being unstrung this was 


usually drawn out by the teeth, when the powder could be poured into the 
right hand, or charger, and thence into the gun. The charger was made 
from the tip end of a stage horn, and its size was proiiortioned to the gun, 
or the amount of powder it required. 


in the manufacture of horns they were tirst boiled to clean and soften 
them, scraped until they were thin and light, and the two ends properl}- 
shaped. They were then colored with an orange or yellow dye, if a fancy 
article was desired; otherwise they were left in their natural color. They 
lent themselves more readily to ornamentation b}- the owner than did any 
other part of his equipment, and it is this fact which has made them particu- 
larly interesting as historical relics. The maker's name was usuall\- 
engraved on the horn, and not infrequenth', during the times when the 
whites and Indians were continually at war, horns were found on the body 
of a dead brave or prisoner, that haH a white man's name car\eil thereon; 
often a name that was familiar to some of the captors. When the maker 
was handy with a knife sometimes animals would he carved on horns that 
were good representations, and easily recognized, and it was this ornamenta- 
tion, in most instances, which made them particularly interesting as his- 
torical relics. 

Admiring friends, in the days when powderhorns were in general use, 
instead of ])resenting a hero with an engraved sword, ga\"e him a finel\- dec- 
orated horn. These were often made to order by a professional engraver, 
and in addition to the engraving many horns were beautifully colored and 
tinted. Some were painted by experts and dis]ila\ed some nice water scenes, 
maps, game of different kinds, and in some instances a portrait of the owner. 
There is probably no relic of pioneer days (|uite s<> scarce now as the old 
powderhorn, and it is strange that such is the case when they were in such 
general use and not easily mutilated or destroyed. Proud is that daughter of 
the Revolution who now has in her possession a powderhorn, however unor- 
namental. that was carried by her honored ancestor through the war that 
won freedom for the .American colonies. 


The time was when from an elevated point on Walnut Ridge the ascend- 
ing smoke of nine stillhouses could be distinctly seen, and in many other 


parts of this county there were distilleries at most every point where there 
was a good spring with sufficient elevation to allow water to be carried in 
troughs to the vats and tubs used in the process of distilling. The question 
follows, what was done with all the whisky that was then made, and were 
all the people then drunkards? Whisky was then the main article of export, 
and brought into the country more money than anything else. Prior to 
1825, the number of people that totally abstained from ardent spirits was 
exceedingly small. Only here and there was one to be found who was a 
teetotaler. But it must not be understood that e\en a large portion of those 
who were tlien accustomed to use intoxicants ever became drunk, or even 
"funny." Then church members and elders were distillers and sold their 
product to all who applied for it. 

The whisky as then made was pure and unadulterated products of 
corn, rye and fruit, and did not make demons out of men as the adultera- 
tions did in latter days. In those times this beverage was found in almost 
every household, in every harvest field, at every house or barn raising. At 
musters or political gatherings ginger-bread, cider and whisky were as com- 
mon as the ice cream and lemonade stands are today at picnics and Fourth 
of July celebrations. But manners and customs were very different then. 
Drunkenness and drinking were totally different ; comparatively few of the 
intemperate made intoxication a daily business. A toper of 1825 could do 
a month's hard work and then have a big spree on election or muster day. 
Upon these two occasions whisky flowed freely. Then free treats and free 
fights abounded, but there were no stabhings nor pistol shots. Public opin- 
ion negated the carrying and use of concealed deadly weapons. The Cain- 
mark of cowardice was the seal set upon the forehead of him who in single 
fight would dare use any other weapon than the foot or the fist. But with 
adulterated whisky came the crazy drunks, the dirk and the pistol. 


People now look upon whisky and drinking in quite a different way 
from what they did one hundred years ago. Who would think now of 
going to a ruling elder of the Salem Presbyterian church to purchase twenty 
barrels of the best rye whisky that was ever manufactured north of the 
Ohio river? The time was when that thing could have been done. Who 
would think now of going to a local Methodist preacher to buy a few bar- 
rels of choice old peach brandy — smooth as the richest olive oil? Never- 
theless such sales were once made from stills less than five miles from 


Salem. This seems strange now, for it is hard to see things now as they 
really were then. 

Elder John Fleenor, who resided three miles northeast of Salem, on 
the northeast quarter of -ection 4, township 2 north, range 4 east, owned 
a large pasture field adjacent to his still-house where the militia and rifie 
companies congregated to muster. A company consisted of about a hun- 
dred men and they met here four times a year, in spring and fall. Xearly 
everybody turned out nuister day. There were many old men not subject 
to military duty and boys who were too young, who came to see the fun 
and §hare the treats. It was seldom that there were any general outbreaks at 
these meetmgs. Often there were fights to settle some old quarrel or to 
test their prowess in the ring, but everything was lively and everybody bent 
on having a big day. The drill exercises continued from three to four 
hours. When these were over came the jolly time. Officers were esteemed 
"hoggish" if they did not treat their respective companies. The mode of 
treating made a singular picture. The captains would procure large buckets 
and invest sixty cents in whisky fresh from the elder's still-house. This 
investment procured three gallons of the stuff, which was then only twenty 
cents a gallon. The men were drawn up in line for the treat, and the cap- 
tain with bucket and cup or gourd in hand, proceeded from one end of tiie 
line to the other, tendering to each man in turn his whisky ration. Some 
drank more, others less. The treated men always bestowed profuse praise 
upon the captain's liberality. Then no one thought it wrong. 


If there were candidates on the grounds, and tliere were usually a 
number of them present, it was then their turn to treat the crowd. These 
treats made some drunk in earnest, some jubilant, while others touched st) 
lightly as to remain duly sober. There were always on hand a few women 
who dealt out ginger-bread and cider, or if there was no cider to be had 
they brought a home-brewed lieer instead, and niany's the honest "fo-pence" 
they would turn during the day. The (Quakers in the county, being tipposed 
to performing military duty, paid their annual assessment of five dollars 
to be relieved from attending nuisters. They were \ery much opposed to 
the free use of whisky as was the usual custom m early time. They did 
much to UKHild public sentiment in opi)iisition U' drinking and drunkeniu'ss 
and bring aboiU the temperance reform^ that ha\'e gradually been brought 
about in the past one hundred years. 


Training days were of four grades; Company, battalion, drill and regi- 
mental. The controlling spirit on these occasions was the captain, who 
was ver\- proud of his title. He, together with a lieutenant and ensign, 
was elected by the company, and thus were commissioned by the governor 
of the state for a specified term of years. The field ofificers were chosen by 
the battalions and regiments, and included the colonel, major, adjutant and 
judge advocate. Each company liad its non-commissioned officers, ser- 
geants and corporals. The colonel commanded the regiment, the lieutenant- 
colonel the first battalion, and the major the second. Such was the mili- 
tarv machinery of Indiana a hundred years ago. The election of officers 
from colonel down to corporal was always intensely exciting occasions, for 
an official place in the ranks of the militia usually meant a civil office 
later on. 


To illustrate this truth it is only necessary to call up in mind the long 
list of titled men who were promoted to office in the county. In the clerk's 
office there were Gen. John DePauw, Col. Jonathan Lyon, Col. Wm. H. 
Carter and Major Eli W. Malotte. For congress,, senators and other 
officers there were Maj. James A. Cravens, Gen. Samuel Milroy, G^n. 
Marston G. Clark, Gen. R. Schoonover, Col. E. D. Logan, Col. Robert 
Strain, Colonel Baker, Colonel HefTren, Colonel Menaugh and others. 

To understand the potency of the old militia system, it is necessary to 
look into its requirements. The law establishing it had stringent penalties. 
To lie a commissioned officer cost mone}-. The regulation coat, hat, sword 
and other accoutrements of the division, brigade and regimental officers 
were not only costly but grand. When the men, mounted on superb 
horses, decorated with gilt-edged trappings, appeared on parade before then' 
resjiective commands, the eyes of all were made to stare, their hearts to 
admire and their minds to wonder. A single dress parade would give a 
]irestige that years would not blot from memory. 

A case in point occurred in the fall of 1825, when it was the duty of 
Gfciieral Clark to review Colonel Schoonover's regiment at the October 
l)arade at Livonia. For some reason General Clark could not attend and 
Col. Abe Stover was appointed brigadier-general for the occasion. Colo- 
nel Stn\tr was a portly man of commanding appearance. He chose 
for his aid Capt. John Duckworth, a man no less imposing and good look- 
ing than himself. In gaudv parade costume and startling equipage these 
men rode liefore the regiment amid tremendous applause. Their appear- 


ance was really magnificent, and they made an impression upon the admiring 
multitude not to be effaced by the events of a month or a year. Colonel 
Stover made a speech and retired. The influence of their brief hour's mili- 
tary parade induced mai." to regard Colonel Stover worthy of senatorial 
honors, and he was influenced to enter the field against General Clark. But 
in those days a pro tempore brigadier-general could not battle successfully 
against a real major-general, and he lost out. 


The location of burying grounds was always an afterthought with the 
early settler. It was the usual custom when a death occurred in the family 
to start a graveyard on the farm or plantation, marking the spot with a 
rough stone slab with inscription chiseled out in rude characters and b\- 
planting out a few evergreen trees, the cedar or pine. Many of these old- 
time family burying grounds are still well preserved, while others have 
been neglected, even desecrated, the head and foot stones having tumbled 
down and the land cultivated over so that all vestiges of graves have been 

In some instances the dead were buried withcnit coffins, the grave Ijeing 
dug about four feet deep, with a vault cut out of the hard clay. After the 
body was laid away in this vault it was co\ered over with split sticks and 
bark and the grave filled in. Xot infrequentl}' coflins were hewn out of 
logs, dug out with the ax the same as a trough. Sometimes people dit-d 
while moving through the country, pushing on to the frontier. The\- ^^ere 
usually buried where the camp was pitched and over the gra\e some sort 
of a stone monument would be erected, when the train would again move 
on. The present generation knows little about the graves of the earliest 
comers into this part of the country, unless perchance some lettered tablet 
reveals the story. Wooden head marks were put to gra\'es before tlie mar- 
ble slab was supplied. 

The lumber first used for coffins was cut by the whii)-sa\\\ i)rii|ielled 
by man power, but in a few years after the countrv was settled water] lower 
saw-mills were started. E\ery carpenter or cabinetmaker in the country 
was a coffin maker also, as occasion would make it necessary for them to do 
the work. Most coffins were made of poplar lumber as it was easiest to 
work. They were put up for two or three dollars. The outside finish was 
made with Venetian red and sweet milk mixed together to about the con- 
sistency of paste and then applied with a rag. When sumach berries could 


be obtained they made a nice stain. No one ever thought of keeping a 
stock of coffins on hand, so they were always made to order. Walnut cof- 
fins were the finest made and cost about four dollars. When these were 
made extra fine they were given a coat of varnish. Coffins with raised lids 
came into use about 1850, and cost six dollars, when made out of cherry 
or walnut. 

The corpse was usually dressed in a white shroud or winding sheet 
made by the women folks who were neighbors of the deceased, while the 
men dug the grave, and no one ever thought of charging a cent for the work 
imposed upon them upon such occasions. The minister also volunteered 
his services to the family and conducted the funeral, without thought of fee 
or compensation. He felt that he was simply discharging his duty as a 
neighbor and friend. Instances were not infrequent when sleds were used 
to carry the remains of persons to their last resting place, and it was not 
till some time in the fifties that anything like a hearse was used in this part 
of the country. About the same time the custom of paying a sexton to 
dig graves was introduced, but in many parts of the country neighbors still 
attended to the digging of graves and the burying of friends and neighbors. 


The dreadful epidemic that prevailed in Salem in 1833 almost depop- 
ulated the town for awhile, checked its growth and for a quarter of a cen- 
tury was very detrimental to its prosperity. Many of the leading business 
men sold out and went west and for a great many years there were but few 
newcomers added to the population of the town. When anyone talked of 
locating in Salem the cholera plague confronted them, for it was thought 
to be a doomed spot and no telling when the trouble would break out afresh. 
People from the surrounding country were for a long time afraid to come 
to the town to trade, and all the small towns round about thrived at Salem's 
expense. It was true there were outbreaks of cholera that year in some 
other parts of the Ohio valley, but there were few places where it made such 
ravages as it did in Salem. There was scarcely a family in Salem that did 
not suffer loss of one or two of its members, at least, and at one time there 
were barely enough well people left in the town to give decent burial -to the 
dead. All kinds of business was suspended for some weeks, people who 
could get away having retreated back into the country or some out-of-the- 
way nook or corner, where they continued to remain for some time after 
the disease had subsided, fearing a fresh outbreak. 


The cholera made its first appearance on June J5. 1833, ^""J before it 
was regarded as an epidemic \isitation Mrs. Goodwin died, house on lot 22, 
Main street; Daniel Neal, lot 186, DePauw's addition; Mathew Allen's 
child, corner High and Small streets, and Alaria Jones. Daniel Xeal was 
a singularly eccentric man, and some time before his death had pledged his 
body to Dr. Robert Newland for anatomical purposes, but under the condi- 
tions in which he died it was not deemed advisable to preserve or dissect the 
same. On June 28 there were more deaths, all very sudden. Mathew 
Coffin and his son, Nathan, died on Xorth Main street, Xixon's addition. 
Mrs. Gus Clark died the same day, on lot- 205, West Market street. 


A panic now set in and there were scarcely enough people left in the 
town to care for the sick and dead. Merchants closed their stores and 
stampeded, turning the keys over to those persons who intended to remain 
and telling them to take such things as might be needed. On Sunday. June 
30, there were frequent "heavy showers, and then it would clear oil, and the 
heat would be intense. Everything looked gloomy, as people were being 
stricken down on all sides. The. following persons died within a few hour;, 
after being attacked: Maj. Joseph Green, lot 71, High street; Colonel Harri- 
son, Baird's hotel, lot 17; \V. B. Parke, lot 41. Xorth Main street; Judge 
Barton, same place; John Allen and wife, lut 37, Xorth Main street; Mr. 
Morgan and wife, lot 133, Water street, and Samuel H(>bh>, corner Water 
and Mulberry streets, lot 134. By this tinre the few wlm were left to care 
for stricken ones had worked themselves into a system, t'otfins were made 
of rough poplar boards, or they were simply boxes whicli were p'laced out- 
side of David Weir"s cabinet sh(Ji), where the man who (lro\e the death 
cart could get them as needed. A committee then looked after the jilacing 
of dead bodies in the coffins when they were taken to the cemeter}- and 
interred by two or three men who acted as sextons. X'r) attempt was made 
to hold funerals over deceased persons for se\eral da_\s, or fi^rm funeral 

Robert S. Mills and a yoimg man 
left to wait on the sick. They were 
Main street on July i, and found the 1 
corpse until midnight, then locked th 
lodging places. Early next morning 
rine had the cholera. He made all ha' 

, named IVvrine, w 

ere ainoi 

ig tl 

lie few 

sent to wait on ; 

I patient 



part\- dead. They 


d w 

ith the 

c door and \\ent 

to their 



Mills was out anc 

1 learned 


.t Per- 

ste to get to his r( 

lom and 


1(1 him 


lying on the floor, having been dead probably an hour. The same day Mrs. 
Xancy Laforce died, place unknown; Jonathan .\rmfield, North High street, 
lot 60; George W. Drake, lot 46, North Main street, and Henry Hardman's 
child, lot 40. 


On Wednesday, Jul)- 3, the disease appeared more violently again, par- 
ties dying were James Henderson, corner of Water and Walnut 
streets, lot 131 ; Mrs. l^'rances Hogan, corner of Cherry and Mill streets, 
lot 171, DePauw's addition, and Mathew Allen, lot 94, corner High and 
Small streets. His child died at the same place. On the afternoon of July 
3, there were no new cases reported, and people were flattering themselves 
that the crisis had passed, but that night and July 4, presented a scene that 
baflled description. Salem will probably never witness the like again. The 
grim monster death had cut down elexen persons, most of whom were 
attending the sick the day previous. These were Samuel King, North 
High street, near the Presbyterian church; Mr. McCown, a Virginian, at 
Baird h(jtel, lot 17: John For.sey. lot 38, corner of Main and Mulberry 
streets; William K. Hite. lot ^y. North Main street; Benjamin Draper, place 

Rev. Jas. McCoy was taken sick at his home on North Main street and 
his friends undertook to get him out to the country, but he expired in the 
wagon as they were crossing the creek at the east end of Market street. His 
wife and son died at the family residence. Mrs. Brazelton died on lot 19, 
South Main street. Her child died at same place. John H. Farnham, a 
celebrated lawyer, died on lot 85, I'cjplar street; a child of Capt. William 
Baird died on lot 17, South .Main street; Mrs. Elizabeth Bates died on the 
corner of High and Hackberry streets, her daughter also; William Gordon, 
Sr.. on lot i()8, Del'auw's addition; Mrs. Compton and child, lot 54, North 
M;iin street: Henry Hoke, ])lace unknown; Leroy Ha.9;an's child, lot 36, North 
Main street; Isaac Hagan, lot 54, Main street; Mrs. David G. Campbell, lot 
133. Water street; Mr. Hiram Kyte. lot 103, Water street; Mrs. Stacy 
C,.o>well, West .Market .street, between Water and .Mill; Banks W^ Jolly, 
seconrl story of P)00th's store, where he was clerking; old Mrs. Hagan, lot 
54. .Main street; Miss Polly Hayworth and Miss Barbara Briles, place 
unknown ; Russel .Mien's child. West Salem ; Mrs. Carpenter, lot 57, East 
Market an-l High streets; |{llen Badger. Bainl's hotel: i'.lizabeth Ni.xon, 
North Main street; Jolin Sharp, from Jackson county; Mrs. John H, Earn- 


ham, lot 85, Poplar street ; Ellen Badger, Mrs. Green, Reuben Morgan and 
J. L. Johnson's child, and Samuel Henderson and child. 

There were seven colored persons who died of the same disease. The 
Annotator gave their names as Dianah, Bass and his two children, Job, wife 
and daughter. 


Those who died in the country of the dread disease were Mary A!l)ert- 
son, John Lockland. James Craig, Peter Vancleave, Mrs. Keller, Mr. Sapp 
and wife, Joseph Trowbridge, Misses Elizabeth and Eleanor Allen. Eli 
Wright, Mr. Tigner and wife, Mrs. C. Prow, Mrs. Kindle, Mrs. Bunch, Mrs. 
Hole, Mrs. Scott, Mrs. Zink and two sons. Richard Wright and George 
Killion. While cholera was raging seven persons died in town of oilier 
diseases, making all told a few over one hundred deaths in about ten days. 
The disease disappeared almost as suddenly as it came, there being no cases 
after the 7th of July. 

There were a few sporadic cases of cholera in the summer of 1849, the 
only death being that of Henr\- Yoimg. Salem was again visited by this 
pestilence, beginning August 20. 1831, when the following persons died: 
The first was Alfred Markliani and then Mr. Reed, John B. Hendricks. Mrs. 
Thomas Godfrey and daughter, Mrs. T. ^^'. \\'eeks, Miss Leah .\ickols, 
Mrs. H. B. Malott. Capt. Samuel Day. Mrs. Branson Lee, Mrs. Peter \angle, 
Mrs. Simon Drom. Charles Sutler. Henry L^ppinghouse, Eliza Harris. .Austin 
Harris, Miss Patty Spurgeon, Thomas Lindley, James Wolf. Richard Lock- 
wood, Stephen Baldwin, Celia Lee, Linzy White, Rebecca Deiiiar ; outside 
of town, William Henry. Thomas D. Weir, Re\ . William Williams, John 
Botts and one unknown, making twenty-nine. Again a pall hinig over 
Salem. Again many of her peo|)le removed to other jiarts of the country. 


Investigation was made and the matter was thoroughly discussed con- 
cerning the cause of these cholera outbreaks. It was finally decided that 
the main cause of the troulile originated from the stagnant water in the 
old mill-dam, a mile down the creek, which had been built by Win. Lindley 
and latterly owned by Rodman. A posse of men got together and tore out 
the dam, which allowed the creek l>ed to be cleaned out by the next flood, 
since which time there has been no recurrence of the epidemic. 



Very few persons probably are aware of the fact that one of the earhest 
movements ever set on foot looking toward universal peace, was inaugurated 
in Washington county almost a century ago. It was one of the initial steps 
taken in the long ago to give impetus to the general peace principle, and it 
may have had its influence in establishing the peace tribunal at The Hague 
upon a basis that some time no doubt will work for and maintain peace 
among the nations of the world for all time to come. This society existed 
for several years and the influence it e.xerted no doubt resulted in influencing 
later generations to take up the work and give their labors and energies to 
the cause, carrying their influence even up to The Hague tribunal, as some 
of the descendants of these old enthusiasts did in latter years. In January, 
i8i8, there assembled in the then new court house in Salem, fifty-seven dis- 
tinguished men of the county, most of them in the prime of life, their ages 
ranging all the way between twenty-one and sixty. All of them were emi- 
grants from southern and eastern states, having a short time before come 
to this western frontier to find homes on its virgin soil. 

At that time Jonathan Jennings was governor of the state ; James Mon- 
roe was president, and Henry Clay, Thomas H. Benton and Daniel Webster 
were leaders in the United States Senate. Abraham Lincoln was a boy 
of ten or eleven, getting the rudiments of an education by pounng over what 
old musty books he could lay his hands on by the dim light of the fire in 
the cabin home among the tanglewood of Spencer county, Indiana. There 
was not at that time any threatening war in the land. The Indian tribes 
had all been subdued and had retired beyond the Mississippi ; the only spirit 
of war being manifested was manifested by the mustering and fillibustefing 
of all ablebodied men upon certain stated occasions, as provided by law, 
A'hich no doubt were obnoxious to their feelings and principles, and which 
they wished to check in its embryo, if possible. 

A call had been made by publication in the county newspaper for all 
who favored peace instead of war to meet at the county seat and organize 
the society. Tiie object of the meeting was briefly outlined by Dr. Benja- 
min Albertson, a leading spirit in the movement, after which followed the 
electiim nf officers. The society chose Beebe Booth, president. Dr. Benja- 
min \H)ertson. secretary, and Nathan Trueblood, treasurer. Matthew Cofifin, 
David Denney, A\'illiam Hobbs, Jonathan Lyon, Zacharia Nixon and 
Samuel Lindley were selected trustees, and after ordering two hundred 


copies of the constitution printed for ilistributinn they adjourned to meet 
the third day in April following. In The Tocsin nf Mondax-, December 27, 
1819, appeared the following notice; 

"The annual meeting of the Salem Indiana I'eace Society will be held 
the second Saturday of ne.Kt nidnth, at two o'clock p. m.. in the town 01 
Salem. By order, B. Albertson, Sec, Dec. jo, 1819." 

At this meeting. President Booth delivered an alile addre>s dwelling 
at considerable length u])iin the atrocities (.)f war, together with the amelinr- 
ating and beneficent influence of peace. He re\ie\ved the ra\ages and deso 
lation that had so recently beer, wrought b\- the Napoleonic wars and hoped 
that the world would ne\er see again >uch w liolesale destruction of life and 
property, that had retarded the w(.)rl(l jirogress for years, and perhaps ages 
to come. He urged each and e\er\- member of the society to tr\' and exert 
an ififluence to spread the gos])el of universal peace all e)\er the land, that 
the greatest good to the greatest number might be accomplished. Just how 
many years this society was kept up there is 110 means now of ascertaining. 
The sterling integrity and exemplary character of the men who were prom- 
inent in this peace movement left their imprint upon the generations that 
followed after them. It is in ]»lace here to note some of the incidents con- 
nected with their lives and their posterity. 


Beebe Booth, president of the Salem Peace Society, was a man of cul- 
ture and for several years was one of Salem's leading merchants. In 184-' 
he moved to Terre Haute, where most of his latter days were spent. His 
son, Xewton Booth, emigrated to (/aliforuia during the gold excitement, 
where he afterward was elected go\ernor and I'nited ."^tate^ senator. Xew- 
ton Booth Tarkington, the author, was a grandson of the elder Booth. 

Ebenezer Patrick was the founder and publisher of The Tocsin, the 
first pai>er jiublished in .Salem. His indefatigable labors were rewartled, 
not in the current coin of the realm, but mo-tly in pelts, wood, game, and 
eatables of all kinds. One notice m the is>ue of December 2"/. 181Q, reads: 
"Those who have made engagements to i)a}- for 'The Tocsin in corn, will do 
us a favor bv compl\-ing with their arrangements as soon as possible. .Ml 
kinds of country pr(jduce recei\ed in ]Kt\nieiM, as usual." 

Dr. Benjaiuin .Mbertson. the secretary of the society, lixed on a farm 
near Canton. He was known to be a man of the strictest honor, coml)ined 
with luore than .aliilitx, and his juiDineiU was often s,,uobt, not a'oue 


in sickness, but in the general affairs of men, among his friends and neigh- 

Phineas Trueblood took a very active part in the peace society, and his 
son. Dr. Benjamin F. Trueblood, was secretary of the American Peace 
Society, of Boston, Massachusetts, for many years. 

Alathew Coffin was an earnest promoter of the peace society. He was 
a watchmaker, Init found time occasionally to lecture on the possibilities of 
electricity. His prophesies were startling for that day and age, antedating 
Morse and most of the early electricians. Priscilla, a daughter of his, was 
gifted in the gospel ministry in an unusual degree and traveled in her lalxir 
extensively through the country, people everywhere flocking to hear her. 

Jordan Henly was a member of the peace society and he had a brotlier, 
Thomas J: Henly, who was a representative in Congress for two terms at 
the time of the annexation of Texas. He was very much of an orator and 
lived in Clark county. When the subject of annexing Texas came before 
Congress he voted for the measure, and for this vote and the admission of 
Texas into the Union as a "slave state" he was censured by his Quaker 
brethren very severely, Init he voted more wisely than he knew, as he helped 
by his vote not only to secure Texas, but California ^nd other valuable 
territory north of the Montezumas. 

It was probably through the influence of the Salem Peace Society that 
quite a number of persons, mostly Quakers, refused to muster with the 
militia, or take part in any warlike matters. Accordingly, on February 13, 
1822, the county commissioners ordered that a tax levy of four dollars be 
laid on each person who was conscientiously scrupulous against bearing 
arms. In the following year the following list of names were returned to 
the clerk of the county, the same having paid said assessment in lieu of 
doing any sort of military duty: William Hobbs, Samuel Hobbs, Elisha 
Hobbs, John Overman, John Cox, Benjamin Albertson, Aaron Cox, Foster 
Nixon, Nathan Trueblood, John Harned. John Mills, Benjamin Parker, 
Benjamin Cor.sany, Samuel Moore, Henry Watson, David Denney, 
Thomas Lindley, Marmaduke Koffin, Joshua Hitchcock, Caleb Trueblood, 
Richard Day, Jesse Henly, Aaron Bogue, Henry Thornton, Levi Thomp- 
son, James Trueblood, Sr., James Trueblood, Jr., \Villiam Trueblood, Jor- 
dan Henly, Jehoshajjhat Morris, Aaron Morris, Peter Draper, William 
Draper, John Brazleton, William Brazleton, Joseph Nixon, William Lind- 
ley, Benoni Morris, Micah Newby, Eli Overman, Thomas White, Isaiah 
Hunt, Robert Dennis, Anthony Dennis, Isaac Chase, James Coffin, Stephen 


Coffin, John White, John W. Winslovv, James Winslow, Daniel Winslow, 
Willis McCoy, Jehoshaphat Sims, Jesse Bogue, William Trueblood, Benja- 
min 'Overman, Abram Bundy, Thomas Hollowell, William Hodgin. Jacob 
Cox, Joseph Hodgin, Marl: Bogue, John Trueblood. Nathan Bogue, Jacob 
Berkey, John Robertson, George Starbuck, John Meredith, Jesse Stanley, 
James Modlin, Nathan Modlin and Samuel Coffin. Altogether the assess- 
ment brought into the county treasury the sum of two hundred and eighty- 
eight dollars. The descendants of many of these people are now residents 
of Washington county. 


Under the Constitution of 1816 dueling was not made a crime in Indi- 
ana, but there were some laws enacted to prevent the growth of the bar- 
barous practice. But with the revision of the Constitution in 1852 it was 
made a criminal offense to either gi\e or receixe a challenge and the killing 
of a -person in a duel was murder in the first degree. Wliile duelling was 
never common in the state, "the code" was recognized to some extent. 
The practice was inherited from the old country and was cjuite prevalent in 
the South for a long time before the Ci\-i! War. ;\Iany of the early settlers 
of Indiana came from the Southern states, and while they were generally 
peaceable and orderly, they retained their southern ideas about duelling. 
Public sentiment was pretty lax on the subject in early times and the fact 
that a man had fought a duel and "killed his man" did not disfjualifv him 
for office or lessen his popularity. Duelling was formerly very common 
in England and is still practiced to some extent on the continent. Of 
American statesmen, Jackson, Clay, Randolph, Benton and De\Vitt Clinton 
fought duels. The fatal duels between Burr and Hamilton, and Graves 
and Cilley are historic, the latter illustrating that foolish feature of the code 
which re(|uired the second, in some cases, to take u]) the quarrel tor his 
princii)al, even though there had ne\er Ix'cn the --liL^htest trouble l.>etween 
the contending parties. The sad results of these last two duels called the 
attention of the public mind to their linitahty, which causetl wide indigna 
tion all over the land, and which led to the enactment of laws in both states 
and nation, to suppress the same. One of the last fatal duels fought in the 
United States was that between Terry and Senator Broderick of California, 
in i8'59, in which the latter was fatally wounded. 



The earliest shooting affray in Indiana, except those between whites 
and Indians, occurred on June 24, 181 1, when Capt. Thornton Posey, com- 
mander at_ Ft. Kno.x, Vincennes, shot and instantly killed Lieut. Jesse Jen- 
nings, an officer of the fort. As far as is known there has never been a 
duel fought on Indiana soil, though a number of challenges have been sent 
and accepted between irate individuals. The intercession of friends in 
every instance, brought about a satisfactory settlement of difficulties with- 
out bloodshed. Here in Washington county many quarrels resulted in an 
agreement to settle the matter in dispute by a "fist and skull" duel, but these 
never resulted seriously. The old "stray pen" down on Water street was 
the scene of many of these encounters. When both parties were satisfied 
with the result, there was usuall)- a handshake, followed by a social glass of 
"old rye," which ended the broil forever. 

.\mong the "near duels" in the state was an affair between Jesse D. 
Bright and Joseph G. Marshall, both very prominent men in their day, Mar- 
shall being one of the^reatest lawyers the state has e\er had, while Bright 
was a great lawyer and a United States senator. The troubles grew out of 
politics. Marshall was a very passionate man, which got him into many 
troubles. He once had a fight with Judge Otto, who for some years pre- 
sided over the circuit court in this county, and was afterward assistant 
secretary of the interior under Lincoln. Marshall got the best of Otto in 
the scrimmage, but afterwards wrote him a letter of a])ologv. The Marshall 
and Bright trouble culminated in 1851. The two agreed to meet in Louis- 
ville to settle the difficulty. Dr. James S. Athon, of Charlestown, and 
McKee Dunn, of Madison, accompanied Marshall, and James Guthrie, of 
Kentucky, afterwards L^nited States senator and secretary of the treasury, 
was second for Bright. Both parties had gone to Louisville expecting to 
fight, but through the efforts of mutual friends and advisers, the difficulty 
was adjusted. Though the principals then shook hands, they never spoke 
to each other afterward. 


\\'illiain McKee Dunn was a member of Congress from Indiana just 
prior to the ri\il \Var, and opposed the extension of slavery. Politics ran 
hij.;h those days, and he got into an argument on the floor of Congress with 



;\]r. Rust, of Arkansas. Rust was known as a "lire eater," and belie\ed 
in the code. Feeling that Dunn had grie\ousiy wronged him, he sent hnn 
a challenge, which w av accepted. L ,•^^sul^ .M. I'lay was Dunn's second, and 
rifles were selected as weapons for the occasion. Dunn went into practice 
with his weapon with apparently no fear a> to the outcome, as he had accept- 
ed the challenge from a sense of duty and lielie\ed that right would prevail. 
Every prelinnnary arrangement had l.'ccn made 
the effort^ of friends on both Mdes a sati-lactc _ 
the duel did not take place. 

l'rubab!_\ the last "near-duel" iu the stale and w 
able talk at the time, nccuired in l-'ebruar\ . iSoi, liet\ 
tlie Legislature then in sessinn at Indianapoli';. 1' 
Horace PJeffren, a Democrat, who \\a^ then u\ the ] 
manhood, was representative from Salem, \\ a-^hlUL;ton 

he fight, but through 
lenient was made and 

h caused coiisider- 
n twii members of 
ics waxed warm, 
le of In-- \igorous 
untw In a heated 
Kepuhjicau. made some 
(,..\frnor Willard. who 
uthern Indiana, llettren 
g his attention to Moculy. 
The result was a challenge and lioth parties ^elected secoiuls. George R. 
fluell, of Indianapolis, wa> second for Moody, while Col. John C Walker, 
•of Laporte, acted for ileffreii. As the challenged party, llefl'ren at first 
selected bowie kni\-es as the wcapnu'-. Hefl'ren being a man of powerful 

.discussion, G. C. Moody, of Xewtmi c 
charges or allusions reflecting on the m 
was very near the hearts of the good pc 
resented the remarks in a scathiup rebuke 

physique and Mood\- an unusually -mall iii; 
advisory secimd, iibjected to tin- and dfferet 
fight with knives. Heffren'< second would ii 
-aying his principal had no ill feeling toward- 
him ill a dead!) euc luiUer. Then rifle-- were 
the tmuble. Knnwing the CHn--titulion of 
within Its Ixirders. the ])arties ,ill proceei 
meuts were CMni]>leted for the hL;hl. It w 
meet in dea<n\- encounter on the banks ot 
XewiHirt. KenUick\-. in a s,,rt of hollow 


Lionel Milroy, Moody's 
ike Mondy's place and 
•ec t.i this substitution. 


>l the state iimbibited .luelliug 
(1 tc) Cincinnati, where arraiige- 
s decided that tlie jiarties sh.mld 
the nWuK a short di-tance bek.w 
I short distance 'from tlie road. 

The place o 
liapeis. but 
fight wa- to , 
cabin, where 
from black 1 
.Short Iv aftei 

rendez\-ous bad not bee 

line off. to witne-- the or 
lietw ceil the blazing fire 

^iiie. .\ St 
<uk and tl 
lion acain- 

I\ dawn when 
. made :il a ue.a 

d „h 


an appearance, but it was discovered that the man who was to have brought 
the guns had forgotten to put them in his carriage, and he was at once sent 
back after them. The delay caused by this embarrassing incident was 
improved upon by the seconds and their assistants to adjust, if posisble, the 
difficulty without bloodshed. Principals were urged to make concessions, 
as far as practicable, to heal the breach, and both agreed to withdraw a part 
of their offensive remarks, made in the heat of passion, and thus the affair 
was terminated, just as the guns were brought on the ground. The con- 
stitutional provision against duelling was in force at that time, but there 
was then no statute on the subject relating to such crimes and consequently 
no action was taken in the courts in regard to the transaction. 


A chapter of Indiana's development that will soon be as sealed pages to 
the coming generation, is that period which ch/onicles the passing of the 
great four and six-horse notion-wagons and the era of their prime pros- 
perity, in which small fortunes were made by the men who engaged in the 
"Yankee-notions" trade. Up to a period dating about the time of the close 
of the Civil War, commercial travelers, or "drummers" were hardly known. 
Country merchants and retailers everywhere usually made semi-annual trips 
to the large cities or wholesale-trade centers to lay in not only regular lines 
of staple goods, but all sorts of notions as well. It was always a difficult 
matter for them to stock up on odds and ends, and profitable trade was 
often lost because of their inability to furnish customers with the numerous 
articles demanded in this line. New inventions and increasing manufac- 
tured products were constantly coming out, all of which were called, in a 
general way, "Yankee notions," and to bring these to the door of the retailer 
came the idea and development of the wholesale peddler's wagon. 

By this means the country merchant was able to replenish and keep up 
his stock of goods right along between the. periods of his annual or semi- 
annual visits to his supply houses in some far-away city. This wagon 
trade grew rapidly from the start, and proved to be very profitable to those 
who entered into it and knew how to conduct the business. The plan orig- 
inated in the Eastern states, but it did not take long for it to reach out and 
take in what was, something over a half century ago, known as the "west- 
ern country." Its final decadence was due solely to the fact that city job- 
bers saw its magnitude and realizing its importance, started out their "drum- 


mers" and put forth extra efforts to capture the trade, until by superiur 
facilities which they possessed, forced a conipetitic:)n that was in the end 
disastrous to the wholesale peddler and forced him to retire. 

The outfit of one of 'hese traveling merchants was literally a wholesale 
jobbing establishment on wheels. The stock carried was in \ariety equal 
to that of many of the large wholesale stores of the metropolitan cities, and 
was replenished from time to time at difTerent stations along the regular 
route traveled, these stations drawing their supplies in large (|uantities direct 
from manufacturers, and hrst-hand as much as possible. The successful 
wholesale peddler knew how to buy, as well as how to sell, to insure the 
largest profit, and give his customers satisfaction. There was no selling 
by sample, with the uncertainty of getting the thing as ordered, and there 
was no opportunity for any market variations between time of purchase 
and delivery. The merchant just selected the goods he wanted from the 
stock at his door, with the certainty that he secured exactl}- the articles pur- 
chased at the prices named on the spot. The stock carried in a wagon was 
usually worth several thousand dollars. It embraced everything in the Hne 
of small wares and notions, including silk, linen and cotton threads, hand- 
kerchiefs, cuffs arid collars, suspenders, knives, scissors, shears, soaps, per- 
fumes, pins and needles, buttons in endless \ariety. trimmings, table-cutlery, 
jewelry, in short, a thousand and one articles "too numerous to mention." 

The sale of watches and jewelry was an interesting and profitable fea- 
ture of tne trade The jewelry was not all of high class. Ijut the kind the 
people demanded — something showy and not ex]>ensive. Traders in horses 
and cattle were the principal buyers of watches The ])urchase of an ani- 
mal valued at fifty dollars, for twenty dollars cash and a "gold watch" was 
good money in the pocket of the trader, to say nothing of sale profit on 
same animal, and then the seller was satisfied, so no harm was done. Dur- 
ing the Civil War, if a wagon merchant could strike a regiment of soldiers 
that was flush with bounty money, his fortune was made, ior every one of 
the boys felt that they needed a watcn and rings were nice presents to send 
back home. 


The routes of each team owned by the merchant covered some forty or 
fifty towns, arranged so as to visit them all at regular intervals four times 
a year, arriving at headquarters twice a year, spring and fall, for inventory. 
There were the usual "bargain s^les" of goods out of style, shop-worn or 


tliat had been purchased for a song at some auction sale. The team man- 
ager kept up his stock by frequent orders to the nearest supply station. 
There were styles then, as now, in most everything and every effort was 
made to keep up with the varying changes that were constantly being made. 
Notices were sent to merchants of the date of intended arrival, the arrival 
being timed as near as weather and other conditions would permit. County 
roads were not all as good then as in these days of wheelmen and "good 
roads movements," and the delays, especially after spring and fall rains, 
were often tedious and vexatious. To be held at a cross-roads store, an 
enforced guest for a week or two where there was no hotel, with a menu 
consisting of hog and hominy, while the roads were blockaded by snow- 
drifts, or rendered impassable on account of mud, was a provoking expe- 
rience, but not an uncommon one. Regular stopping places en route were 
usually arranged for, and the landlord nearly always took his pay in a box 
of cigars or other notions, so that when the charge for the keep of the team 
and men was deducted the bill of expense was not extravagant, after the 
profits were considered. 

The amount of the sales to country merchants varied, seldom being 
less than twenty-five dollars, sometimes running into the hundreds. "Lat- 
est city styles" was a common catchword, for merchants always wanted to 
he up-to-date. When a progressive merchant ventured to set the style, his 
customers were always chary of making purchase until fully assured that it 
was the "correct thing." The wonder was then, not so much as now, how 
did the country folks manage to keep up so closely with their city cousins 
in adopting the new styles, for there were then no fashion magazines scat- 
tered broadcast over the country, as there are today. For many years the 
wholesale-notion wagon was indi.spensable. It filled an aching void that 
nothing else could or would then supply. But like everything else its days 
were numbered — a change in business methods put an end to the store-on- 
wheels. The power of the locomotive proved too great for the team, and, 
usurping its field, stilled forever its musical rumble and the tinkling bells 
that swung in the glittering arch that stood above the harness of each pranc- 
ing steed. 


For many years Samuel A. Patton, whose home was near Livonia, was 
the prince of traveling notions salesmen in all of Indiana. He began the 
business some time during the Civil War and operated the same up to 1876. 
Most of the time he had three wagons, which were drawn by four or six 


finely-matched horses, ec[uipped with silver-mounted harness. The wagons 
were large, bodies filled with drawers, and shelving, all painted, striped and 
decorated with pictures done in the very highest style of the art. Along 
the road these wagons were protected from mud and dust by neatly-fitting 
covers, which were removed as a stopping place was neared, and the outfit 
was rushed down the street, attracting the attention of everyone as it pulled 
up in front of the leading hotel, or halted at a store to drive a bargain. Mr. 
Patton bought his supplies mostly in New York, of first hands, and could 
compete successfully with most any wholesale house in the country. He 
bought some notions in Cincinnati when regular supplies ran short, and 
when he started in business there were but two wholesale establishments in 
that city that catered to the notion trade. He had distributing, or supply 
points, at Seymour, Indianapolis and Loogootee and his wagons covered 
nearly all the south half of the state, making their round trips ever\' two 
months, except in late winter or early spring, when men and teams had to be 
laid up on account of impassable roads. There were other traveling mer- 
chants on the road at the time. Wiley Elliott had one team, sometimes 
two, and most often four horses. His headquarters were at Saltillo, but he 
was forced out of business aWit the same time that Mr. Patton quit. He 
carried a stock of goods usually worth about three thousand dollars. Pat- 
ton's wagons carried goods amounting to five and si.x thousand dollars. 
Tihe teams and wagon outfit cost, in each instance, about two thousand dol- 
lars, so as they journeyed about through the country they represented con- 
siderable capital. But progress and invention never stand still. They are 
continually infringing upon old customs and mapping out new methods 
which must be adopted, no matter who it ruins or whose profession or call- 
ing is sent to the wall. Together with stage-coach days, the flat-boat period 
and the small village manufacturer, the traveling peddler has been relegated 
to the past, and the country in which he once flourished as the green bay 
tree will know him no more forever. 

FOl'RTH OF JULY. i8j6. 

The Fourth of July, if^26, is remarkable for much more than sim])ly 
being an anniversary of the nation's l)!rth. It was the passing of the fiftieth 
mile-stone of nur country's existence, and the people of Salem and sur- 
rounding countrv determined to observe the occasion with apjiropriate cere- 
mony. This was long l>efore there was such a thing as news transmissiim 
bv means of electricity, so the occasion in Salem was not marred bv the sad 


news that the talented author and the brilliant defender of the Declaration 
of Independence were both dead, that Jefferson and Adams had immor- 
talized the first jubilee of Colonial liljeration by their union in death. Great 
preparation for rendering appropriate honors to this occasion had been made 
by the people of Salem. A man of great legal ability, a superior classical 
scholar, and of commanding presence, had been selected as the fit orator for 
such a day, and although the rain pelted down in fitful showers all day long, 
there was an immense gathering of people present from all parts of the 
country. A procession was formed on the public square and led by a band 
of martial music. They moved up High street to the old Presbyterian 
church at the extreme north end of town, where 'the celebration was held. 
Then John H. Famum delivered one of the most logical and powerful ora- 
tions ever pronoimced before an Indiana audience. But a portion of his 
address gave unpardonable ofTense to many present. He took a decidedly 
bold and intelligent stand in favor of free schools for both rich and poor, 
his position being far in advance of the politicians of the day. His opinions 
were bitterly assaulted and relentlessly condemned on evei-y hand, but he 
showed himself competent upon every occasion to meet his opponents with 
manly firmness and argument that was irrefutable. 'But he did not live to 
witness the triumph of the great truths and principles which he so ably 
enunciated and advocated, for he fell a victim of the cholera scourge that 
swept over Salem a few years afterward ; but many of his assailants did live 
to see the common-school system become popular and forever established. 


Whilst tfte festivities of that rainy Fourth were in full blast, a lively 
episode, not down on the regular program, took place. A runaway couple, 
from Green county, Kentucky, riding a single horse, arrived in town. They 
were hotly pursued by the enraged father and furious brother of the fleeing 
girl. The public highway leading north from Salem then ran out High 
street, and just as the fleeing couple reached the church building where the 
celebration was being held, they were overtaken by their pursuers. The 
brutal father seized his trembling, helpless daughter and inflicted upon her 
several furious kicks and blows, nor did he desist until a stern "Hoo.sier" 
boy invited him in unmistakable tones to stop. Then father and son seized 
and bound the young man, and they all started back, followed by quite a 
crowd of men and boys. .\s they moved down the street the old man and 
snn heaped all the abuse their \ile linigues could command upon the heads of 


their victims, and with horrible oaths told the young man what his doom 
would be when they got him back to Kentucky. Reaching the public square 
they made a halt to get something to eat and drink. Stacy Cogswell, a well 
known and brave man, hearing of the trouble, determined to know by what 
authority the seizure was made, and confronting the elderly gentleman de- 
manded him to show his legal authority for binding and carrying away the 
prisoner. They were told that kidnappers were severely punished in this 
state, and notwithstanding the threats made by the angry father and son, the 
prisoner was liberated and told to take his girl where he pleased. The cap- 
turing party was directed to trot a hasty retreat back across the river, which 
they did without further ceremony. 


During the spring and summer of 1827 an eccentric preacher, who 
denominated himself a cosmopolite, traveled and preached extensively in vari- 
ous portions of Indiana. He was then nearly fifty years of age. The news 
had long been spread about that on a certain day the man who twenty-eight 
years before professed to lielieve that "he had a divine call to go preach to 
the Catholics of Ireland." who had twice visited Ireland and Kngland, who 
had introduced camp-meetings into England, who drew immense crowds 
vherever he went, the man who had gone through almost every state and 
territory in the American Union, and the man who had preached the first 
Protestant sermon within the limits of Alabama, was to preach in Salem. 
It was an immense outpouring of the people. Salem uj) to that date had 
never seen anything to equal it. Xo church — no court house was sufficientl\- 
capacious to contain one-tenth of the mass of eager, e.xcited hutnanit\- that 
had assembled to listen to the great Lorenzo Dow. Nothing but a wide- 
spread grove could recei\'e and accommodate this expectant multitude. Then. 
at the east end of Market street, from the top of the hill down to and beyond 
the creek was a magnificent grove, almost an unbroken forest. Just at the 
foot of the hill, and where the railroad now runs, the people for miles 
around gathered together and anxiously awaited the coming o{ the wonder- 
ful man. The messenger of leather girtlle and camel's hair did not produce 
greater excitement, or occasion more admiration. Then, almost every man 
kept his face cleanly sha\'ed, and the great preacher showed uji in striking 
contrast with the great majority of men of that day. lixactly at the aj)- 
pointed hour, unannounced and unattended, the strange man rushed amid 
the crowd and without any ceremony of introduction, began his work. Xo 
speaker's stand had l>een provided and he spoke from a slight elexated place 


on the hill side. Dow's whole face was unshaven, and his beard fell below 
his waist. His hair lay in long ringlets over his shoulders and down his 
back. His strongly cultivated controversial disposition gave his countenance, 
while speaking, quite a savage, warlike mien. His voice was deep and 
strong, often mingled with a peculiar harshness. He was a very blunt, 
enthusiastic speaker, at times, breaking forth in strains of bitterest satire and 
his manner and appearance were wholly unlike those of any other speaker. 
Sometimes he would stand erect, uttering the fiercest denunciations imagin- 
able without the least motion or gesture, rhen again he would hop upon 
whatever elevation chanced to be near. Several times he sprang up among 
the boughs of small trees that stood near where he happened to be speaking. 
His talk, could not with propriety, be denominated a sermon. It was a com- 
ing-no-more, lengthy talk, abounding in scathing epithets, fancied dialogues, 
scenic pictures of the great Judgment Day and the unseen hereafter; dangers 
that threatened the great American republic through the instrumentality of 
Jesuitism, and in short almost everything that, with lightning speed, could 
flash through the erratic man's mind in the space of a three-hours' talk, and 
it seemed that he held his hearers almost spell-bound all that time. Not long 
before Dow's advent in Salem the author of the "New Purchase" had given 
him offense. This doomed Hall to a free passage, lengthwise, through 
D<iw's threshing machine. Pelting Hall very naturally led to a scurrilous 
tirade against all Calvinistic clergymen. Leaving these, he next made a 
furious (lash at atheism and deism. "With stentorian tones he summoned 
them to final trial and assigned them eternally far down in Tophet. Next he 
called up the poor L'uiversalists. These he belabored with the tilt-hammer 
of irony, the setting maul of satire and the cruel sword of driving sarcasm. 
Lastly, came the arraignment of the Jesuits. On these profuse vials of 
wrath were emptied. At this point his denunciation had a terrific pungency 
and startling bitterness almost indescribable. His final appeal was for a 
better. God-fearing people, a higher ideal of citizenship and a closer follow- 
ing in the footprints of the Master. Such was Lorenzo Dow's efifort in 
Salem. He held the attention of the people as if he had been one of the old 
prophets. His singular api>earance excited no levity and brought forth no 
adverse criticism. 


Mankind naturally Ijeconies philosophic when it starts down the shady 
side of life, and old people delight to live over in memory the days of child- 
h<:)od and early youth. They remember very distinctly the pleasant associa- 


tions and innocent amusements, together with the innumerable achentures 
which dotted their pathway in early hfe; while on the other hand, they are 
prone to forget early trials and tribulations, denials and vexations of spirit 
which at the time rendered life a burden. A hundred years ago parents did 
not believe in "sparing the rod and spoiling the child." They usually had a 
whole houseful to care for. watch over and command. Strict discipline had 
to be maintained, otherwise there wouUl have been no living among a mob 
of obstreperous offspring. The \-iolation of a parental command was sure 
to end in chastisement of some sort commensurate with the offense com- 
mitted. And the "school master'-' of early time was accorded the right and 
privilege of using the "birch" whenever occasion required its application, 
and there was hardly a day passed by that he did not have recourse to the 
rod in order that his authority might be respectefl and his dignit}- be main- 
tained. So, taking all things together, the youth df the land had a rough 
road to travel, and no doubt the old i)eople of this age 
return of childhood's days more zealously, were it no 
recollections which come to them of the past that ar 
and which cannot be erased from the pages of niemc 

In calling up some of these unjileasant memories 
stands in the mind's eye the old peach-tree at the gardei 
memory ever lingers, none the pleas;intest, howexer, and 
tree has long since decayed and crumbled into dust. \et in imaginatif)n, it 
seen with thrifty sprouts coming forth every spring around its ])ase, which 
"played" a very imjKirtant part in most \oungsters' earl\- training and 
bringing u]). The application of a limber peach-tree ^])rout was the most 
common punishment inflicted for disobedience or bad conduct. And to pro- 
long suspense and allow the imagination to iiictiu-e more \i\i(ll\- the scene 
that was to follow, the refractory scion was usualh- subiccted to the painful 
necessity- of going out and selecting the twig himself with which he was to 
be punished. There's no doubt that he understood something .>f the applied 
principles of psychology, even at that earl\- ihw. for he usiiall\ lingered ;i 
long time on the way to get the sprout, knowing that the more time li 
the parental ire to subside the lighter would be the intliction endured \ 
few "hopefuls" of the present day have a proper conception of the bitter 
pangs experienced by the unf<iriunates who were coiu]ielled to t;ik(, 
doses of "peach-tree tea." Then there \ 
and foot and lashed to the bedpost wliei 
being considered adequate for the (H-casi..ii: or. sometimes. tlK\ would bt 
put to bed when iilent\- of time wmild .dwins be oi\eii for makm>>- capituhi' 

e would 
tr some 

long tor ; 
<if the \-ivic 

ot ])leas; 

mt to recal 

^ there 


en gate. 

-\round ii 


1 the ])each- 


; that 


be ■ 

per c 






ler t". 



tioiis, or the exacting of good promises from the culprit. Most any kind of 
punishment was preferalile to that of ha\ing the privilege of circumlocution 
snsijended ; and although the suffering in the flesh was not so great as that 
of being stirred up hv means of a limljer twig, the anguish of mind was. 
almost unendurable. Proliabh the most dreaded of all tortures was the 
dark and dismal closet incarcerations, where the prisoner had to meet, in 
imagination, all sorts of raw-headed, bloody-Ironed and snaggle-toothed 
demons that infested dark prison cells. Here it was that moments 
seemed almost ages, and it was not until the piercing shrieks and cries of 
lamentation became more unendurable than his benign presence around the 
family hearth and |)aternal fury hatl time to .subside, that the unfortunate 
individual was again brought forth, from darkness to light, rejoicing that 
1-e still li\ed, moxed and had a being. 


There were nunierous petty grievances and perjjlexities to obstruct the 
pathway of early life in the wilderness that rendered life a burden. With 
onlv one pair of stubb)-, homemade shoes a year the boy had a difficult time 
in making himself resijectable li Hiking at least six months in the year, for 
early spring time found him with huge patches .across the toes of his shoes, 
and holes \\\ the patches, and it was no wonder that he went barefoot as- 
soon as warm weather set in. The mother, who always seemed to be respon- 
sible for the children appearing in decent clothes, did her duty in most every 
mstance, but the father who looked after shoes antl hats too frequently came 
u|) short on sui)plies. 'llien every boy imagined he hatl a harder row to- 
hoe than other boys of his ac(|uamtance ; he was never permitted to go 
swimming like other fellows: melons and ap])les never got ri])e enough for 
him to eat; his supply of ( hristnias tire-crackers was alwax's short; he had 
tn take the cows farther to ])asture than anyone else, and he was driven to- 
lled sooner and whi]ipe<l out earlier th;ni an\ other mortal under the shining 
sun. Remembering all tins, and nincli more lieside, it isn't any wonder that 
when they grew up they entertanied few longings for the return of those 
"liap]i\ days of childhood;" but rather than live over again those days so- 
frought with heart-aches and sore \exations, would prefer to begin and end 
then- da\s as crnst\, grumlilmg, desiiised ;uid rejected hermits, going along 
life's pathway lonely and alone, cross o\er Jordan in a one-handed canoe, 
; hi^ fr.iil li:irk m the slough of despond, wade ashore without any con- 
gratulatii'iis from nnnistering angels and silentlv take a back seat in the 


realm of eternal bliss, unnoticed and unnumbered, complacently gazing all 
the while upon the millions of angelic choristers that surround the great 
white throne. 

The boy of the tweiiheth century knows very little about the trials and 
e.xperiences of the youths of a century agu. It is a question if the easy 
method of rearing and bringing up children practiced in the present day, is 
an improvement upon the stricter practices of the past. The jjresent age 
looks with condescending smile at the old-fashioned period in which the de- 
mands of authority and discipline controlled the education of the child. 
There has been substituted for it the demand for freedom with all its bless- 
ings, but instead of the blessings, too frecjuently they get all the vices. He 
Avho has never learned obedience can never become his own master and who- 
e\er is not his own master, through all his life, lacks the mental soundness 
and mental balance which a harmonious life demands. That the forms of 
strict discipline accomplished good results, we have evidence all about us. 
That it was carried to an extreme may not be gainsa\ed, Ijut lest we err in 
the opposite direction let us have a care. The strong mind may find its 
sound adjustment even without the training that comes through obedience 
and discipline, but the weak, waxering mind has to pay the penalt\', that of 
social disaster. 



A very jjrominent man in the earl\- settlement of the county and in all 
public affairs, was Judge Enoch Parr, lie was born in North Carolina. 
November 27, 1785. His father and <,rrandfather were Ixith named Arthur, 
and both ser\ed in the Re\olution. Tlie grandfather was killed at the battle 
of Plillsboro, North Carolina, during that war. At the age of fourteen 
Enoch Parr had gone to school a sufficient length of time to master the "rule 
of three," when the teacher told him he could "learn him no more." He 
afterward secured a "Pikes" arithmetic an<l a geography and prided him- 
self as being consideralile of a "scholar" by his own efforts. He was a 
wheelwright by trade, and in this way was always ai>le to earn considerable 
money for that day to support his family. When of age, he thought of 
marrying, but he was poor and had but little prospect to offer a partner. He 
considered the propriety of marrying into a wealthy family, and thus get a 
start, but soon found out that even in that earh' day it would take a 
long time to secure such a reputation as to admit him to the social scale where 
he desired. So he concKided to wait a while t>efore perfecting any matri- 
monial alliances. 

Solomon Bowers and Jacob Copple had been west on a tour of inspec- 
tion in 1807 and decided to locate in Indiana Territory. Enoch was then 
twenty-two years old and decided to join them. Copple fixed up a wagon 
for his family, but Bowers and his wife, with a couple of pack horses, and 
Parr came through on horseback. They left North Carolina. March 29, 
1808, and arrived in Clark county, Indiana, April 16. When Parr got here 
he had a horse and seven dollars and fifty cents in cash. One-half of this 
amount he paid out for corn for his horse, and with the balance he rented a 
piece of land whereon to raise some corn for the next winter. He hired to 
Jesse Lindly, at ten dollars a month, nine dollars of which he put away to 
buy land. On the 8th of August, 1808, he got a school at eight dollars per 
month, and it lasted three months. During this time his horse wandered 
into the range and he gave him up as lost. That fall Adam Bowers came 
out and brought him fifty dollars which had been owing him in the Old 


North State. He also brought news that his father. Arthur, had sold his 
jwssessions for one thousand dollars and would come west in the fall of 
•809. Enoch's father had offered him two hundred acres of land if he would 
remain with him in North Carolina, to induce him to remain there, but as 
tne land was rough and poor he concluded he would rather chance it out 
west, and now the father was to follow him. T.ate in the fall of 1808, young 
Parr entered a section of land in Clark county, but the next spring he sold 
his right for twenty dollars advance, and then spent thirty-five days in the 
wilderness searching for a new location, finally entering the quarter section 
upon which he lived and died. 

His father, Arthur Parr, and all his children, came west in the fall of 
1809, and settled in the same neighborhood. During the season of 1809 
Enoch cleared up five acres of land, built a cabin and prepared for house- 
keeping. He planted the five acres of land he had cleared to corn, and in 
the fall went back to North Carolina to collect some debts that were owing 
to his father. He returned home on June 11, 181 1. His father now gave 
him two hundred and twenty-five dollars, with which he "paid up for his 
land and bought some tolerably neat clothes." Parr said that for the first 
time in his life he realized the old adage, "That when a man is able to help 
himself, then he has friends," and that "when in need of friends, he may 
help himself." He concluded he wanted one Nancy Carr, and in due course 
of time he won her hand and heart and they were married on August 20. 

Enoch Parr was always an active politician, and in 1814 was appointed 
justice of the peace, which office he held till 181 7. His father, ,\rthur 
Parr, was elected a justice about 1820 and served until 1827. In 1828 
Enoch was elected justice and served up to 1832. In 1834 he was a candi- 
date for judge, to which office he was elected and served until 1838, when 
he was re-elected for seven years. In 1847 he was re-elected as associate 
judge' of the Washington circuit court, and held the office until his death, 
which occurred on July 24, 1851. aged si.Kty-five years. By his first wife 
he had se\-en children, six boys and one girl, nanielv : Malinda, Samuel, 
Thomas. David, John, Morgan and I'llisha. Hy his second wife, whu was 
Ruth Lindley, six girls and a lioy ; Hannah, Xancy, Sarah, Rel)ecca, Susan, 
Ruth. .Vnna and Enoch. 

Arthur Parr saw much service as a Revolutionary soldier, and endured 
many hardships. The following declaration made under oatli, in order to 
obtain the benefits of an act of Congress, gives a brief resunii? of his .services: 

"On this, the 26th day of Septenil>er. 1832, i>ersonaHy appeared in open 


court, before the judges of said court now sitting, Arthur Parr, a resident 
of the said county of Washington, and State of- Indiana, aforesaid, seventy- 
four years old, who being duly sworn, doth on his oath make the following 
declaration, in order to obtain the benefit of the act of Congress, passed 
June 7, 1832 : 

" 'According to my best information, I was born on July 5, 1758, in 
that part of the state of North Carolina that was then or shortly afterward 
known as Guilford county, where I continued until I was somewhere about 
ten or twelve years of age, when I went with my mother into the state of 
South Carolina, my father being dead. I remained there until the ist of 
March, 1776. Then in the defeat of Fairfield, I was drafted and entered 
the service of the Revolutionary War, under Capt. Thomas Woodward, in a 
single company, and marched to Charleston, where I was stationed under 
different higher officers, until after the battle of Sullivan's Island, com- 
manded by Colonel Moultrie, which I was in full view of. but not imme- 
diately engaged in. 

" T entered the service as a volunteer, and was ordered out against the 
Cherokee Indians, under Capt. Joseph Hancock, under Colonel Beard, who 
was under General Williamson, and marched into the Indian country. Was 
in one small battle with the Indians, whom we beat, and after the battle we 
cut down their corn and destroyed it. I was then continued on the Indian 
frontier until March, 1777, when we were discharged at Lindley's or 
I'.lason's fort, I do not recall which. In the spring of 1777, I entered the 
service, a volunteer, under Capt. Joseph Kirkland. and Major Goodwin, 
under Col. John Winn, under General Williamson, and went into Florida, in 
the campaign commonly called the Augusta campaign. When we returned 
I was continued in the service, variously stationed on the Savannah river, 
our headquarters being at Petersburg, until the fall or early in the winter of 
1778. I went to Charleston, as a volunteer, and continued there and in the 
vicinity until the fall of the year, when we went again to Petersburg, when 
we were discharged. 

" 'In the spring of 1779, I entered the service, a volunteer, under Joseph 
Kirkland, and was employed, under General Huger, in destroying the road 
from Savannah to Charleston. In June we were under General Lincoln 
near the mouth of Stone creek, and were in the battle commonly called the 
Stone battle, between Charleston and Savannah. I then entered the horse 
service, under a captain whose name I have forgotten, under Gen. Count 
Pulaski, and in that situation I was in the siege of Savannah. Farly in the 
year 1780 I went as a volunteer, with Captain Kirkland, who was then 


made colonel, and Benj. May, captain, and 1 continued there until a few- 
days before Charleston was invested by the British. I was then sent under 
Colonel Kirkland to Orangeburg, and there continued until shortly after 
Charleston was taken. We also surrendered by capitulation, and were 
paroled. After we were paroled, the British aggressions and violations of 
the terms of capitulation caused many of us to take up arms and I was 
obliged to flee to North Carolina, and when General Gates' army passed 
through that state, I followed after, and joined the army the day before the 
memorable Gates defeat. I was under Colonel Portertield, w^ho was killed 
in the battle, which was my last essay under arms. 

" 'The above are some of the particulars of my serxice in the Revolu- 
tionary War, as near as my recollection serves me at this time. It is likely 
I may be mistaken in some things, particularly the dates, but one thing I am 
sure of and that is I was in all employed upwards of three years in the 
service of the United -States, particularly the state of South Carolina, ni 
tfiis struggle for independence, a great part of which I was Serg. Comt. 

" 'Arthur Parr.' " 

It is seen from the above that the service rendered by Arthur Parr was 
before that part of the Revolutionary War set forth in Lee's "History of the 
Southern Wars." There is a passage mentioned in the "Life of Marion," 
by Henry, concerning Sergeants Jasper and Newton rescuing certain Ameri- 
can prisoners, among whom was a Mrs. Jones, and conducting the British 
prisoners to Petersburg. Parr was at Petersl)urg when the two sergeants 
came in with the prisoners. After the surrender of ( harleston and Orange- 
burg, the liberty soldiers considered themselves con()uered, Init there were a 
few organized parties here and there that continued to worry the Tories and 
British whenever an opportunity presented itself. 

Colonel Winn went to a Tory camp and agreed to join them on a cer- 
tain evening, with such of his old soldiers as he could prevail upon accom- 
panying him. There was about three hundred of the King's loyal subjects in 
the camp. Colonel Winn rallied aliout sixty of his old command of rebels 
and former prisoners, and sallied out under the pretense of friends to join 
their old foes. Arriving at the Tory camp everything was ready to receive 
them with open arms. The Tories were lined up on one side of the camp, 
and Colonel Winn and his men marched down in front of them. .\t a signal 
Colonel Winn's men rushed upon the Tories, very few of whom were armed, 
and in a few minutes dispersed them without loss to the patriots, and with 
great loss to their foes. Parr said he thought e\eryone of them gi>t his 


man. The patriots then burned up the camp, but they had to get out of the 
country as quickly as possible. It so hapi>ened that one young man of the 
party was caught by the British, who extorted a confession from him as to 
who was concerned in the skirmish, and then they hung him. There being 
no place near where he could go for safety, Parr went to North Carolina 
and took up his residence with James Morgan, a stanch patriot, who had a 
daughter named Polly, whom Parr afterward married. 

When the British, under Cornwallis, marched down through that coun- 
try, the poor dismayed liberty men had to keep concealed, as the Tories had 
them all spotted, and if they were captured they were usually marched out 
and shot without ceremony. To keep out of the British clutches they had 
to keep concealed, "lay wet," as it was called, and sometimes nearly starve, 
until the King's forces had departed. Parr could not talk about the British 
without working himself up into a frenzy, for he said he hated a Britisher 
worse than an Indian. 

Upon one occasion a half dozen lil>erty men knew of a lot of Tories 
who were on their way home from some command that had been released 
for a time, and' they decided to capture them. They were to come by way 
of a narrow pass between a high cliff and Broad river, and here they decided 
to hem them in and make them prisoners. The six liberty men, of whom 
Parr was one, divided, three of them stationing themselves at either end of 
the narrow pass. As soon as the Tories turned up the river along the cliff, 
the lil>erty men closed in on them, and it being dark, the Tories could not 
discover the number l)efore nor 1)ehind them, and as each patriot made as 
much n(jise as a half dozen men. the Tories thought they were overpowered 
and surrendered at once. It was then agreed that three from below and 
three from above should go along and take the Tories' horses and guns. 
There turned out to be twenty-four Tories, and when they had been dis- 
armed they were ordered up the hill where they were bound and secured, 
after which, to their mortification, they found out that the whole twentv- 
four of the King's loyal subjects had been captured by six rebels. 

.\rthur Parr died on March 21, 1833. on the place where he first settled, 
and his wife a few years afterwards in Clark county, at the residence of her 
son, Morgan Parr. 

/\ lengthy history of the Parr family was written out by Judge Enoch 
Parr and was for a long time preserved by his descendants. In 1848 he 
wrote as follows : "The war is now over, and peace has been made with 
?ilexico. Upper California and New Mexico are added to the United States, 
and Texas is freed from invasion and its independence as a state of the 


Union permanently established. The territory of the United States now 
■extends from the Atlantic to the Pacific oceans, and if our government con- 
tinues to prosper we will have room for hundreds of millions of people in 
years to come. It is the l^est government in the world to make men happy, 
and I think I can congratulate myself a little for it. My grandfather and 
father fought in the Revolution for independence, the former laying down 
his life in the cause. I assisted in the War of 1812. My three son^ were in 
the Mexican War. and althoiigh two of them lost their lives in that war, I 
have the consolation to believe that they were engaged in securing the means 
of making millions happy that are yet unlx)rn, and that may never hear their 
names. And although there were vast numl)ers of men in the States that 
exclaimed against the Revolutionary War as unjust and impolitic; and also 
against the War of 1812: and also the late war, yet I have the further con- 
solation to believe that the present democratic form of government will go 
on. improve and prosper, until, with the blessing of God, it has silenced all 
its gainsayers. In after years any one perusing these memoirs will easily 
perceive that I am a Democrat, which I am proud to say, ha\e been for about 
forty years — ever since the canvass previous to Jefferson's first election, a 
canvass in which my father took a warm part, and I then imbibed all the 
feeling of my father, and am still, and ever expect to be an advocate for a 
democratic government. The simpler the government, the Ijetter for the 
mass of the people. Let e\ery one get his living by honest industry, and 'do 
as he would be done by.' and be subject to the constitutional powers that be 
— and all will be well." 


In 1842 Col. Richard M. Johnston, who had been N'ice-President of the 
United States, paid a visit to Salem, and it was an occasion that is still 
remembered by some of the oldest citizens. Colonel Johnson was elected to 
the Vice-Presidency in 1832 on the ticket with General Jackson. He it was 
who gained renown as the man who killed the celebrated Indian chief, 
Tecumseh. Colonel Johnson had been invited to attend some political dem- 
onstrations that were to come off at New Albany and Charlestown, and the 
citizens of Washington extended him an invitation to visit Salem, which he 
accepted. Committees on barbecue, music, si>eaking and parade were ap- 
pointed, and every one, irrespective of party, got to make the reception 
for the old Indian fighter a grand one. Col. E. D. Logan, then in his prime, 
was made chief marshal. The Clarke countv committee escorted Colonel 


Johnson to the top of the knobs, where the committee from Salem met him 
at Reuben Lucas's. The reception committee consisted of Hugh McPheeters 
and Townsend Cutshaw. At Lucas's a splendid dinner was partaken of. 

Maj. Eli W. Malotte had sent his barouche and team, with his son, 
Herman, for driver. This was the only stylish rig in the town at the time 
and of course made quite a show when out on the street. The old colonel 
flattered his driver and gave unto him the nickname of "Boenerges," by 
which appellation he was ever afterwards known. They reached Judge 
Enoch Parr's, on the east side of Canton, in time for supper, where they 
remained over night. The next day, Thursday, July 7, 1842, bright and 
early, the people in the county began to pour into town. They came on foot, 
on horseback, in wagons, singly and in processi.ons. A procession was 
formed with bands of music and banners flying, which extended more than 
half way to Canton, to escort the illustrious visitor to Salem. Such another 
pageant has, in all probability, never been witnessed in Salem. Upon arriv- 
ing at the public square, the procession halted in front of the hotel on the 
northea'^t corner of the square, where the reception si^eech was made by Dr. 
Elijah Newland. In the course of his remarks he referred to Colonel John- 
son as the man who had killed Tecumseh at the battle of the Thames. In his 
response Colonel Johnson took occasion to say: "I have never said that I 
killed Tecumseh. I shot at an Indian and saw him fall, but before I could 
see who it was, or distinguish his dress, the confusion and smoke was such 
that it was impossible to say that it was Tecumseh, although the mighty 
chief lay on the spot where others of his tribe were killed." 

This was the language of Colonel Johnson, and although there has been 
much discussion as to who killed this Indian chief, the truth was that no one 
knew positively who sent the deadly missile that ended his warfare. 

The barbecue was held west of Salem, at the forks of the road in a fine 
beech grove. About ten o'clock the procession moved out to the grounds. 
Colonel Johnson's equipage was drawn by four white horses. The barbecue 
was an immense afi^air. A pit twenty-five feet long, eight feet wide and four 
feet deep had been excavated. This was filled with logs and when the heap 
was a huge mass of coals, l:>eeves. hogs and poultry were suspended above 
on poles, where they were roasted by experts who kept turning the meat 
round and round so as to secure an even roasting; the meat being salted and 
peppered as it was cut up to be served. There was served a corn pone, about 
three feet in diameter and over a foot thick, which was pronounced delicious, 
Ijut how it was made and what the name of the maker was is now forgotten. 



Colonel Johnson made the speech of the day, followed by a number of 
impromptu ..alks by Indian fighters of that day. The Colonel's younger days 
had been spent on the frontier, and the hardships of pioneer life were dwelt 
upon at considerable length. Among other things he told how his mother 
had upon one occasion concealed him in a "water hole" while she ran bullets 
for the men who were having a fight with "Injuns." Ever after, when Salem 
had a big day celebration, political or otherwise, it was for decades remarked 
that those occasions were nothing in comparison with the great outpouring 
of the people at Colonel Johnson's barbecue. 


Away back in the dim aistance of more than one hundred years, in the 
days when canals, railroads, steamboats and telegraphs were not ; when it 
was no disgrace to pull flax or reap the golden grain ; when it was no dis- 
honor to spin, weave, make up and wear jeans and linsey; when the young 
man could wear a red hunting shirt, buckskin breeches, coon skin cap and 
go to "meetin' " barefoot; when this country was almost an unbroken wilder- 
ness, and the savage red man roamed at will over hill and down dale, a bold 
and hardy class of people were turning their facts to this part of southern 
Indiana, and were striving to clear "up lands, build some rustic log cabins and 
make for themselves homes and happiness. But for a long time every day 
was one of peril, for the Indian was on their trail, committing depredations, 
stealing their horses, killing and scalping men and women, and doing every- 
thing in their power to prevent them from settling up the country. The 
brave, hardy settler was compelled to be on his guard constantly to iirotect 
himself from surprise and his family from annihilation. 

The spirit of adventure coupled with the desire to better their conditions 
in life and assist in building up the country, lured two young A'irginians 
from their homes. Thomas Menaugh was one, Xathan Hensley was the 
other. Menaugh served seven years' apprenticeship at the hatter's trade in 
Virginia, after which he gradually worked his w ay to BJoomfield, Kentucky, 
where, in 1806, he married Elizabeth ("Betsy") Lemon. .After his marriage 
he went to Taylorsville, Kentucky, where he found the companion of his 
youth, Nathan Hensley, who had married Mary ("Polly") King. The two 
families decided that the northwest territory offered better opportunities to 
aspiring young people than Kentucky, so they joined their forces and started 
for the new country. On the 5th of April, 1809, about ten o'clock in the 
morning, they found themselves standing on the bank of the Ohio river, 


beside a ferryman's cabin, at a little town now called Utica, in the county of 

They, with all their worldly possesions, had been set across the river in 
a rudely built ferry boat, manned by two stalwart darkies as oarsmen. They 
hardly knew which way to go, as they were wholly unacquainted with the 
country that now lay before them and knew not a living soul in this new 
land. They were greeted, not by the delusive voice and persuasive manners 
of the land agent or friends who had gone on before, but by the howl of the 
wolf and the soul-piercing cry of the panther. They came where the elk 
tossed aloft his gigantic antlers, where bear were met in every dense wood- 
land, and where as yet the savage red man prowled about thirsting for the 
blood of whites regardless of age or sex. The first settlers followed agricul- 
ture almost exclusively, and these two families, after consulting with the 
ferryman, concluded to go on to the frontier settlements and find locations. 
In each family there was a small boy, about two years old, whose names 
were respectively "Johnny" and "Jimmie." They were carried in a bag 
thrown across a pony, a boy in each end, with their heads protruding and 
nearly touching each other just across the pack saddle. The women, each 
with a babe in arms, also rode ponies, while the men with guns walked on 
in front. 

The first night out they camped on Silver creek, where there was a small 
settlement called "Drummonds," in honor of a man who had located there 
two years previously, and who was able to afford a cabin with two rooms m- 
stead of one. The next morning they partook of a not too frugal meal and 
prepared to continue their journey, but'Drurtmiond put in an appearance, and 
offered to furnish work for one of the families, having a sort of pole cabin 
on his place where they could find lodgment. Not having a great amount of 
surplus cash to enter and open up a new home, Hensley decided to remain 
for a time with Drummond, and after the usual "goodbyes." Menaugh 
pursued his travels, being advised to steer his way to Royse's Lick, some 
forty miles back in the wilderness. There was then a trail up through the 
knobs that could be followed without much trouble, arriving at the "Licit" 
the second day out, in section 15, township 2, range 3, Menaugh found i 
few scattered settlers around the "Lick," who assisted him in selecting a 
location as well as in the labor of building a cabin, and he was soon com- 
fortably housed, and busy clearing up a patch of land for corn and vegetables 
for next winter's supply. 

The only dishes they had in their new home were made of oewter, and 
an iron pot, skillet for baking bread and frying pan were their only cooking 


Utensils. Their neighbors were Lewis Woody, Samuel Lindley, Zachariah 
Nixon, Andrew Pitts, Godlove Kamp, Jesse Spurgin and Colonel Dawalt, all 
of whom had located there the year previous. The family left at Druni- 
mond came out in the fall and found a home adjoining Menaugh. Their 
two boys became greatly attached to each other, and would he together at 
one or the others' cabin and in each other's compan) constantly. 

At this time there were several small villages of Delaware Indians scat- 
tered over the county. "Old Ox" was the chief of the tril>e, and spent his 
time mostly between the "Lick" and the village they had down in Gibson 
township. Sometimes he would visit their trading posts at Pigeon Roost 
and Springfield in Clark county. A branch of the Muscatatuck river bears 
the name of "Ox's Fork" in honor of the old chief. He was quite old and 
died about 1811, and was succeeded by his eldest son, who had at his birth 
the euphonious appellation of "Tow Head" bestowed upon him, why no one 
ever knew, as his hair was as long, black and greasy as any other brave. 
Thp Indian maiden, who nursed the trapper, McCulough, when in 1803, he 
broke a leg and was cared for by the Ox family, and who McCulough after- 
wards married, and settled down with the tribe, was a sister of "Tow Head." 
McCulough had by his squaw wife a son about the same age as the two 
boys spoken of and his name was "Sammy." The two white boys and this 
half-breed were boon companions, and when it was possible for them to be 
together they were engaged in their plays, fashioned after the employment 
of their elders. 

Old Mrs. "Ox" was still at the "Lick" most of her time and quite fre- 
quently took Sammy over to see Johnny and Jimmy. She was going over 
to the Indian village in Gibson township, for a day or two and she insisted 
that the mothers of the two white boys allow them to go along with her and 
Sammy, promising that she would bring them back the following day before 
the sun got "below the tops of the trees." \\'ith some misgi\ings the mothers 
consented, desiring to be on good terms with the Indians, thus showing they 
had confidence in the old squaw, which they no doubt had or they would 
never have thought of allowing her to ha^•e taken the children awa\- over 
night. On the evening of the next day the sun dropped below the tree tups, 
but Mrs. Ox came not, neither did the boys. 

The parents began upbraiding each other for being so foolish as to allow 
an Indian to carry off their children in open daylight, but thev reasoned 
that they might have started home and had fallen into the hands of maraud- 
ing Indians, or might have become lost and were wandering in the forest, 
and might show up some time during the night. Morning came and no 


children. There had been no sleep for the careworn mothers during the 
night, and with the coming of the early dawn thej' desired to push out on the 
trail and learn something of the whereabouts of the boys. Going to the In- 
dian wickiups at the "Lick" it was found that they had all been deserted, 
whereupon the settlement became very much excited and knew the children 
had been carried away. Col. Henry Dawalt soon had a company of twelve 
men started in pursuit, all mounted. Nathan Hensley also organized a small 
company to go on foot in a different direction from that taken by the 

It was ascertained that for some time previous to the carrying away of 
the two white boys, they had planned to swoop down on the settlement, 
capture their horses, burn their homes and kill as many of them as possible, 
then take refuge among the tribes farther west. There had been a council 
called by Chief "Tow Head"' at which other tribes were represented, all bent 
upon annihilating the whites if possible. Mrs. Ox, with the children, went 
quickly to their village on the Muscatatuck and that night the braves -were to 
make their raid upon the whites. But for some reason they concloded not 
to burn and kill, but to take all the horses they could find. Horses, when not 
in use, in those days were usually belled and turned lopse tp range as they 
liked. It was thus a very easy matter for them to secure all the horses they 
wanted and after doing so they were to collect at the mouth of the Muscata- 
tuck, where they were to wait for the squaws and old men of the tribe, to- 
gether with the children. 

McCulough, "Tow Head" and Mrs. "Ox" were to conduct them, with 
the two white boys to the point of rendevous. Old Mother "Ox" performed 
her part rather reluctantly, as she was not at heart a bad woman, and felt 
kindly toward the white mothers who had always been kind to her, but the 
chiefs' orders had to l>e obeyed and she carried out the part assigned her 
very successfully, as was developed. 

I^^arly in the morning of the second day, when the children were to 
have been returned to their mothers, they mounted their cayuses, "Tow 
Head" taking Johnny; McCulough, Jimmy, and Old Mother "Ox" took 
Sammy, and started to meet the braves, who had been out that night on a 
thieving exjiedition. They rode as rapidly as they could through the woods 
and swamps, but the day was far spent when they reached the meeting point. 
This was about the time the two mothers at the "Lick" were peering out to 
see if their little ones were coming, as Mother "Ox" had promised. Little 
thought they that the idols of their afifections were then twenty miles away, 
in the clutches of retreating savages. The thieving red-skins were at the 


river ready to cross over, when the fugitives with the children arrived, and 
they spared httle time in putting the river between themselves and their 
pursuers, for they knew the settlers would soon be hot on their trail. 

They crossed the rivtr in canoes, swimming their horses. The canoes 
were then turned loose to float down the river out of reach of the whites. 
They then traveled several days towards the Wabash , country, where they 
knew they would be safe. The third day out they rightly concluded that the 
whites would never overtake them, and being very much tired out, "Tow 
Head" ordered the party to halt, for rest and a good meal. They also pre- 
pared for a good night's rest. Johnny and Jimmy, never dreaming that they 
were in anything but safe hands, were wrapped up in a blanket and laid by 
the side of a fallen tree, with a dry leaf bed to make them as comfortable 
as possible. Indians always slept very soundly, especially when they had no 
reason to fear a surprise or attack. This party no doubt were in very deep 
slumber, for during the night, the fire in some manner commimicated to the 
old log beside which the two boys lay, and before any one was awakened one 
of them was so badly burned that he was on the following morning, butch- 
ered and scalped and left on the spot unburied, some leaves and brush being 
throwTi upon the remains, to hide it from view for the time being. 

Colonel Dawalt and his scouts went first to the old Indian village on 
the Muscatatuck, which they found deserted. They took the trail and fol- 
lowed it to the mouth of the Aluscatatuck. when night overtook them and 
they went into camp. The infantry got as far out on \\'alnut Ridge as 
George Housh's where they stopped for the night. The next morning they 
pushed on to the river and down to the camp where Dawalt and his men 
were found, undecided as to what course they had best pursue. They had 
no easy means to get across the river and the country was known to be full 
of warlike savages. After sometime spent in consultation, knowing that the 
Indians had a day's start of them and would make good use of their time, 
they decided it was not advisable or safe to go farther and all started home, 
to carry the story of their fruitless pursuit to the broken-hearted mothers, 
who fain would have gone in quest of their loved ones if there had been the 
slightest hopes of reclaiming them. They could not think for a moment 
that the two innocents had been the victims of the Indians tomahawks and 
lived from day to day vainly hoping that some good streak of fortune might 
bring them back again. 

The time drifted by until after the battle of Tippecanoe, in 181 1, and 
all those who had fought under General Harrison had been discharged and 
returned to their homes. Some one learned that among the prisoners cap- 


tured and brought into Fort Vincennes there was a white boy who could not 
give a very accurate account of himself. Like a drowning man catching at 
straws, the two mothers who uad lost their boys two years before imagined 
this little fellow was theirs. The boy was being retained at the fort for 
identification. A rider was despatched forthwith who took tht Ad Indian 
trail from Cincinnati to St. Louis, which passed through the northern part 
of this county, between Plattsburgh and Millport. After four days' hard 
travel he reached Vincennes and found the boy. From what the little fel- 
low could relate it was certain that he was one of the two that was stolen, 
but he could not tell his name. Upon making inquiry of the boy as to what 
had become of his playmate, the little fellow could only tell that the Indians 
had killed him. Some adult white prisoners had been ransomed at Vin- 
cennes and had given the particulars as they had learned them. 

The scout returned home with Johnny or Jimmy behind him, he did not 
know which, and journeyed back to the "Lick." As might be supposed 
there was rejoicing over the finding of the boy, but grief over the one that 
had been lost. Both mothers claimed the boy as her's, and each found 
marks upon his person which were proof that her claim was indisputable. 
To put the much-mooted question at rest among all . interested parties it 
was finally agreed that Andrew Pitts, Samuel Hicks and Col. Henry Dawalt 
should be appointed a committee to decide as to who was the mother of the 
boy. They did not proceed with their task like one of old; by ordering the 
child to be cut in halves, and one half given to each claimant, although 
that instantly revealed the true mother ; but they went to work very earnestly 
and seriously, feeling the great responsibility resting upon them. They 
heard each mother's claim to the boy and what he knew in a misty way, 
compared complexions and mannerisms as thoroughly as possible, but strange 
to say, this committee failed to agree on a verdict. 

Colonel Dawalt felt certain that the boy belonged to "Betsy" 
Menaugh; Samuel Hicks was just as positive that "Polly" Hensley was the 
mother of the child; while Andrew Pitts was undecided, and was not sure 
but what it was the half-breed Sammy. The jury so rendered their ver- 
dict, whereupon it was suggested that Lewis Woody should be called in to 
settle the matter. He had heard the evidence, and being a little doubtful 
in his own mind as to which claimant should have the boy, suggested to the 
committee that they report "that the disputed child was of right 'Betsy's,' 
but as there was some doubt about it, they would award him to both, let 
them keep him month about, and the one who outlived the other was to 
become the mother in fact and name." In this decision the mothers agreed 


and the boy continued to live, first with one and then with the other, for sev- 
erai years. Not knowing whether to call him Johnny or Jimmy, he was 
nicknamed "Ox," which title he bore as long as he lived. Some six years 
after "Polly" Hensley was working out in her truck patch, when she was 
strMck by a large rattlesnake, which resulted in her death. Whereupon, as 
per agreement, "Betsy" assumed full authority over the young man. He 
had alternately been called John and James, but now his name was John, 
and he developed into a strong, healthy, vigorous man in body and mind 
and became very prominent in county and community affairs. 

John L. Menaugh, although never being absolutely certain as to hi; 
identity, felt reasonably sure that by an intervention of Providence he had 
rightly drifted into the Menaugh family. He was a hatter by trade, first 
opening up a shop at New Philadelphia, after which for a number of years 
he carried on a shop in Salem. He was deputy sheriff under John McMa- 
hon, in 1842, and was elected to the office in 1844 and again in 1846. In 

1849 ^^ was elected a member of the lower house in the Legislature. In 

1850 he was elected county treasurer and again in 185J and 1854. In i860 
he served as county treasurer by appointment and was elected to the same 
position in 1862 and 1864, making about eleven years' service as treasurer 
of the county. In 1867 he was appointed postmaster by Andrew Johnson, 
which position he held until i86q. In 1830 he was deputy marshal to take 
the census of the county and in i860 he was again appointed as census 
taker. In 1864 he was a delegate to the National Democratic convention at 
Chicago which nominated Gen. George B. McClelland. In politics he was 
always a Democrat of the old Jackson type. ' He made several trips down 
the Mississippi as supercargo on flatboats, trading along the way. For a 
number of years he was cashier of the Bank of Salem. He was a devout 
Mason at a time when to be a Mason tried a man's soul. He died on June 
15, 1879, the oldest resident of Salem at that time. 


No man figured more prominently in the development of Washington 
county than did Gen. Marston G. Clarke, whose name was as familiar 
throughout Indiana in early times as that of George Washington or Andrew 
Jackson. He was a man of strong native intellect, a bold and independent 
thinker, with limited education in science and literature. He was a man 
of large size, strong physical powers and a commanding appearance: pas- 
sionate and violent in his feelings when angry, and blunt in his manners. 


like most of the early pioneers of the West. He was patriotic and brave 
even to rashness, honorable, generous and honest in all the relations of life. 
In religion he conformed to no established creed or system of faith, but 
believed in doing right and extending a helping hand to his fellow men 
when necessary. He had much to do with Indians and knew them like a 
book, and he always contended that they were more happy and honest in 
worshipping the Great Spirit in their native forests than they were under 
the teachings and influence of Christian missionaries. He was a cousin 
to Gen. George Rogers Clark, the great warrior, explorer and savior of all 
our country northwest of the Ohio river. 

Marston G. Clarke was born in Lunenburg county, Virginia, December 
12, 1 77 1. He was one of a family of twenty-nine brothers and three sis- 
ters. His father and grandfather were both named Benjamin, his great- 
grandfather, Thomas, who came from England at a very early day and 
assisted in establishing Jamestown. Thomas' wife, Elizabeth, was a cele- 
brated doctor of that day, and is said to have cultivated the first ground 
to the amount of ten acres ever tended in America. Marston G. made his 
first trip west in the year 1790, making his headquarters with his uncle, 
Greorge Rogers, at the old town of Clarksville, most of his time being 
employed in dealing with tiie Indians and scouting through the country. 
He made two or three trips back to Virginia, and on one of these he was 
married to Lucy Green Harper, March 31, 1797. Her father's name was 
Janus, a nephew of John Harper, who settled Harper's Ferry, and operated 
the first feny at that point. Her great-grandmother, the wife of Wm. 
Harper, died in Virginia, in 1803, at the advanced age of one hundred and 
thirty years. She and her husband were sold for their passage from Ire- 
land to this country, about 1673. ^'^^ rai.sed seventeen children, and just 
before she died got out of bed and called for her spinning wheel aivi pipe, 
and died while she was spinning and with her pipe in her mouth. 

On the 1st of May after his marriage Mr. Clarke started for Ken- 
tucky to locate a home. In June, 1798, he returned to Virginia for his 
wife and on the 27th of December, following, they arrived at Louisville. 
The tri]3 at this season of the year was a long and arduous one. If there 
had not been several parties in the train they would hardly have made the 
journey successfully. At this time there was but one brick house and 
scarcely a dozen log cabins in Louisville. They lived here two years, one 
year opposite Six Mile island, where Clarke bought a place of Thos. Bullitt 
and started a ferry, running from the mouth of Bear Grass to where Jef- 


tersonville now stands. The boat was roughl}- constructed out of hewn 
timbers, and manned by four stalwart darkies, Mr. Clark handling the 
steering, oar. The craft was about thirty feet long and by crowding a 
little a four-horse team and wagon could be carried across the river at 
une trip. In 1800, at the request of General Harrison they removed to this 
side of the river, where they made their headquarters for twelve years. 

Clarke was frequently away from home on scouting trips, when warlike 
savages threatened the settlement. Upon one occasion while he was away 
Mrs. Clarke fpurid her cabin surrounded b\- thirt)- drunken Indians. She 
put out the fire, barred the door and went to bed with three children. The 
ravages circled around the cabin a few times and then began to beat the door 
down with clubs, when their chief told them he knew their "brother" was 
jiot at home or he would come out and if they didn't quit he would hew 
them all down with his hatchet; whereupon they left without doing any 

l^'rom the time Clarke first came west in 1790, up to the date when the 
Indians were finally driven out of the country, he was almost constantly 
engaged in some sort of Indian warfare, if there was trouble anywhere in 
the country. He was with General Wayne in his campaign and in that war 
became an expert Indian fighter and scout. In 181 1 he volunteered to fight 
the Indians who were then devastating the frontiers, and General Harrison 
appointed him upon his staff as brigade major. Clarke and Waller Ta\lor 
were the two men who selected the spot where the famous battle of Tip- 
pecanoe was fought. Isaac Naylor, who was a participant in that battle, 
used to relate of General Clarke, that when 'the action was the fiercest, when 
many soldiers were falling on e\'ery hand, when the hearts of the bravest 
of the brave were almost ready to give up in despair, when the tomahawk 
<md scalping knife and rifle of the savage foe were being brandished on 
almost every side of them — that General Clarke rode along the lines, rally- 
ing his men, and that his voice of conmiand rang out over all the noise of 
the battle in thunder tones ; that he fought like a demon, knowing no fear, 
and that by his intrepid bravery and spirited conduct upon the battlefield, 
the tide was turned against the savages ; that liullets flew about him thick 
as hail, but he was wliolly obli\ious to their presence and came out 

General Harrison complimented General Clarke \ery highly for the 
part he performed in the battle, and at one time paid him a visit at his home 
in Salem. Although Congress come time after imdertook to cast a slur 


upon General Harrison for allowing himself to be entrapped, as they termed 
it, in the selection of the battleground, yet some of the best military men of 
past generations have said that no better selection could have been made 
in that vicinity for a battleground. 

In 181 2 General Clarke was a candidate for the othce ot coionel of mili- 
tia in Clark county where he then resided. In addressing the voters of the 
regiment at Charlestown he said: "If you elect me your colonel, I will be 
as despotic as the Bey of Algiers." He was elected, but soon after, in the 
spring of 1813, moved to Washington county. He first located on a farm 
in Howard township, known as the Tom Voyles place, but moved to Brew- 
ers Fort in the spring of 1814, and took a very active part in locating the 
county seat and mapping out the town. 

When General Clarke started out upon any of his Indian hunts his 
wife always saw that he had plenty of bullets moulded and powder-horn 
filled, and saddle-bags filled with provisions ; she would tell him never to 
come back until he had captured or killed every redskin in the country. 
While living in Howard township he owned a fine gray mare that could 
not be caught when out on range unless hemmed in in some way with other 
animals. He tried one day to catch the horse to go to Beck's mill on some 
important business, but after running himself down had to give it up as a 
bad job. He then very deliberately went back to the house, got his rifle 
and shot her dead, declaring that he was not always going to be annoyed 
by the brute in such fashion. 

Clarke and Beck were out fox hunting once together, and after 3 '^ng 
chase the hounds ran their game into a cave. While they were trying to 
get the fox out, their dogs got into a fight. Clarke seized Beck's dog and 
jerked him loose and in doing so the dog bit him on the hand. Clarke was 
for fighting Beck then and there, but Beck laughed him out of it. After 
binding up his hand as best they could with ix)wder and leaves, and Clarke 
had cooled off, he turned to Beck and said : "George, let's go home, this is 
all foolishness." 

Soon after the war of 1812, Clarke became surety upon the bond of a 
friend who had been appointed collector of revenue. The fellow became p. 
defaulter and judgment was rendered against Clarke and other sureties on 
the bond. All his property was levied on and sold bv the authorities, even 
to his sword and rifle which he had carried in defense of the early settlers 
and in battling against savages. The sword he had received from his fath- 
er who had wielded it in the Revolution, and it grieved him sorelv to give 


it up. However, some friends purchased it and ga\e it back to him and 
his home was bought in and he was allowed to redeem it for a small sum, 
and he was thus saved from pecuniary ruin. 

When General Clark" was in the Indiana Legislature he introduced a 
bill to repeal all laws requiring officers to give Ijond, contending with great 
earnestness that the honor and honesty of the officer elected should be the 
only pledge for the faithful discharge of his official duties, and that when 
no official bond was given the people would be more careful in selecting 
men whose honor and honesty would be ample security. In 1820 Genera! 
Clarke represented Washington county in the Legislature, and served sev- 
eral terms as state senator. Upon one occasion he and Gen. John Depauw 
were opposing candidates for the state senate. Everybody voted at Salem 
then. The two got into an altercation, when Clarke flew into a passion and 
made at DePauw with a pocket knife, which DePauw did not seem to fear 
and stood his ground. No one interfered, when Clarke, reflecting that 
the provocation was hardly sufficient to warrant him in stabbing his oppo- 
nent, turned to George Beck, saying: "George, why didn't you catch me? 
This has lost me my election." And so it did, for DePauw was elected. 

When a newcomer arrived in town everyone lent a helping hand to get 
them in comfortable quarters. Upon one occasion a cabin was being put 
up for a man named Glover and Clarke and a man named Fleishman were 
working up on the roof, placing poles to hold on the clapboards, when acci- 
dentally Fleishman struck Clarke with a pole, forcing him off the horse. 
As he gathered himself up he broke out into a torrent of maledictions and 
seizing an ax took after Fleishman who took to his heels ; but Glover 
caught Clarke just in time to save Fleishman from being lirained. Every- 
thing was peaceable as soon as Clarke had time to cool down. 

On one occasion when on a scout he met a hunter that seemed to be 
very proud of his new gun, and handed it to Clarke to inspect. Clarke 
looked it over and said : "Now I will give you a lesson that will teach you 
never to hand a stranger a loaded gun. You just get up on that log or I 
will shoot you." The stranger very reluctantly complied with the demand, 
whereupon Clarke explained the great risk he ran and admonished him to 
profit by it. and handed over the gun. The fellow, stepi)ed back a few- 
paces and levelling his cocked gun at Clarke, said : "I now propose to even 
upon with you. Climb that log or I'll blow your daylights out." He had 
the drop on Clarke, who had to comply. They thus played even, and 
Clarke used to relate the circumstance as a good joke on himself. 


Besides serving several terms in the Legislature Clarke acted as Indian 
agent for Indiana under President Adams, and was twice reappointed by 
General Jackson, although of different politics. The election of 1840 found 
him an ardent supporter of his old commander, General Harrison. He was 
upon the electoral ticket that year and the last office he held was to carry 
the vote to the city of Washington. He was also Indiana's first elector, 
making the trip to Washington and return on horseback clad in his suit of 

General Clarke built the first county jail in the spring of 1815, for which 
he received the sum of five hundred and eighty-eight dollars. As soon as 
the commission located the town of Salem, Clarke gave up his claim in 
Howard township and moved to the county seat, stopping a while at Brewers 
Fort, until he completed the first home in the town and opened up the first 
hotel. General Clarke bought a lot on the west side of South Main street, 
in the second block south of the square, and there in a story-and-a-hal f 
two-room cabin Judge Lindley held the first court in the town, and sat upon 
a corn pile in one corner of the room while court was being conducted. 
General Clarke lived there several years, till 1827, when he purchased the 
brick in the court house that was torn down that year and used them in 
putting up the two-story hotel which stands to this day. A short time 
after he built this brick hotel he disposed of it and located on the farm one 
and one-half miles east of Salem, now known as "Maple Shade,*' where he 
died, and upon which spot he was buried, July 25, 1846, in the sCventy-fifth 
year of his age. 

He was buried with Masonic honors, of which order he was a consis- 
tent, faithful member. He joined the Masons a short time after the first 
lodge was instituted in Louisville, Kentucky, shortly after 1803. He 
retained his membership there until 1814, when he and Gen. John DePauw 
interested other parties in the project and procured a dispensation from the 
grand lodge, or grandmaster of Kentucky, empowering them to organize 
a lodge at Salem under the name of Melchizedek Lodge No. 37, of which 
lodge General Clarke was worshipful master. In September, 181 7, the rep- 
resentatives of nine lodges in Indiana met at Corydon and took the initial 
steps to organize a grand lodge in Indiana. General Clarke represented his 
lodge there. The meeting adjourned to come together again at Madison, 
January 12, 1818, when the grand lodge was organized and General Clarke 
was elected junior grand warden. The name of his lodge was changed to 
Salem Lodge No. 21, which number it still retains. In 1824 General Clarke 


was elected senior grand warden; and on October 3, 1825, was chosen 
grandmaster, being re-elected to the same office in 1826. He remained a 
faithful member of the Salem lodge until his death. During the trymg 
times of anti-Masonry, a clergyman undertook to change General Clarke's 
views, dilating at considerable length upon the evils of all secret organiza- 
tions. He listened attentively, and when the preacher had done, the Gen- 
eral drew himself up to his full height, his eyes flashing and thus replied : 
"Sir, the lodgeroom is my church and Free Masonry my religion. If I live 
by it, 1 can die by it, and while I am a consistent member of the order I have 
no fears of the future." General Clarke was wont to visit his lodge in his 
moccasins, buckskin breeches and hunting shirt, his usual dress. 

Salem formally observed Decoration Day on Monday, May 29, 1881. 
upon which occasion the Masons of the county, headed by Salem Lodge 
No. 21, had arranged to exhume the remains of General Clarke and remove 
them to Crown Hill cemetery. About nine o'clock in the morning a com- 
mittee of Masons and an escort of militia repaired to the spot and opened 
the grave. In it was found the bones of the general most all preserved, 
and a considerable portion of the cherry coftin in which his remains had 
been deposited. These were carefully taken up and encased in a new coftin 
and escorted to town. At one o'clock a procession was formed on North 
Main street in the following order : Salem Democratic band, Salem Guards, 
Odd Fellows in regalia. Masons, hearse, little girls with flowers, relatives 
of deceased and citizens in carriages. 

There were over fifteen hundred people in the procession, which moved 
to the cemetery, where the remains of General" Clarke were interred a second 
time with Masonic honors. Calvin W. Prather, grand master of Indiana 
officiating. Three Masons were present at his reinterment who participated 
at the first interment thirty-five years Ix-fore. namely; Elijah Newland, 
Townsend Cutshaw and Daniel Dawalt. Upon his tombstone is this inscrip- 
tion; "Here lies the youngest of twenty-nine brothers and three sisters." 


Some very remarkable men have lived in Washington county — were 
upon the stage of action here more than a century ago. The history of 
their lives would make volumes of interesting readmg, if it were possible 
to spread it upon the printed page, but we must be content with the lew 
details handed down by tradition. A man among men was Micajah Calla- 
way. He was for vears the companion of Daniel Roone; was with the 


latter in many a fight with the Indians, and was one of the best of scouts 
and spies. It is related of him that he could walk through the woods sa 
noiselessly that if one's back was turned toward him, he would be right 
upon the party before the latter could hear him. He was more than a 
match for the wily savage, and many a redskin has he stretched out upon 
the ground lifeless, by the unerring bullet from his long rifle. To the day 
of his death he hated the redskins. 

Micajah Callaway was born at Lynchburg, Virginia, in 1755. In the 
spring of 1775 he joined Daniel Boone in Kentucky and at once became a 
companion of that great scout, hunter and adventurer, of whose exploits 
every schoolboy in the land has heard. In 1777 the people of BoonesborO' 
were suffering a great deal for the want of salt, and the labor and risk was 
too great to try to pack it on horseback across the mountains, where they 
had to go for all the necessaries of life which the wild forest wilderness 
did not furnish. So it was arranged that Boone, with thirty men, should 
go to the lower "blue licks," on Licking river and manufacture salt. 
Included in this number were Micajah and Flanders Callaway. The party 
set out on New Year's Day, 1778, Boone being the guide, hunter and scout. 
By the 7th of -February t4iey had salt enougii to send a supply to the station,: 
and three of their number were detailed to carry it back while the rest 
worked on. 

On this same day, while Boone was out hunting, he was surprised and 
captured by two Canadians and one hundred Shawnee Indians.- Boone,, 
finding that he could not warn his companions at the "lick," so they could 
escape, set about making terms for them, in their behalf, and finally per- 
suaded his men by signs and gestures to surrender, as a fight would mean 
their annihilation. Callaway said in after years that if they had had the 
least idea of what they were to sufifer, they would have fought until the 
last man was killed, getting some satisfaction in seeing some of the savages 
sent to purgatory. Many of these men were marched through to Detroit,. 
Michigan, barefooted and over snow and frozen ground most of the way,. 
where they were delivered over to Governor Hamilton, the British com- 
mander in the Northwest. On their way north some who grew sick and 
were unable to go further were put to the torture, while some were killed 
and scalped by the wayside; but Callaway was retained up in Ohio, at what 
was called the Chillicothe towns. He was compelled for three months to 
subsist on fish, which he had to catch himself, and all this time he had no 
salt. Once, he said, that he got a duck's leg that had been boiled in corn. 


but the Indians took particular pains to see that he got no corn. His broth- 
er James was also a prisoner, but the latter and Boone managed to escape 
at different periods in the spring and summer of 1778. James Callaway 
wandered in the wilderness for twenty-se\en days, subsisting entirely upon 
frogs and roots the whole time, as he had no gun to shoot game. He 
crossed the Ohio river on a log, but it took him the greater part of a whole 
day to paddle to the Kentucky shore. Micajah Callaway often related to 
his family and neighbors, in after years, how, during the period of five years 
and five months that he was a prisoner with the Indians, he saw whites cap- 
tured and burned at the stake, made to run the gauntlet and tortured in 
every conceivable way, and how he was compelled to sit by and witness it 
all; how they would beat him with their fists and sticks; how the squaws 
would jab him with burned sticks, and how, when the red devils, after 
scalping a victim, would dash the bloody scalp into his face, telling him that 
if he attempted to escape they would serxe him the same way. He said 
he never lay down to sleep of nights that he wasn't lashed with rawhide 
to some big brave to prevent his escape, or pinned to the ground with a 
forked sapling. A small tree would be cut down and split up from the butt 
some three feet. At about two feet from the end they would hollow out a 
round place large enough for the ankle to turn in easily. They would cut 
the pole off about five feet in length and sharpen the .small end. The split 
end would then be opened and the prisoner, wlioever he might be, was made 
to place his ankle in the slot, and the pole was then driven into the earth 
until the ankle was level with the ground ujjon which he slept. In this 
manner most prisoners were kept, and there was no chance of escape. 

Callaway said he hated the British, and blamed them most for the 
cruelty practiced by the Indians. During the Revolution and for several 
years after the close of the war, the British supplied the Indians with guns 
and ammunition and incited them in every possible way to make war upon 
the pioneers who were gradually working their way west. While he was 
a captive, Callaway saw quite a number of British officers among the vari- 
ous tribes, looking after their welfare and telling the redskins where to 
attack the whites and how to drive them out of the country. These ofiicers 
conversed with him quite frequently, and urged him to join the side of the 
redcoats, promising him all sorts of rewards if lie would join their ranks 
and pilot their forces against the frontier forts and .settlements. 

.'Vfter the close of the Revolution, there was to be an exchange of pris- 
oners at the falls of the Ohio, and Callaway was the interpreter. .Kftc 


the exchange was made, the Indians insisted upon taking Callaway back 
with them, as he had not been considered in the exchange. This was his 
first opportunity to get out of their clutches, and he took advantage of it. 
They made great offers to get him to return with them, but he refused them 
all, and returned to his old home and friends in Kentucky, where he resided 
until 1803. 

While he was with the Indians, Micajah Callaway became very well 
acquainted with Simon Girty, the renegade, and told how the latter used 
to abuse him and all white prisoners brought to their camps. He said Girty 
would laugh and scoff at their miseries while the savages tortured them. 
After peace was declared, probably about 1785, Simon Girty settled in Ken- 
tucky, not far from the Boonesboro settlement. Callaway came across him 
one day at a gathering and told Girty he intended to kill him for the many 
acts of barbarity and murder that he had instigated the savages to commit, 
even if he had done no murder himself. Girty, desperado as he had been, 
Ijegged Callaway to spare his life, which he finally agreed to do upon con- 
dition that if he (Girty) should ever be in a settlement, town or gathering 
of any kind, and Callaway came there, Girty was to leave at once and not 
say a word. Girty readily assented and hastily took his departure. Calla- 
way traveled around considerably just to see Girty make tracks at his com- 
ing. Callaway only wished Girty would stand his ground just once, in 
order that he might avenge the terrible wrongs of the renegade's former 
prisoners. The whole country soon found out how Girty had to move 
when Callaway came about, and he was taunted and jeered wherever he 
went, until finally he abandoned Kentucky. 

There was one incident connected with the early life of Micajah Cal- 
laway that must not be passed over unnoted. It was at the close of a beau- 
tiful summer day, July 14. 1775. that Betsy Callaway, her sister, Frances, 
and Jemima Boone, daughter of Daniel Boone, were outside the fort at 
Boonesboro and in a canoe on the Kentucky river. Betsy was about six- 
teen and the other two about fourteen years of age. They were in plain 
sight of the fort, and were carelessly paddling about in the canoe. On the 
opposite bank of the river the trees and imderbrush were quite dense and 
came down to the water's edge. The girls, all imconscious of danger, were 
playing and splashing in the water, and in so doing drifted near the opposite 
shore. Five stout Indians had been lying there concealed, one of whom, 
as noiselessly and stealthily as a serpent, crawled down the bank until he 
reached the bark rope attached to the canoe and hauled it ashore. As he 


seized the rope Betsy gave him a terrific blow on the head with the edge of 
the paddle, inflicting a severe cut on the head of the savage. With an 
"Ugh" he fell into the water, whereupon the others seized the boat, dragged 
the girls ashoire and soon .'ad theili out of sight of the fort. 

The cries of the girls were heard at the fort, but most of the men were 
out hunting and there was no one to pursue. Besides, the canoe, the only 
means of crossing, was on the opposite shore, and none dared to swim, for 
they believed that a large body of savages were concealed in the brush. 
The Callaway girls were the daughters of Richard Callaway, and cousins 
of Micajah. It was night before Boone and the Callaways returned to the 
fort. Learning what had happened Captain Bcx3ne and Colonel Callaway, 
the agonized parents of the lost ones, appealed to the other male inmates 
of the fort to join them in pursuit of the girls. Seven select men joined 
them, all taking a solemn oath that they would bring the captives back or 
spill every drop of their life's blood in the eiTort. A Colonel P'loyd was 
one of the number and so was Micajah Callaway. By daylight the follow- 
ing morning they were on the track, but the Indians had taken every pre- 
caution to obliterate their trail. They covered their tracks with leaves, 
often turned ofi at right angles and whenever they came to a branch, walked 
in the water for some distance. The girls shared the sylvan sagacity of 
their parents to a considerable extent, and seeing the effort made by their 
captors to obliterate their tracks, the\- would occasionally tear oft' a bit of 
their clothing and drop it down to show their rescuers the route they had 
gone. But the Indians soon discovered this trick and under threats com- 
pelled the girls to stop it. After that, whenever they got a chance the cap- 
tives would break a twig or weed, as a guide to the unerring woodsmen. 
The first few days they were out it was close work to keep on the trail. But 
after that, the Indians were not so careful, thinking they were out of reach 
of their pursuers, and better speed was made from day to day. But with 
the very best efforts they could put forth, it was the fifteenth day before 
the party from the fort overtook the Indians, who harl. in the main, kept 
in a northerly direction. It was late in the evening when the Indians were 
discovered. There were about a dozen of them in the gang. While the 
fugitives were arranging for their suppers, Boone and Richard Callaway 
left their party some distance behind and scouted around the camp to s,et 
an idea of the lay of the land. In doing this they were discovered, and 
surrendered themselves to the savages rather than endanger the lives of 
their children by getting into a conflict. Upon their failure to return at 


the appointed time, the party left behind anticipated something^ serious had 
happened to Boone and Callaway, and late at night it was decided that some 
one should scout around and learn, if possible, the actual condition of 
affairs. Micajah Callaway was chosen to do the scouting and he very care- 
fully approached the camp. The Indians were off their guard, presuming 
that Boone and Callaway had pursued them alone, not dreaming that they 
had five trusty followers near at hand. Micajah Callaway got so dose to 
the camp that he could see by the dim firelight that Boone and Callaway 
were in the Indians' clutches. Around a small fire were most of the lii- 
dians, in council, as he rightly supposed, deciding the fate of the two cap- 
tives. Micajah Callaway reported back what he had seen and the whites 
felt sure their two companions would be dispatched in some cruel manner 
the following morning. Before it was light the pursuers very cautiously 
moved up as near the camp as they could safely do and await>ed develop- 
ments. As soon as it was clear moming light the Indian camp was in 
motion. The business that first demanded their attention was the killing of 
Boone and Richard Callaway and the two captives were accordingly led out 
some distance from the camp, and out of the girls' sight, where they were 
bound to a couple of saplings, and the warriors were stationed before them 
who were to dispatch them with their tomahawks. The prisoners were 
awaiting the fatal blow when a discharge of rifles, cutting down two of the 
savages at the first shot, arrested their proceedings. Two other Indians 
received wounds, but they were assisted by their fellows and got away. 
The Indians all beat a hasty retreat, leaving their dead and the captives to 
the deliverers of the latter. Micajah Callaway said he saw the bloodthirsty 
devil he drew a bead on, fall, to rise no more. 

About the first of May, 1791, Gen. Arthur St. Clair was sent West with 
a force which was thought to be sufficient to break the power of the Miami 
confederacy and its British allies. As this force passed through Ken- 
tucky Micajah Callaway joined it, whereupon General St. Clair, being told 
of his adroitness as a spy, made him chief of scouts. Callaway was well 
acquainted with the whole country and was most familiar with the Indians' 
mode of warfare. When far to the north, near a branch of the Miami 
river, Micajah Callaway discovered on the far side of the stream a couple 
of Indian scouts, and he knew by their actions, that many more must be 
close by, perhaps the entire force of Little Turtle, who had command of the 
Miamis. He hastened back to inform the officer of the advance guard, 
but when he reported what he had seen and the conclusions he had readied, 


he was accused of having the "Shawnee fever,'' which meant that he smelled 
danger when there was none. The scout told the officer if he crossed the 
river with his men he would catch worse than the "Shawnee fever " Gen- 
eral St. Clair coming up, ->rdered the entire force to cross the river at once, 
which they did., halting upon a rise of ground which was bare of trees. Not 
an Indian was to be seen, but they soon sprang from the coverts in all direc- 
tions, in overwhelming numbers, and after a three hours' struggle the whites 
were put to rout, nearly half of them having been killed, tlie rest finding 
safety by retreating to Ft. Jefferson, a distance of twenty-nine miles. 

In the fall of 1793, General Wayne, generally known as "Mad 
Anthony," was ordered to subdue the Miami confederacy, and was given 
a force of three thousand men to do battle against Little Turtle. Micajah 
Callaway again volunteered his services and was again principal scout and 
spy. Reaching the scene of St. Clair's defeat. General Wayne built a stock- 
ade and named it Ft. Recovery. Here Callaway did valiant service, for 
which he was highly complimented by General Wayne. On August 20, a 
battle en.sued, in which the Indians were routed and the backbone of the 
Miami confederacy was broken. Micajah Callaway returned to his home 
in Kentucky, where, in 1796, he married Mary Arnold. In 1803 he fol- 
lowed Daniel Boone to Missouri, heading a little colony of Kentuckians 
who also desired to go to the Far West, far beyond the then borders of 
civilization. The company went on horseback and carried their worldlx- 
possessions on pack horses. They crossed the Ohio at Cincinnati and took 
what was then known as "Boone's track," a direct west course almost to the 
settlement. That trace ran through this county, passing on the ridge 
l>etween the old Henry Luck place and Millport. Boone's settlement, where 
the}^ stopi)ed, was alwut twenty miles above St. Louis, and some two miles 
back from the river. Here Callaway's wife and infant daughter sickened 
and died of malarial fever. Callaway said he had as many as three severe 
chills inside of twenty-four hours. He told his companion settlers they 
might remain in that God-forsaken country if they liked, but as for him. he 
was going back to "old Kentuck," where one could live with some satisfac- 
tion and enjoy life. He then made a ]iannier out of buffalo hides, like unto 
a huge pair of saddlebags, which he put over tlie packsaddle strapped to a 
trusty horse, and putting his small son James in one end and Fdmund in 
the other, together with a few necessary articles on the saddle, he shoul- 
dered his rifle and started alone to travel al)out four hundred miles, through 
the unbroken wilderness where savages were plentiful and thirsting for the 


blood of the white man. He and the two children subsisted along the way 
on the game he killed from day to day, making the tedious journey without 
any mishap. 

When he emigrated to this state, James Callaway located a home in 
Jackson county where he lived and died. Edmund Callaway resided in this 
county and died here. In 1805 Micajah Callaway married Frankie Haw- 
kins for a second wife and their children were John Hawkins and Noble. 
In 1 810 the Callaways removed from Kentucky to this county, settling on 
the crest of the knobs, about four miles north, and a mile east of the pres- 
ent site of Salem. Here Micajah Callaway lived content the remainder 
of his days, departing this life in 1849, at the advanced age of 94. His wife 
survived him several years, dying in 1864. His son, Hawkins, familiarly 
known as "Hock," lived and died on the old home place, a confirmed old 
bachelor. Noble, who was one of the stoutest men of his day, reared a 
large family, and for many years of his life followed flatboating down the 
Ohio river, usually making the return trip from New Orleans afoot. He 
related many interesting stories about his flatboat life and how he man- 
aged to dodge the highwaymen who at that time infested the usually trav- 
eled route from the South to the North. 

This sketch would be incomplete without giving a short statement of 
the manner in which the Indians so inhumanly tortured their victims at' the 
stake, as related ofttimes by Callaway to his family and friends, and by whom 
it never was forgotten. The following is one of the many tales he told in 
his declining years: It was in 1779 that the Indians had captured an officer 
of the militia, and of all the horrible tortures Callaway was compelled to 
witness during his captivity this one was the most fiendish. He said this 
happened in June. Several prisoners had been captured somewhere in 
Kentucky and had been transported over into Indiana Territory. They 
stopped on the headwaters of the Wabash where they knew they were ou( 
of danger of any pursuers. A number of the prisoners were made to sit 
upon the ground, when the boys and squaws fell upon them with tomahawks, 
killing and scalping them. There was a man named McKinly among tlie 
prisoners and an old squaw knocked him over and cut oflf his head, the boys 
then amusing themselves by kicking it about on the ground. The officer 
was kept till the last. There was a Captain Pipe there, who, with Simon 
Girty, directed the Indians in their torturous work. He first painted the 
prisoner's face black, telling him he was going to give him a shave. The 
officer was then stripped naked, after which his captors tied a rope to the 


foot of a post about fifteen feet high, bound his hands behind him and fast- 
ened the rope to the hgature that lield his wrists together. The rope was 
long enough for him to sit down or walk around the post once or twice and 
back again. He asked G'rty if they were going to burn him, and to an 
affirmative answer, he said, "Very well, I'll take it patiently, come what 
may." Callaway said he never saw a man who was made to sufYer so much, 
or take his punishment with so much resignation. Captain I'ipe then made 
a speech in the Indian tongue, to about a hundred men, women and children. 
When he was done, they all set up a hideous yell, and the men tuok up their 
guns and shot powder into the captain's bod)- from his feet to his heatl. 
They then cut off his ears, pulled his toe nails out l)y the roots, all of which 
he bore with great firmness. A few yards from the post to which the cap- 
tain was bound a fire had been kindled, made out of small branches ui 
trees, which burned through in the middle. The Indians would take up 
these burning brands and apply them to the captain's naked body, already 
burned black with powder. Some of the squaws would take pieces of bark 
upon which they would get hot embers to throw on him, so that he soon 
had nothing but hot ashes and live coals to walk on. During the torture the 
officer begged Girty to shoot him. Girty replied that he had no gun, laugh- 
ing fiendishly. For four or five hours this torture was kept up. Callaway an 
unwilling spectator of it all. Finallv the captain fell down on his face, 
almost exhausted. They then scalped him and dashing the scalp in Calla- 
way's eyes, said, "That is your great captain." .\fter the officer ha^" been 
;alped his torturers pourned hot ashes and coals upon his back. He raised 
himself up and staggered about the post, when they again applied the burn- 
ing sticks, but by this time he seemed insensible to pain. The bends then 
mutilated his person, and l>eat him with clubs till he fell over seemingly tlead, 
but yet' breathing. They then laid him acmss the tire, where he was held 
until life was extinct. 

.\fter witnessing such a scene as this it was no wonder that Callaway 
thirsted for Girty's heart's blood whenever he came upon him in after days. 
Nor could one blame Callaway for hating a "redskin," as he always called 
them, or taking delight in shooting them down. Few men in the territory, 
and probably none in the county, ever had such a varied experience in fron- 
tier life as did Micajah Callaway. He was a man of iron nerve and most 
wonderful powers of endurance. He also was a man of strong likes and dis- 
likes. If a man once insulted him. or tried to take advantage of him in any 
way he ne\-er forgot it nor forgax-e him. He not onlv had an imctcrate 


hatred for the savages, but had no use for what he ter^ned "weak-kneed" 
whites, who would not help to punish them in the same manner they served 
the whites. His latter years were spent in his cabin home, which had a 
small window by the side of the chimney, and he used to watch through this 
window for wild turkeys, which were plentiful, and shoot them from his 
.seat inside the house. He received a pension for his services in the Indian 
wars, which 'enabled him to enjoy many of the comforts of life in his de- 
clining years, and he had well earned this reward by his unceasing and stren- 
uous efforts and labors to carve out of an unbroken wilderness, happy homes 
for the generations that were to follow him. 


On the banks of the Blue river, in I'ierce township, on a farm upon 
which he settled in 1819, reposes the dust of Rev. William Cravens, one of 
the most celebrated ministers of his day, or that ever traveled the circuit in 
this Western country in the first part of the nineteenth century. He was 
noted for his originality, not only of thought, but in his methods of present- 
ing his texts and striking his sledge- hammer blows against satan and his 
satellites. He had an extensive acquaintance all over this Western country, 
having ridden thousands upon thousands of miles during his active life, get- 
ting into the byways and out-of-the-way places, where people very rarely 
e\er heard a sermon pi cached. He had friends among people who had never 
seen him, but had heard of his mighty power as a preacher, and was dreaded 
by his enemies who knew him not. 

William Cravens was born in Rockingham county, Virginia, July 31, 
T766, m the beautiful Shenandoah valley, through which runs the Shenan- 
doah river, so named by the Indians, on account of its surpassing beauty, the 
name signifying the Daughters of the Stars. There it was that in 1794 Will- 
iam Cravens was converted to the doctrines and tenets of the Methodist 
church, with which he was prominently identified in after life. There, also, 
in 1794, he married Jane Harrison, a daughter of Col. Benjamin Harrison, 
who was one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. By this 
marriage he had three children, John. Benjamin and Hannah, who married 
the Rev. William Shanks, a noted preacher of the Methodist church, who 
was also quite prominent in the early history of this county. In 1800 Crav- 
ens was licensed to preach, being ordained a deacon by Bishop Asbury. 
When and ]>y whom he was ordained elder is not now known, but it is sup- 
posed he received this title about 1810. His family were well-to-do, belong- 


ing to the aristocrats of the Old Dominion. He was a slaveholder at the 
time of his conversion, but soon thereafter he manumitted them eill. He had 
sold some slaves that were taken to Georgia. These he followed, repurchas- 
ing them and set them free, feeling that he could not conscientiously plead 
the Master's cause with this sin resting upon his mind and heart. He ever 
after had a hatred for those "twin relics" of olden time, slavery^ and intem- 
perance, as was demonstrated in his life's work thereafter. 

Mr. Cravens exercised his talents at different points in Virginia till he 
turned has attention to the West, where he joined the traveling connection. 
While in Virginia he created great excitement at times by his sermons, 
denouncing from the pulpit what he believed to l>e wrong in society in gen- 
eral — hewing to the line, letting the chips fall as they might. He was fear- 
less in all his utterances, which, at times, looked as if they would get him 
into serious trouble, but his rare physical and mental qualities always brought 
him through safely. He often said that he always felt that he was a host 
within himself when he was championing the cause of justice, right and relig- 
ion. He traveled extensively, attended quarterly and camp-meetings, and 
his presence was always welcome. He looked the reverend gentleman that 
he professed to be, and his presence attracted attention wherever he wenL 
.'\fter a time he had a regular system of appointments, extending over a 
large territory, including two or three states, very much after the fashion 
of Lorenzo Dow, requiring him to be away from hotne for weeks at a time. 
For several years he was not connected with any conference, nor employed 
by any presiding elder. He found his own home, provided for his own 
wants, never asking a cent for his labors, accepting nothing, except so far 
as the hospitality of his friends and admirers supplied him. Among the 
many pressing invitations the traveling i)reacher received from those who 
tlesired to share with him their bed and board, it required quite a bit of 
diplomacy to name who the lucky host and hostess should be without 
incurring the dis])leasure of .someone else. The onlv place the itinerant 
minister had to carr}- his scanty wardrobe Avas in the regulation pair of 
saddlebags, along with the Bible and hymn linok. and sometimes, when there 
was considerable distance to travel from one apixjintment to another, room 
was made for a lunch. 

Mr. Cravens liked the people of the West, and concluded there was a 
larger field for him to exploit in that new country than there was back East ; 
accordingly he di.sposed of his worldh'^ possessions there, except such as he 
could carry in a wagon, and came to Indiana in i8if). His reputation Iiad 


preceded him and he soon found it impossible to meet the demands made 
for his services. In 1821 he was admitted into the Missouri conference^ 
which then inckided Indiana, IlHnois, part of Tennessee, as well as Missouri 
and Arkansas. In 1822 he traveled alone the Indianapolis circuit, or rather 
he organized that circuit and then traveled it and proclaimed the GospeL 
The country was then all new. the inhabitants sparse, the fare poor, no 
roads, intolerable trails, streams to cross with no bridges and yet he went 
forth, through sunshine and rain, lieat and cold, in pursuit of the sheep in 
the wilderness in danger of perishing. In 1823 Mr. Cravens was laboring, 
in the Eel river country; in 1824, on the Blue river circuit, Richard Beau- 
champ, ])residing elder. The Missouri conference was divided in' 1825, and 
Mr; Cravens fell into the Illinois conference, where he continued his labors 
until his somewhat untimely death. Hard work, e.xix)sure and hardships 
had left their impression upon his vigorous constitution, and while stopping, 
a few days with home folks in the fall of 1826, he had a sudden attack of 
pneumonia. He was not thought to be seriously ill till he was found insen- 
sible in bed, dying a few hours after, October 10. His wife survived him 
nine years, departing this life in April, 1835. 

Some of the incidents of William Cravens' eventful life will give a 
clearer insight into the character of this remarkable man. He was distin- 
guished in the first place for his great strength. He was over six feet talL 
and weighed two hundred and seventy-five pounds, with every limb well- 
proportioned and every muscle disciplined up to the fullest vital force. He 
possessed great |>owers of endurance, else he would have succumbed to the 
hardships he passed through much sooner than he did. He was not a flower 
nurtured in sunshine, but cradled by the storm and rocked by the tempest. 
He was not a man to pick out the easy pathways through life, but rather 
sought the rough and rugged highways where duty called loudest and where 
he could do most good to his fellow men. 

Before his conversion William Cravens was a considerable fighter 
and drank at times quite freely. He was always ready to meet any opponent 
in friendly combat to test their strength and skill, and many a bout had he 
with other fellows in the country round about who desired to see which' 
was the better man. One day he was at work on the roof of a house, when 
a stranger rode up and said, "I understand you are given up to be the 
strongest man in three towns, and I have come to whip you, and I wish 
you to come down off of your perch, where we can have an opportunity ta 
test our strength." Mr. Cravens mildly replied in his usual deep-toned 


voice, "I'll give you a show as soon as I have tinished this work." Having 
done, he climbed down and told the stranger he thought they had better 
take a drink before they fought. In the yard there was a barrel of whisky, 
which Mr. Cravens took by the chines and, lilting it at arm's length, took a 
drink out of the bung-hoie, the man looking on with astonishment as he 
lowered it to the ground. M.r. Cravens having slaked his thirst, said to the 
man who had come to whip him, "Please help yourself." Instead of com- 
plying with the re(|uest, which he knew was impossible for him to do as 
Cravens had done, he turned on his heel, saymg as he left, "I guess you are 
not the man I'm kxiking for; 1 haven't made my will yet," whereupon he 
made a hasty retreat 

Before .the time of his conversion, Cravens' fame for strength and 
courage extended far and wide. One day he was busily working on his 
farm when a stranger, whom. he had never seen or heard of before, rode up 
to the fence and asked for William Cravens. "That's my name." answered 
Cravens, "what will you have?" The stranger then said, "I have come 
more than a hundred miles to hght you. I have heard )'ou were the strong- 
est man in all this part of the country, and I have come to whip you, or be 
whipped by you, and I do not mean to return without testing your strength 
and courage." As the stranger alighted from his horse Cravens climbed 
over the fence, saying good- naturedly, "You have come on a very poor 
errand and you had better return. I do not wish to fight and have never 
boasted of my strength." To this the fellow replied, "You'll have to defend 
your reputation. I have not come all this -distance for nothing and I insist 
on you fighting me here and now. Defend yourself!" squaring ofif to make 
ready for the test. Cravens then said, "If nothing but a fight will satisfy 
vou, come on: I am ready." The stranger led off first, striking several 
hard blcnvs, which Mr. Cravens parried with great coolness and ease, and, 
watching his opportunity, he seized the fellow and threw him over the stone 
fence. As the astonished man rose and recovered himself from the shock, 
he said, "Now Mr. Cravens, if you will be so kind as to throw,my horse over 
the fence I will return home satisfied." 

After Mr. Cravens' marriage and settlement in life, he was awakened 
to his sinful state, and became alarmed for his future welfare. He had a 
brother-in-law named Benjamin Lawrence, whom he called "Ben," he him- 
self going by the cognomen of "Bill)." .\fter Cra\ ens became serious, he 
said to his brother-in-law, "I tell \ou what it is, Ben. you and I are wicked, 
and if we don't change our mode of living, the devil will have us both." 


"I know that," said Ben, "but what can we do? How ci\ \ we help 
ourselves? The devil is bound to have us any way." 

"Well, I'll tell vou, Ben; 1 have l^een thinking of joining the Methodist 
meeting, but there is one trouble in the way." 

"What is that?" asked Ben. 

"Why, if I join them," said Cravens, "they will ask me to pray, and 1 
can't; but Ben, I will tell you what I mean to do. I have an old prayer-book 
and I'll learn a prayer out of that and you and I will go to the woods, and 
I'll say it over and when I get it by heart I'll join the Methodists, and if they 
ask me to pray I'll repeat what I've learned." 

The prayer was soon learned and "Billy" joined the meeting. At- the 
next prayer-meeting, "Billy" was called on to lead in prayer. He began and 
after repeating a few sentences of the prayer he had learned, the rest van- 
ished from his mind. A painful silence ensued, when he turned his head 
toward his friend and said, "I've forgotten the rest," and sank down humil- 
iated and humbled. But the experience was a great benefit to him. It led 
him to seek the help of his God and not depend on printed prayers. He 
soon gained confidence in himself, and never rushed for a prayer-book after 
that, or tried to commit a prayer or sermon to memory. 

Once Mr. Cravens attended an auction near his home in Virginia, 
where they were disposing of the products of the farm. While a lot of corn 
was being sold the auctioneer .said, "Mr. Cravens, give lis -a bid." The 
owner wa? a large slaveowner, and the slaves had worked the farm and 
gathered its products. Mr. Cravens knew this, and thus replied to the auc- 
tioneer: "No, I have corn at home in my crib, and there is not a drop 
of blood among it all." It was the product of free labor. 

While Cravens and his family were attending a camp-meeting in his 
home county in Virginia, among others a child of his was converted, and the 
father's heart was so filled with joy that as soon as he returned home he 
killed the fatted calf and provided a dinner for all his neighbors who would 
rejoice with him in his good fortune. .A^t this same camp-meeting there was 
a skeptic who busied himself by gathering groups of people together by his 
loud talking, ridiculing those who were there to take part in the worship. 
With the cunning of the old serpent he was endeavoring to counteract much 
of the good that was being accomplished at the meeting. Mr. Cravens con- 
cluded he would ]jut a stop to this scheme and advertised him from the stand. 
Said he. "There is an infidel on this ground, an opposer to Christianity. I 
will caution you against him. Good people will not be caught in his pres- 


ence or countenancing his efforts. You will know him by his long-tailed 
blue coat and white pants, and his blasphemous utterances." The caution 
had the desired effect and thereafter the skeptic could find no one who 
would give him audience. 

Mr. Cravens often acted on presentiment^, though he was far from 
being a believer in signs and omens. At one time he had a presentment 
that he could do the Lord good service b\ going to Tygart's valley, west 
of the Alleghany mountains. The region was sparsely settled and abounded 
with wild beasts and Indians, but he thought not of the dangers that con- 
fronted him. He stopped short with his work on the farm, went into the 
house and requested his wife to prepare his clothes, together with rations 
for two or three days, for lie must go to Tygart's valley. He was soon on 
his way. His course lay over mountains and through valleys, in some places 
there being but a dim trail to follow. It was through a country where there 
were no settlements: in lonely wilds -where no food might be obtained except 
what grew in the woods or was carried liy the traveler. Having crossed 
the mountains, he began to reflect that he did not know a li\ing soul in all 
that region, but he felt there was work thert- that he needed to do, and after 
several days of wearisome tra\'e! he found himself in the famous valley. 
He went on till he saw a small cabin, in front of which he dismounted from 
his horse and knocked at the door. He was invited to walk in. The woman 
was preparing soup- for dinner and while she was paring some vegetables 
she cut her thumb, which bled profusely, some of the blood running into the 
soup. Air. Cravens introduced himself to her, saying he was a preacher, 
and had come to preach the Gospel to the people in the valle\', if they wanted 
to hear him. 

The woman was a German, and in her broken accent she replied. "A'ell, 
veil, I did hear von man breach ven I vas one leetle girl back in Pennsyl- 
vania, und I somedimes tought t vould like to hear anudder man breach." 

"I should like to preach in \'Our house if you will allow me," Cravens 

"Veil, veil, ven dadd\' unt tie poys come home \e \-ill see." replied the 

Presently the dinner horn sounded, liriiiging daddy and the boys in 
to dinner. Cravens said the soup, while it contained some human blood, 
tasted mighty good to a half-starved man. While they were at the table, 
the little woman said, "Veil, daddy, dis bes von breacher, unt I tinks I vood 
like to hear him talk vonce more, alreadv, unt he savs he vill breach in 


our house, if ve vill let him." Consent was readily given and the boys were 
sent out to tell the neighbors, th to inform others. . When night came the 
cabin would not contain the peoj.^le, who had come in from several miles 
round about, so great was the i.ovelty, no sermon ever having been heard 
in that region. 

Mr. Cravens' text was, "Ye must be born again." He dwelt upon the 
nature and necessity of the new birth. The audience was very attentive, 
but none more so than the woman of the house. After the people had dis- 
persed and Cravens was seated with the family about the room on rustic 
benches the woman began to talk to herself, thus: "Veil, veil, I dinks I shall 
not." The preacher asked her what it was she would not do. "Veil, I'se 
had a hard time in dish vorld, und I haf seen moosh troubles. For seben 
long years I haf carried de corn on mine pack to de mill, ober de moun- 
tain, und ven it was ground, brought it home again. I tinks I shall not. 
If de rest vant to be born again I have no obshections ; but you moost excuse 
me — I haf been borned a blenty." 

Cravens continued his meetings from house to house for a couple of 
weeks, at the end of which time more than fifty souls had been gathered into 
the fold, including the good woman, and her husband and children ; and a 
sliort time after, on that man's land was erected the first Methodist church 
in Virginia west of the Alleghany mountains. 

After coming West, Mr. Cravens cleared up a few acres of land, but 
there was such a call for him to preach in all the country round that he 
could give but little attention to agricultural pursuits. His wife took upon 
herself the management of the farm, l?er husband being away from home 
the greater part of the time. His services were in demand at all the camp- 
meetings held in southern Indiana, and lie delighted to worship in Nature's 
magnificent temple — in God's great cathedral, believing, with Bryant, that 
"the groves were Cod's first temples.'' There he felt at home and the strong 
man put forth all his strength. He not only had a lion heart, but a lion-like 
voice, and he made the forests ring with his call. 

.Among the first camp-meetings Mr. Cravens attended after locating in 
this county, was one near Fredericksburg. His text on that occasion was 
from Genesis, twenty-fourth chapter and forty-ninth verse. He attended 
to the motives of one and another for coming to camp-meeting, and then to 
his own. He said he had not come there to seek a wife for himself, as Isaac 
desired, for he already had a good one. rfe had not come there to feather 
his nest by preaching for a large salary, as many ministers were doing, but 


he had come to obtain a bride tor his Alaster. to lionor tjod and save souls. 
It proved to be one of the greatest nieetiiit^s ot the kind e\er held in the 
county, notwithstanding the fact that during the first da}- of the meeting 
there was trouble. There was a scoffer jircsent, who took occasion to inter- 
rupt the speaking occasionally with riiliculous (|uesti(_)ns, and at the noon 
hour had cjuite a crowd gathered about him. listening to his skeptical 
remarks. Cravens stepped up and listened to this scoft'er's ridicule until 
it l)ecame jjerfectly unbearable to him. and he concluded to put an end to 
his scoffing. Stepping up to the fellow, he told him the meeting had been 
called for decent, respectable people to worship their L>eator without moles- 
tation — that this was not his day or place, and, suiting the action to the 
word, he seized the fellow by the neck and the seat (^f the i>ants and held 
him up at arm"s length, crying, "Pichold the scoffer'" The man Ijegged to 
be let loose, promising to leave the grounds and make no more trouble. As 
he let him go Cravens said, "'You came here to catch a fish, but you caught 
a frog." 

W'hile he was mo\ing his family west, Cr \ens attended a prayer-meet- 
ing at a place where they were stopping for the night, somewhere in Ken- 
tucky. He said the prayers were dull and dry and the meeting spiritless. 
The minister called on two men to pray — the one a slaveholder, the other a 
distiller, .\fter the meeting Mr. Cravens walked home with the preacher, 
who made all sorts of apologies about the dullness of the meeting. "Xo 
wonder yt)u had such a dull meeting." said Cra\ens, "since you crucified 
the Lord between two thieves." 

The Rev. William Butler used to relate the following incident illus- 
trating Mr. Cravens' courage and strength, together with the infiuence of his 
commanding appearance. .\t one place where he had formerly preached 
he had made enemies of a lot of "lewd fellows of the baser sort," by the 
lK)Idness with which he jjreached against lawdessness and intemperance. 
Temixrrance was one of his great hobbies, he being about one hundred years 
ahead of the times when it came to the licpior question. Before Cra\ens 
arrived at the meeting place, some young bloods determined to mob him 
upon his arrival. His friends hearing of the ])lot, determined that they 
would protect him at all hazards. V^ soon as he rode U]i. they informed- 
him of the trouble that was brewing, and he sai<l. "Leave them to me, le.ixc 
then-i to me: there will be no need of fighting." It was a woods meeting, 
and as Cravens a])proacbed the place be saw- a luimber of sawed blocks 
Iving on the ground in the edge of the wo. k1. the whok' gang of row die- 


sitting on and around tiiein. He walked directly to the spot, sekcted a 
large block, and addressed the young men as follows ; "This block will make 
an excellent pulpit; boys, 1 wish you would carry it up where we want to 
speak. It's a little too heavy for one man to lug by himself." The bold 
frankness of his demeanor overawed them; and almost unconscious of what 
they were doing, they obeyed him at once. W hen the block was set down 
he mounted it. A large limb of a tree touched his head. He stretched his 
brawny arm upward, took hold of the limb and with one mighty jerk, 
demanding the strength of a giant, tore it from its socket, and threw it far 
away. This di.splay of physical strength added to the moral power with 
which he had already impressed the would-be rioters, settled the question. 
The leader of the gang skulked away and the rest of the young fellows 
mingled quietly with the congfregation. Xo defense of Mr. Cravens' person 
was needed. 

While yet a young man, Mr. Cravens lost an eye from a piece of 
stone that flew into it while he was working at his trade, that of stone mason. 
His one eye often looked like a diamond, and was singularly expressive, and 
often sinners would quail as he looked at them. Scofifers would sometimes 
make sjiort of his one eye. At a point where he was conducting a camp- 
meeting a Ininch of rowdies were making slurring remarks about his 
deformity, which Cravens overheard. Turning to them, he said in his 
impressive manner, "I'll tell you what it is; if I only have one eye, I can see 
as far into a millstone as the man that pecks it." He then stood silently 
gazing at the fellows for a time, to give them an opportunity to interpret 
his meaning. His exjjression and the manner in which he addressed them, 
ga\e the bunch tu understand he was not afraid of them, and they very 
(luietly >ul)sided. Xo one who was acquainted with his habits and history 
could doubt that he had an c} e .-ingle against whisky and slavery, as well 
as an eye single for ]iurity, honor and the glory of the church. When it is 
remembered that much of Mr. Craxens' life was s]ient in a slave-holding 
state, where wliisky was made at most e\ery spring l)ranch, and where it 
was fashionable to gi\e the old decanter a place upon the sideboard or 
mantel of most c\ery household and when preachers, deacons and neigh- 
bors joined together in i)artaking of the flowing bowl, it is a wonder that 
Air. Cra\en- was not set u])on and -severely chastised for his bold stand 
for what he thought was right. It wa^ bis personal bravery, commanding 
nerve and gieat strength that saved him. 

Rev. Cravens probably had a more extensive acquaintance all over the 


Ohio valley then any other man that was prominent in tlie early da}s when 
most of this country was an unbroken wilderness, and he had a reputation 
that extended even farther than his personal acquaintance. Robert Mcln- 
tire, who was contemporary with Cravens and knew him quite well, used 
to relate many interesting incidents connected with his life. He often said 
he never went any place that he didn't find some one who knew him, or 
Jiad heard of him. Mclntire was a flatboatman, and made numerous trips 
from his home in this county to New Orleans. He was a pilot and his 
services were always in demand. As was the custom in those days he 
returned home by land. On one uf his return trips he called at a planter's 
house in Tennessee to get lodging oxer night, together with supper and 
breakfast. Presently the planter came in from the field with a whip thiown 
across his shoulder, he having been overseeing the negroes. Learning that 
Mclntire was from Indiana, his host inquired if he knew Parson Cravens. 
Mclntire said he did; that he was a neighbor of his. Jhe host then began 
telling anecdotes in relation to Mr. Cravens, and said he was the most con- 
scientious and bravest man he ever saw ; that he said just what he conceived 
to l>e right, come what nugbt. He said he belonged to the same church as 
•Cravens, but he wa,sn't quite as hard on whisk\- drinkers as the Parson. 
Mclntire remarked that Cravei detested some things more than he did 
whisky. "Is it possilile," said the host. "What could it be?" "Blood-suck- 
ers," said Mclntire, "is what he calls tliem." "Who are they," asked the 
host." "They are slaveholders." said the tra\ eler. Mclntire then said he 
liad heard Mr. Cra\ens once remark that "the de\il would at an_\- time 
•crowd the whisky-drinker to iine side in order to make room for a slave- 
holder." "Yes," said the host, "he strikes at us ]^eop!e here in the South 
some \ery severe sledge-hammer blows, liut it will be many generations 
before the institution of sla\ery is wiped out. When \ini see the old fellow 
again tell him to come down and visit us again." 

In the year 1806 Mr. Cra\'ens attended the r.altimove conference, and 
man\- of the ministers were, like (.'ra\ens. uncompromising enemies of 
slavery, preaching against it with great earnestness and lioldness. On the 
Sabbath, Enoch Cicorge, afterwards a bi'^hop, delivered a sermon, and 
denounced sla\ery in \ery liitter ternw. Tn one of bi>^ utterances he said, 
"1 do not see bow s<inie ]ie(iple can ci>nie to meeting and be so happy while 
Jiiseph is at home in chain-^." Cravens was delighted to hear slavery thus 
pnblieally tlenounced. and the pious sknelmlders get the benefit, and he cried 
'>ut ;it the ton i>f hi- -tentMri.m \nice : "Let tbeni go home and take the 


chains off from Joseph and set him free, for tlie good he has done, and 
then come back to meeting and we will praise God together." The cry went 
through that assembly of preachers and people like an electric shock. It 
was the preaching and agitation of such men as Cravens that some year? 
later led to a division of the Methodist church North and South, and that 
finally brought about the emancipa'^'on of slaves forever in the United 

A short time before leaving \'irginia. Cravens preached a sermon on 
the sin of slavery, as being contrary to the Golden Kule, contrary to God"s 
Word, and in opposition to the Declaration of Independence. For his 
utterances he was violently denounced by a man who had sold a slave and 
bought a pew in the church where the meeting was held. He collected 
around him several others who felt that they had been humiliated and held 
up to scorn, and going to Pastor Cravens demanded that he make a public 
apology for his "tirade of abuse." To the surprise of many who knew 
Cravens well, and who were familiar with his mdominitable zeal in stand- 
ing up for the right, though the heavens fall, he readily consented to do so, 
and the time was appointed. When the day arrived a great crowd came 
to hear his apology. He was punctual to the hour, lined out his hymn, and 
prayed the Lord to put into his mouth such utterances as would be pleasing 
to the Mighty One who ruled the universe. As he arose from his knees he 
slowly looked over his audience, then took up the Bible, and turning over its 
leaves very rapidly, laid it down again. "Well, said he, "I am to preach an 
apologetic sermon today, but I cannot find a suitable text." He paused 
and looked squarely into the face of the leader of the opposition, and lean- 
ing over the pulpit, he cried out, "I have it now, honeys ; 'sell a negro and 
buy a pew.' " The man looked daggers, and as Cravens proceeded with his 
sermon, which was as pointed as his text, he writhed and twisted as long as 
he could endure it and then started for the door. As he went down the aisle 
with his gloves and handkerchief stuffed into the outside pocket of his coat, 
hitching up his shoulders and smarting under the withering rebuke of the 
old "son of thunder," Mr. Cravens said : "Stop a little, honey, let me fill 
your other pocket before you go." But the man would not stop to get the 
other pocket filled; he had load enough to carry, and went away mortified 
and chagrined, with the text ringing in his ears, "Sell a negro and buy a 
pew." It was the very boldness of Mr. Cravens that often saved him from 
personal encounters. Had he shown any timidity, or vacillation, he would 
have been in trouble all the time. Men occasional! ' thought thev would 


compel him to cease his denunciations, but their opposition only made him 
the more fierce and determined. 

Shortly after the occurrence just referred to, Mr. Craxens delivered 
another apology at Scrarton, Virginia, where he had preached a sermon 
against slavery, which gave great offense and caused tremendous excite- 
ment, some threatening to prosecute him for trying to incite an insurrection 
among slaves. To quiet matters Mr. Cravens gave notice that on a certain 
day he would preach an apology. The day rolled around and the crowd 
was there to listen. They expected he would recant and thus avoid prose- 
cution, put down excitement and remove the prejudice against him. Judge 
of their astonishment when he began by saying he had promised to preach 
an apology; but an apology was not a recantation, but an explanation — -a 
defense, a justification — like Watson's "apolog}- for the Bible." His text 
surprised them more. It was a sermon in itself and as sharp as a two- 
edged sword. He took it from Micah, third chapter and tenth and eleventh 
verse: "They buiki up Zion with blood, and Jerusalem with iniquity. The 
heads thereof judge for reward, and the priests thereof teach for hire, and 
the prophets thereof divine for money ; yet will they lean upon the Lord 
and say. Is not the Lord among us? None evil can come upon us.'" The 
sermon accorded with the text — it was terrific. The preacher used the 
sharpest arrows as he bent his bow, and took direct aim at the heart of the 
King's enemies. 

P'irst. — He showed how Zion was btiiit'with lilood an<l Jerusalem with 
iniquity. He divided it again as follows : ( i ) It was built with the blood 
of slaves. (2) It was built with the blood of children. (3) It was built with 
the blood of the innocent. They build by riches gotten by violence and by 
the condemnation of the innocent. They educated their children to believe 
there was no harm in the bloody institution. "But when God maketh 
inquisition for blood he will remember them." He compared them with 
the pelican in the wilderness, which, having eaten all it can, puts the 
remainder in its jwuch for its )'nung ones. ".\n(l that is what you slave- 
holders do; you get all \ou can out of your slaxes. use it, and then lea\e it 
for your children. Thus Zion was liuilt with lilnod and Jerusalem with 

Second. — He noticed the wicked leaders. The priests who taught for 
hire; men who cared more about the fleece than the flock; hireling priests, 
greedy of filthy lucre; mercenary ministers, who made a gain of godli- 
ness. His remarks were terriblv scathing. The minister of the i)lace — 


known as a hireling, one who shaved notes — heard him arid Mr. Cravens 
shaved him with a sharp razor. 

Third. — The heads who judge for reward. He noticed those judges 
who were corrupt, who would give decisions contrary to law and evidence, 
because tliey had been bribed and received rewards for their uiii'ighteous 

P'ourth. — The false prophets, who divine for money. He showed that 
even the church of God was built with blood; the guilt of holding their fel- 
lows in bondage; separating husbands and wives, parents and children, 
selling the image of God. Then the guilt of hireling priests, who could 
apologize for and defend such iniquity, and thus be the partaker of the sins 
of others; and the guilt of the ungodly judges, who cared nothing about jus- 
tice, only the reward. 

The slaveowners never wanted another apology from Mr. Cravens. 
The remedy was worse than the disease; the apology, than the insult. No 
harm followed this unyielding champion of the truth, this uncompromising 
enemy of the bloody system, for such bold and fearless denunciations of sin. 
It was worthy of Luther in his palmiest days, or of John Knox. The blood 
of the chivalry was up to fighting heat, and murmurs and threats of ven- 
geance ran through the house, so much so that Mr. Cravens' friends felt for 
his personal safety. After the sermon he went out from the church, where 
exasperated men were ready to gnash upon him their teeth, as they did upon 
Stephen, consulting what mode of punishment to inflict upon him. He said, 
"I understand that some persons here threaten to horsewhip me." He 
sdzed a sapling and gave the tree a shake, as if an elephant had hold of it 
with its trunk, and in his deepest tones said : "The Almighty never gave me 
such strength to l>e horse-whipped by a slaveholder." His look, his bold 
attitude, his gesture, his flashing eye, and the tone of his voice, showed him 
the great hero, the fearless man, and the cowards sneaked away and left 
him conqueror 

At a camp-meeting in southern Indiana, in the midst of the shocks of 
power, and the pentecostal scenes at the "mourners' bench," a local preacher 
came to Mr. Cravens and told him there was a man kneeling at the fourth 
bench who had two wives, and the woman he was then living with was at 
his side. 

"Show him to me, " said Cravens. He then walked deliberately to the 
man and said : 

"Sir, I am told vou have two wives." 


"Yes," said the man, "I have." 

"You have, eh? Are you willing tu leave the woman you now live 
with, and live with your lawful wife?" 

"Why, I don't see h^w I can; she is away in Georgia.'" 

"You don't see how you can?" cried Cravens, "well, what are vou 
doing here?" 

"I want religion," the man replied. 

"You can't have it on such terms," shouted Cravens, "for if we pray 
a thousand years for you, unless you put away the evil of your doings, the 
devil will get you at last." 

Mr. Cravens then assisted the man to his feet and started him from the 
ground, the unrepentant adulterer's woman following him. 

At the evening service on that same day, Mr. Cravens preached a pow- 
erful sermon. Before he left the stand he 'invited "mourners" to come tor- 
ward to be prayed for in the following order: Said he, "Place four benches 
in front of the stand." This was immediately done as he had commanded. 
"Now," said he, "I want all who are seeking justification to come and kneel 
at this front bench, and all who are seeking sanctification will come to this 
second bench, and all the backsliders will come to the third bench, and all 
the hypocrites to the fourth bench." Strange as it may seem, each bench 
was crowded with "mourners." 

"Now," said Mr. Cravens, "1 want you all to whet up your Jerusalem 
blades, that when I come down and give the word of command, we may go 
to war and successfully flight, and drive the devil from this holy ground." 
He then came down among the mourners, fell on one knee, and cried, 
"Fire, fire!" and such a display of divine power was rarely ever witnessed. 
Many souls were converted from every l)ench: the fourth, or hypocrites' 
bench, not excepted. 

At the time of his vmtimely death. Mr. Cravens had planned to give 
up ministerial work, except on special occasion--, and to devote his time to 
the farm and the making of his home a model one for convenience and com- 
fort. But ere he had entered upon his work. Death, the Reaper, interfered 
and his work was left unfinished. No man ever died in the county who 
was missed more or who left a larger train nf mourners behind than Will- 
iam Cravens. 


For almost fifty years from 1803, quite a celebrated character lived in 
Salem, named William Hazard. An account of his life previous to his 


arrival in Salem would fill a volume of interesting reading. A number of 
interesting articles concerning his ups and downs as a soldier in the English 
army while serving in India and the Crimean war were oublished in the 
Saiem Democrat about 1876. 

In 1690 the Hazards emigrated from England to Ireland, and became 
ardent Irish. William Hazard's family for generations had some member 
of it in the English army, in some prominent position. William Hazard 
received a classical education and was graduated with high honors. When 
he became of age, the ranking member of his family was Sir Francis 
Hazard, an uncle without issue, upon whose death the title would have 
descended to William, his father being dead, but shortly before the death 
of Sir Francis, William married and emigrated to America, where he ever 
afterward made his home, and became an American citizen. After his grad- 
uation he was granted a commission in the English army and was in all the 
important engagements connected with the Crimean War, in which the 
English and French reduced Russian ascendency in the Black Sea. He 
deported himself so well in the Crimea that he was named for promotion, 
provided he could pass the competitive examination. In the test he got 
100 per cent, in everything except field tactics, and was sent to India, second 
in command of a regiment. He said it was there that he acquired a taste 
for intoxicants, that later proved his imdoing. The soldiers in India were 
very much afraid of the plague, and every morning had doled out to them a 
good-sized drink of brandy, and those who could aflford it had plenty more 
during the day, an officer being allowed a quart. The habit fastened itself 
upon William Hazard and pr.oved to be the bane of his life. If he had 
remained in Ireland he would have assumed the title of baronet, and with 
his natural ability unmarred would no doubt have won further distinction 
and fame in his native country. Having retired from the army, he became 
enamoured of a house servant and married beneath his station, leaving at 
once for America, landing in New York City at the time of the riots on 
account of the draft in 1863. His intention was to enlist in the Union 
army, but everything being in a turmoil he decided to go' West, finally land- 
ing in Salem, which ever after continued to be his home. He was a Protest- 
ant and his wife was a Catholic and this always made trouble in the family. 
Upon his arrival in Salem Hazard and wife took service at a hotel for a 
time. Afterward he obtained employment as a clerk in some of the Salem 
stores, but most all his earnings were squandered for liquor, which soon 
unfitted him for service of any kind, and for a number of years the family 


subsisted upon the earnings of the wife, and regular remittances from his 
home people. Large trunks of fine clothing were occasionally received. 
These supplies finally were discontinued and he was deserted by his wife 
and children, who remov d to other parts of the country, leaving the old 
man a life estate in a dilapidated old brick building in North Main street, 
with a short monthly allowance. Hazard would sober up at times and 
endeavor to engage in some regular employment. He had not lived in 
Salein long before people knew that he was a man of refinement and edu- 
cation. He was always a prominent speaker in all temperance movements. 
He attended all lectures in the town and school teachers went to him for 
assistance in solving difficult problems, or translating Latin or Greek. He 
was always interesting, no matter what the line of conversation happened 
to be, and took special delight in entertaining visitors to his humble home. 
He reluctantly accepted gifts of food or clothing, although at times stand- 
ing very much in need of the same. He was always fond of giving advice 
to young people. His language was perfect and he possessed the faculty of 
making himself entertaining and instructive to all with whom he came in 
contact. He finally became unable to care for himself, although in his latter 
years he left off the use of intoxicants entirely, and found refuge in the 
county asylum, his monthly allowance assuring him extra care and attention. 


The subject of this sketch was born in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1780. 
His parents were wealthy and aristocratic, having emigrated to Ainerica 
during the days of Lord Baltimore. Christopher Harrison received such 
an education as his native state could give and was then sent to Europe, 
where he acquired a fine classical education and prepared himself for the 
law. After his return he taught school for a time, was a friend of the Pat- 
terson family, and became very mucii enamored of Miss Elizabeth Patterson. 
who was a pupil of his. Later on, wliile he was a student in one of I^alti- 
more's great law offices, he and Miss Patterson became engaged. About this 
time, however, the dashing young Jerome Bonaparte, brother of Najioleon. 
came from France to visit America. At a society ball in the city of Balti- 
more, he met Miss Patterson and it was a case of "love at first sight." They 
became lovers and her engagement with Christopher Harrison was broken 
off. She and Bonaparte were married. This marriage Jerome was com- 
pelled to renounce by Emperor Napoleon, and he subsefjuenth" married a 
daughter of the King of Wurtemberg. 


Harrison, jilted, despondent and discouraged, decided to -seek a horoe 
in the then Far West, where he could bury himself and his troubles in a 
rustic cabin home in the priraeyal wuedlands. He came West in 1807, and 
settled in Jefferson county on a blujlf that overlooks the Ohio river. The 
place was afterwards known as the old Logan farm, seven miles below Madi- 
son, and almost within rifle shot of Hanovet College. The .site commanded 
a fine view of the river for several miles each way, and a more romantic 
spot was not to be found on the bluffs 01 that historic river. There he built 
a primitive cabin, with the regylation fireplace, with a sort of porch on the 
side next the river, where he could sit and take in the view. For nearly eight 
years he lived there a regular hermit's life, with his dog and gun, his books 
and paint brushes, one of his talents being that of an amateur painter. He 
preferred to live thus, solitary, .and alone, to brood over the inconstancy of 
woiBan, in preference to miqgliqg with the outer world. Harrison has been 
charged with having been a "woman hater," but persons who knew him well 
in Salem said this was not so. He was always sociable, but somewhat 
reserved, in his intercourse with the leading belles of Salem in that early day, 
and was passionately fond of children, especially the little girls, to whom he 
was always giving sketches f r^crni his brush, and presenting them with flowers 
from his garden and yard, w^iich was said to be a bower of beauty, filled 
with cultivated roses, annuals and flowering shrubs. Up to 1870, when the 
old home was torn down to make room for a more imposing structure, the 
shrubs Harrison had started a half century previous had flourished and 
spread until they quite concealed the .unpretentious home he had builded. 

Christopher Harrison, tiring of his cabin home on the Ohio, and enter- 
taining a desire to once more enter into a busy life, decided to hvmt a new 
location, and accordingly moved to the then new and flourishing town of 
Salem, journeying thither in 1816 with Jonathan Lyon and John F. Keyes- 
Before this date., however, he had formed the acquaintance of General 
William Henry Harrison and was his confidential and advisory friend. With 
the fermentation preceding the. political change of Indiana from a territory 
to a state, Christopher Harrison entered actively into politics, and his abili- 
ties in this line are evidenced by the fact that at the first election of state 
officers, in 1816. he was chosen lieutenant-governor. After serving ip this 
capacity for nearly two years, he abdicated the office for reasons that illus- 
trated his eccentricity. In 1818 Governor Jennings was appointed a com- 
missioner to treat with the Indians for the tract of country comprising the 
central, part of the state. This left Harrison as acting govepior, and, basing 
his argument orf a clause of the constitution, he maintained that Jennings 


had vacated his office by accepting tlie appointment as commissioner, and 
that he, Harrison, had become governor in fact. The legislature did not 
support his contentions, and he indignantly resigned. In i8i<) he ran for 
governor against Jennings but was beaten. In 1821 he. in company with 
Governor Jennings, Gen. John Carr and Alexander Ralston, l.iid out the 
city of Indianapolis, the site at that time being covered by a dense forest. 

Harrison's further public service was performed as agent of what was 
known as the "three per cent fund," which was gi\en to the state from the 
sale of government lands, and used in the opening up and maintenance of 
public highways. This fund was finally distributed among the several 
ties of the state, abotit 1870. In 1824 Harrison was appointed a commis- 
sioner to surxey and open up a canal around the fall- of the Ohio, on the 
Indiana side, but the work was never completed. His first labor in a public 
capacity in Salem was in the making of three maps of the county on a scale 
of one-half inch to the mile, for which service he was allowed, by the first 
board of commissioners, in 181 7, the sum of fifteen dollars. He was also 
judge of the Washington circuit court for one term. Shortly after locating 
in Salem he erected the first brick building in the town, which stoiid near 
the center of lot 11, northeast corner of the pul)lic square. He also owned 
a small farm near town, where he li\c(l f(.>r a few _\'ears before going back 
East, and put in most of his time dehing in the soil. He would bring to 
town melons and fruits as gifts to his child friends, after car\ing their 
names on the rinds. 

Harrison quite frequently dropped into gloomy moods, paying no atten- 
tion to visitors and declining to enter into conversation with any one. I-\>o]ik- 
learned to let him severely alone while he was in one of these spells. Bartlett 
Scott was a great practical joker. V fellow happened in Scott's -aloon one 
day, who offered to play the fiddle for a drink. Scott had beard that Harrison 
was in one of his moods that daw so he told the straiiger that his fiiUUe was 
up at Judge Harrison's, and a>ked him to go nuA get it. lie told the stran- 
ger that the judge was a little hard of hearing, and that he wmtld ha\e to 
speak loud to him. The stranger went directly to the judge's residence that 

had been pointed 

out to him. 

and walked 

1 in. He found Harrison sitting- 

by the fireplace, 1 

)ut be ne\ei 

■ raided or 

turned his head. The stranger, 

speaking in an ord 

iiiarx tout- 

t \o,ce. -aid 

: "."-^cott -eiU me after his fitldle." 

but there was no 

re^])onse eit 

her bv won 

1 or action. The stranger spoke 

louder, and tln.alK- 

yelled, but 

be could no 

t move the old judge, who ne\er 

paid the lea^t attt 

■ntion. The 

-nvmger fi 

tialb' went liack- and reported to 


Scott, saying-, "That man of yours is the cussedest fool 1 ever saw ; he 
wouldn't talk or even notice me." Scott had no fiddle at Harrison's, but he 
did it to bore the stranger as well as the judge. He then "set up" the drinks 
saving to the stranger that he had earned a drink, for the laugh was on him. 
About the year 1835, Judge Harrison returned to his old home in Mary- 
land, where he lived to the ripe old a^e of eighty-three years, dying there 
in 1863. Judge Harrison was by some charged with having been an Aaron 
Burr sympathizer, and a participator in the latter's confederacy scheme. 
Burr visited Harrison while he li\ed in his cabin home on the Ohio, but 
there were never any admissions that he knew anything about Burr's plans, 
ind if he did know he never committed any act or deed that in any way 
would commit him to any unlawful purpose connected therewith. 



■'One Hundred and Fifty Dollars Reward! Runaway from the sub- 
.scriber, on the 4th day of- this month, a mulatto (or yellow negro) man 
named Albert. Twenty-five years of age, thin visage, well made, about fi\e 
feet six or eight inches high, looks dejected (or down) and confused when 
spoken to seriously or on any unpleasant subject ; but if pleased looks remark- 
ably pleasant. He has in this state (Indiana) been taken at a little \illage 
called Vienna, but made his escajie and left behind him a l)undle consisting 
■of several vests, a shirt, a big drab coat, etc., etc. Had on when last escaped 
a gray pair of cloth or cashimere ])antaloons, light colored shirt and coat. 
1 have since heard he attempted to steal a luirse and did steal a pair of shoes 
at another place near Salem, a \ice to which he is nnich sul)ject, as he stole 
some of the clo+lies he had with him from Kentucky. He has frequently 
been mistaken as he passed, for an Indian. 1 will gi\e the above reward 
to any person who will deli\er him to me. residing nine miles aliove Louis- 
ville, Kentucky, and one and one-half miles from the ' )hio ri\er. Or one 
hundred dollars if he is secured and information is gi\en me so I may ])ro\e 
my property and get him in possession. 

"Salem, Dec. 27, iSiy. X\tii\.mkl P. T.wlor." 

The al)o\e advertisement was taken from llw 'l,nsiii. \ ol. 11. Xo. 3S, 
the earliest newspaper publisheil in Salem. Tliere were two other similar 
advertisements in the same i)aper. This form of ad\ ertisement. with a cut 
representing a negro with a stalT across his shoulders and a bundle at the 
•end of it, was very common in all the leading newspapers of the country. 
and similar handbills were circulated e\tcnsi\ cl\ and ]iosted in all public 
places, particularly at court houses and liotels. ( o\int\ sherilts. constaliles 
and professional slave hunters were nearly always (m (he lookout for a 
"runaway nigger." while on the other hand there was ,1 class v\ people all 
-over the country who syni]iathi/e(l with the blacks and did not hesitate to 
lend a helping hand to all who were striking for freedom. 

An ordinance for the go\crnment of the territorv of the I'nited States 
northwest of the Ohio ri\er. passed liy ( ongress in 1 7^<7. prescril)ed that 
"There shall W neither sla\er\- nor in\ oluiitar\- servitude in the said terri- 
tory otherwise than in the i)unishinent of crimes, whereof the partx- shall 


have been duly convicted." This' same article was incorporated in the state 
constitution in 1816, and so that part of the country became the objective 
point of many emigrants who did not wish to take up a residence in slave- 
holding territory. 

Many Quakers from North Carolina came to this county while Indiana 
was still a territory. They formed large settlements in other parts of the 
state, and all were bitterly opposed to slavery. They considered the fugitive 
slave law cruel and oppressive, and a blot upon the fair name of the state. 
It provided that "If any person, without proper authority, shall give to any 
one owing service in any state or territory within the United States, a cer- 
tificate or other testimonial of emancipation, or shall knowingly harbor or 
employ any such one owiiit; service as aforesaid, or held as a slave^ who 
mav have come into this state without the consent of his or her owner, or 
shall encourage or assist any such one to desert or not go with his or her 
owner, or shall use any violence or other means to prevent, let, or hinder 
any person in lawfully recovering any fugitive slave or person owing serv- 
ice, such person so offending shall, upon conviction thereof, be fined in any 
sum not exceeding five hundred dollars, and be liable for damages to any 
person or persons injured by any of said acts." 

Instead of being a help to owners of fugitive slaves, as it was intended, 
this law was in fact a hindrance, for it proved to be an incentive to a more 
determined effort on the part of those who persisted in fomenting the "irre- 
pressible conflict." Harriet Beecher Stowe had graphically pictured in 
"Uncle Tom's Cabin" the life of slavery, and the aspirations burning in the 
human breast for freedom, xet there were those in our midst before his time 
who had seen, heard and could recite details of battles for liberty and life 
itself as stirring as any in the experiences of "Uncle Tom." It was a fact 
that Mrs. Stowe was inil>Iored by some of the Indiana Quakers to use her 
marvelous power in behalf of the slaves, and she got from some of them 
the story of Eliza, which she took as a foundation for her great work. 


The method employed by these ardent abolitionists to carry on the 
work of lil)erating slaves was called the "underground railroad." The name 
originated with a slave-owner, who declared that never the slightest intelli- 
gence of a runaway nigger could be obtained after he got into the hands of 
these operators, and there must lie an underground road somewhere to spirit 
them awav. 


There, was probably no more peculiar institution known to the early 
history of this county than the "underground railroad." It was the con- 
necting link between slavery and freedom. It never had an organization. 
nor a central head, nor a -^eal officer. It kept no certain track, and there 
were no traiiis running on schedule time, still the road was constantly in 
operation and passengers were numerous. There were conductors all along 
this mysterious route, earnest and active in their work, and stations were 
established at convenient points from the Ohio river through to Canada. 
There was no light from the locomotive, no shrieking whistle or clanging 
bell to announce the arrival of a train, only a gentle rap at the door warned 
the agent within that weary wayfarers implored assistance. 

The period most fruitful of deli\erance from l)ondage through the 
route across this count}- was between the years 1830 and 18&0. Between 
these years the numbers carried through safely ran far up into the hundreds, 
and only a very few were captured and returned to bondage that once got 
abroad the train. Slave hunters nearly always found themselves outwitted 
and outgeneraled by the cautious anti-sla\er} men and women. 

The station in this county was the first this side of the Ohio river. There 
were some friends of the cause between station number one and the river 
who v.-ccasionally lent a helping hand in steering strangers thrdugh, so this 
was no chance route to the many who traxeled over it, though it was to 
aome of them. Indeed, many of the plans of escape were laid on Kentucky 
and Tennessee soil, and maps of roads and stations were furnished which 
guided them through the county. 

There were men employed to \isit around through the sla\e states in 
the disguise of peddlers, and while the\ were earnmg a nimble [jenny here 
and there they impro\ed e\er}' opportunity possible, in a discreet way. to 
induce slaves to make a strike for freedom. Some of the plans were to 
meet pilots at places agreed upon on the northern bank of the Cihlo ri\er. 
from vvhence they were guided safely to Mime point where they could "lay 
over" until the search was made for them and gi\en up. 

If they were to escape through \\"ashing1on county thev would cross 
the river somewhere between Jeffersonville and Leavenworth. Indiana. The 
city of Louisville, more than any other point on the border, became the 
starting place for fugitives. Huckster wagons were con\-enient hiding places 
for those who desired to get across the Ixirder. Quiet! v stowed awa\- among 
boxes, bags and barrels, a man or two could be brought through and landed 
at a convenient place for them to reach the "underground railroad." 

Not all escaping slaves, however, hail these helps. Some daring ones 


took their lives in their own hands and risked everjthing for freedom. They 
would cross the Ohio in skiffs, canoes and rafts of logs, and then wend 
their way in the solitude of night, with only the north star for their guide, 
knowing it would not deceive them, hut eventually land them on free soil. 
While Washington county was ever a warring field for fugitive slaves, 
and many hundreds were piloted safely across her borders, there is no record 
or legend showing that any active agent was e\er brought before the courts 
on the charge of aiding or abetting in the escape, or "knowingly harboring" 
anvone "owing service" to a white master. 

Among the Quakers of this county, who were all in sympathy with the 
workings of the "underground railroad," James I.. Thompson was the 
acknowledged head. His home, about four miles northeast of Salem, located 
in the northwest quarter of section 2, township 2 north, range 4 east, was 
the station to which all fleeing slaves were directed. His wife proved to be 
a very energetic worker in the cause, and always had food an.d clothing pre- 
pared for the hungry and perhaps half -naked fugitives that were likely at any 
time, especially at night, to knock at the door and introduce themselves with 
the remark, "We have heard you were good to the like of us and have been 
sent to your house." 

Friend Thompson had a number of trusty lieutenants that ever held 
themselves in readiness to do his bidding, either in the matter of supplying 
needed funds, acting as guides or in harboring the runaways. Among these 
were William Penn Trueblood, Henry Wilson, James Trueblood, Benoni 
Morris and others. There were also a great many negroes living in different 
parts of the county, between the years 1825 and 1850, and a large settlement 
in Salem, that gave some assistance, Init they did not have confidence in 
themselves so much as protectors to their fleeing brethren from slavery as 
they did in their ability to pilot the runaways from house to house in the 
dead of night and land them at the door of some white man who they 
knew would throw jirotection around them. 


With e\ery new face that presented itself at the station there arose a 
multitude of questions in the mind of the agent, for it was here that good 
generalship had to be disjjlayed. Were the fugitives being pursued? Were 


they close on his track? Was it a slave-owner or professional slave hunter? 
Were the fugitives advertised? Were they posted m Indiana or Washington 
county"' What was the reward for their capture? These were among the 
questions that were set .evolving in the mind of the individual applied to 
for succor, along with such other perplexing problems as where they might 
be most safelv concealed, protected and cared for till such time as they 
might be safely carried to the next station. To say that the doors were 
always opened unto them might not be strictly true, but they were soon made 
to feel that friends were caring for them. The station was always under 
the ban of suspicion, and when the sla\e hunter came along it was soon 
pointed out to him. So until the necessary bearings were taken it was usual 
to lodge these fleeing people in straw and fodder racks, wheat shocks, 
secluded places in the woods, haymows, outhouses, secret rooms or cellars. 

Ha\ing learned the name of the newcomer, the next thing to do was to 
go to Salem, inspect the walls of the court house and see if any posters 
were up and look at the papers for the descriptive advertisement that usually 
followed in such cases. If in a few days it developed that the fugitive had 
eluded the vigilance of his pursuers, he was taken into closer communion, 
perhaps given a few days' work to earn mone\- to help him on his way. when 
he was piloted to the' next station. If he was hotly pursued, the greatest 
care was exercised in selecting a hiding i)lace. (jr he was spirited away 
between two days under the care of a trustworthy guide and perhaps along 
some unfrequented highway to a place of safety. 

Station No. ^ was located at Farmington. Jackson county, and was man- 
aged by Richard Cox. Station No. 3 was at Azalia, Bartholomew county, 
in charge of John Thomas. The next point was located near Franklin, 
and thence the route lay a little east of Indianapolis and through to Canada, 
there Ijeing regular stations at intervals all along the way. Another route 
from Azalia was through Decatur, Franklin and Fayette counties to Len 
Coffin's, at Xew]3ort, \\'ayne count\-. He w^as bv general consent called the 
president of the "underground railroad." 

.\|)\T':nti-kks of two si,\\ks from Kentucky. 

"Two Hundred Dollars Reward' Kan away from the undersigned, a 
resident of Tarue county, Kentucky. July 4. 184-'. two likely-looking niggers, 
Lishe and Lige. < )ne twent}-t\\ n and the other twenty-H\e vears of age, 
medium height, and when they went away had on home-made linen pants 
and shirts, A reward of two hundred dollars is otiered for their capture 



and returned to tlie subscriber. 1 warn people against harboring or giving 
any assistance to these runaways under the strictest penaUy of the law. 

"Shelby Brown." 

This handJjill was posted at the court house in Salem, and other public 
places as well, in a few days after these men struck for liberty. It took them 
two days to find their way t© the Ohio river and get across it. They then 
struck out in the solitude of night across the hills of Harrison county. Find- 
ing them gone, and suspecting which route they had taken. Brown started 
his agents, McHatten and Hill, on fleet horses to intercept them in Wash- 
mgton county, but liefore either party had reached this locality the posters, 
had been stuck u]). Some saw a probable chance in them to arrest the fugi- 
tives and receive the reward: others that there might be an opportunity to. 
assist them in their break for freedom. 

It chanced that they were not left alone to their fate in steering their 
course through the county of Harrison. They were discovered by some one 
who sympathized with them in their ambition to become free men, who^ 
fed and directed them ..n t.. some of their colored brethren m this county^ 
and these in turn piloted them to the residence of James L. Thompson. They 
sainted him as "A'" and doffed their hats as they were accustomed to- 
d(j in the i)resence of white people, but were told not to do it again, to him 
or anyone else, as by that act they might betray themselves. "I know why 
you called at my house. T have heai-d of you; come, follow me," said 
Thompson, and he led them away, knowing it would not do to harbor them 
in the house, across the old road and through a stubble field to a sort of 
sinkhole. Here, with a walnut tree for shade, and a small stream of water 
near by where they might quench their thirst, he left them till such time as 
n would be safe to give them better accommodations. 

It was not long until McHatten and Hill put in an appearance, and" 
never perhaps in the annals of the "underground railroad" was there a 
hotter or more determined pursuit than for these men. They galloped over 
the country a day or two and enlisted all they could as spies, and had drawn 
out the sympathy of many in their behalf who stood ready and willing to- 
assist them in the capture. Tt did seem perilous for the hopes of the two 
negroes, as well as their protectors. The station was ix)inted out to the slave 
hunters and they rode by and around it several times. One then called out 
Air. llKimpson, and after denouncing him with oaths, said thev believed 
he had the "niggers" concealed, and if he did not reveal their whereabouts 


they would kill him. But these threats had not a feather's weight with the 
man that stood for the rights of the oppressed. 

On Sunday afternoon, while these fugitives were yet under the care of 
the Thompsons, and company being at their house. James said to some of 
his sons, "Boys, it is time thee were seeing to the cattle." This the boys 
understood, and as they passed by the kitchen door their mother met them 
with a well-filled basket of substantial food, milk and fruit, which was car- 
ried to the negroes. On their return the slave hunters accosted them and 
inquired where they had been. The boys replied that it was none of their j 
business. One of the men said, "You are awfully smart birds." "Yes," I 
they said; "smart enough not to be in such business as you seem to be in." | 
The men then tried to be real nice and said, "Come, now, and tell us like j 
good boys, if you have seen any "niggers' in your walk this afternoon. They | 
replied. "Yes, we have seen some. There is one living in the house you see I 
about one-half mile away, and there are, quite a number between here and 
Salem, but you want them that are running, don't you"" Seeing there was I 
nothing to be gotten out of the boys, the men passed on, no doubt thinking ' 
that the old Quaker had them well trained. j 

By this time it seemed to be getting so warm about the station that for 
the safety of the fugitives it was decided to move them to a straw stack in a j 
field on William Penn Trueblood's farm, who now administered to their j 
wants. McHatten stopped there the next day and inquired about the "nig- 
gers," but when told that he was welcome to search the premises, it had the 
■effect to remove what suspicion they had entertained about the fellows being I 
■concealed there. The negroes were again shifted to the farm of Henry I 
■Wilson for safekeeping, and it was thought that McHatten and Hill had I 
finally given up the chase. They disappeared from the scene of action, and j 
"went to work laying a trap for the station agent. They had a man by the 
name of Crocket to act as spy, and get into the confidence of the "under- j 
ground railroad" managers. This he did successfully, and wherl it was ( 
thought the time had come to move Lishe and Lige on to the next station, 
•Crocket volunteered to go along with Thompson and show him a new road. 
When over in the edge of Gibson township, two men sprang out from behind j 
a clump of bushes, one of them knocking Thompson from his horse, while j 
the other engaged in a sham fight with Crocket, running him into the woods. ! 

No sooner had they handcuffed the trembling slaves, than McHatten 
pointed his pistol at the face of the bruised and bleeding man on the ground 
and with a terrible oath threatened to blow his brains out for the part he j 
■had taken in the affair. Notwithstanding he had been betrayed and set upon 


unawares, Thompson showed his bravery by saying to McHatten, "Shoot, 
if thee wants to; I have but one time to die, and if thee feels thee can afford 
to be the cause of that death, fire away." McHatten very wisely concluded 
he had already inflicted enough punishment upon his foe, and went away 
with the captives. Thompson was left in rather a helpless condition, but 
after a while managed to get up, and journeyed back home. Before he 
reached the station a renewed determination came over him to be faithful to 
the cause, let the consequences be what they might, and he lived to give his 
attention to hundreds that had fled from slavery, in the face of all manner 
of persecution and vile epithets. 

The slaves were carried back to Kentucky, but one of them, nothing 
daunted by the effort and reverses of a former day, followed by being tied 
to a post and whipped, made a second and successful charge for freedom. 
This time he stopped at Isaac Jorden's, whose acquaintance he had formed 
when stopping in the neighborhood before, and as they passed by the station 
on their way to Farmington, Lishe had Thompson called up so he might 
shake his hand and thank him for past favors. He was then conducted 
safely out of the county. 

The following day McHatten again made his appearance in Washing- 
ton county. Thompson, hearing of this, hurried to Salem to have him 
arrested for assault and battery, but before he could get out a warrant for 
his arrest and while Lishe was making tracks for Canada and freedom, 
McHatten was going faster towards the "Old Kentucky" shore. 


There was in the days of slavery many a bright intellect shaded and 
clouded in darkness, when the face told not that a portion of African blood 
coursed through the veins. Slavery had to be the child of ignorance, else the 
institution would go down. The restless spirit for freedom had been seen 
to grow when knowledge had entered the mind, so the law forbade the edu- 
cation of slaves. But even with the law of the land on .the side of ignorance 
the environment was not always strong enough to shut out aspirations to 
rise out of it. A case in point was that of Joseph Daniels, an octoroon 
owned by a wealth}' man in Hardin county, Kentucky. "Aunt Sofa" was 
the family cook and Joe, when old enough, became a house servant. It was 
not felt by mother or son that their tasks were hard, but early in life Joe 
developed a vearning for freedom. His master's family was intelligent, and 


the children were sent to the best schools within reach. The recitation of 
their lessons at home found a lodging in Joe's mind, and he soon picked up 
enough knowledge so that he could read and write. The more he learned 
the warmer burned the fire of freedom in his breast, and it only needed a 
turn of circumstances to make it irresistible. That came on the death of his 
master before Joe had reached his twenty-first year. A general break-up 
followed this death, and while "Aunt Sofa"' was to remain at the old home- 
stead with her mistress, the son. with the various shades of darkness of the 
other slaves, was to l^e sold on the auction block to the highest l>i(lcler. From 
a few hundred up to a thousand dollars was l>id on Joe when he was 
knocked off to a young Alabama planter. The reader may be certain that 
Joe was not quietly submitting to this sale of himself, but was revolving in 
his mind how he could most successfully make a Ijokl "stroke for liberty or 

Just how he managed to make his escaped has slipped the memory of 
those who heard him tell his story of life in Kentucky, but a portion of the 
song he composed and sang while at the station may throw some light on the 
manner of his escape : 


I'm on m.v way to C.irmda 

That free and happy land; 
The cruel bonds of slavery 

I will no longer stand. 

Chorus : 
Stay back, Massa. stay back. 

Oh, don't come after me. 
I'm going up to Canada 

Where colored folks are free. 

The hounds are baying on my track 

And Massa's just behind — 
Determined he will bring me back 

Before I've cro.ssed the line. 

My be.ut's been stirred within me so 

To think I was a slave: 
Resolved I was to strike the blow 

For freedom or the grave. 

I've served old M.issji all my days 

Without one cent's reward : 
Now I've resolved to run awa.v 

And break the i-niel cord. 


Joseph Daniels made his appearance at the station, June 19, 1852, and it 
hardly would have crossed the mirid of the agent that the young man was 
other than a' pure Caucasian, if he had not in his language betrayed his asso- 
ciation, and even with his dialect, so distinctly of southern negro caste, it 
was a surprise to hear him say that he was a "runaway" from slavery. He 
was quite a talker, and was a favorite with all who learned to know him. 
He said he intended to write back to the folks when he got to Canada, and 
was going to work and get money to buy his old mammy and set her free, 

The usual precaution was taken after Joe's arrival at the station to loc^ 
over the latest papers to see if he was advertised, also to look around the 
old court house to see if any posters had been put up. Finding nothing; 
arrangements were made for the "train" to run out at nine o'clock on the 
night of the 21st of January. Like most of the fugitives that came 
this way, "Joe" was short on his wardrobe, but this was furnished hini; and 
he went on his way rejoicing. A letter later told of his safe arrival at his 
point of destination, and his renewed determination to some time have his 
mother with him. 


The experience of Tom Redding and Jake Small, as told by Tom, was 
a story so touching to the young minds that listened to it that it has .been 
easy to recall. Tom and Jake were Georgia field hands, who ran away in 
the early fifties, tramped their way unmolested across two slave stages to 
meet disaster and cruel intrigue on the free soil of Indiana. . And how. ppor 
Jake sank under it can never be known. 

Tom's story was substantially as follows, omitting the dialect : "It was 
early in the morning when we came in sight of the Ohio river. Going up 
the stream a few miles we found a skifif. This we unloosed and, getting in, 
paddled across to the opposite shore, and feeling thankful that the little 
skiff had served us so well, we bade it good-by and pushed it out in the 
.stream to float at will. Jake and T now were feeling good, standing there 
for the first time in our lives on soil where none of our race was held in 
bondage. The full light of day was now on, and we saw up the river a 
small town (New Amsterdam), and between it and us a creek which empr 
tied into the Ohio. This creek (Indian) we thought must come from near 
the direction we wanted to tra\'el. Though on free soil, we did not feel 
safe to travel except at nii^ht. We found some sheaves of wheat and rubbed 


out enough grain to fill our pockets. Thus pro\ endered, we hunted a thicket 
of bushes where we might rest, eat wheat and await the coming of darkness. 
At the approach of night, we cautiously came out of our hiding place and 
started up the creek, brt found its course was so winding we feared we 
were not making much headway. Hiding away the second day as we had 
the first, we laid our plans to leave the creek to our right and strike out across 
the hills and fields, as near as we could, directly north. Whether we were 
faring any better by this venture we could not tell. 

"On the approach of the second morning we found ourselves in a cedar 
grove on the summit of a high hill, overlooking a fine fertile valley of farm- 
ing land. Nearby was a hewn log house of some three rooms, the kitchen 
having two outside doors beside the one leading into the other rooms. We 
were near enough to this house to see that the morning meal was being pre- 
pared. Indeed, we imagined we scented the flavored victuals. This seemed 
more than we could stand, having eaten nothing but wheat for so long. 
Jake proposed that we go down to the kitchen door and make our wants 
known. I told him this was not safe, so near as we yet were to Kentucky. 
The poor; fellow insisted, however, and .said he would ha^•e something more 
than wheat to eat. I could hold out no longer to his entreaties, and so, 
drawn by our whetted appetites, we descenf' ?d the hill through low bushes, 
and then crossed a meadow to the nearest door and told the man what we 
wanted. He eyed us a moment and then said, 'Yes, yes, boys, you can have 
your breakfast; we have just eaten, but there is plenty left. Come right in 
and set down.' The father went into another room where his two daughters 
where, and in the run of their conversation I heard him say, T bet they are 
runaway niggers, and I am going to get help and will capture them, for there 
is a good reward, no doubt, offered for their return.' 

"The talk softened into a whisper, and soon the girls came in and took 
their stations one at each outside door, while the father followed, locking 
behind him the door leading to the other part of the house. As he passed 
out he said, T have some work I mu.'^t do, but you boys must eat a square 
meal, and you need not hurry.' Saying this, he left and all was made plain 
that the attempt would be made to entrap us. I told Jake that we'd better 
leave, so I bowed my head like a sheep and dived toward the girl in the 
door, and as she showed resistance she was knocked sprawling on the ground. 
1 straightened myself up and started across the meadow as fast as my legs 
would carry me. As T looked around 1 saw the old man coming with a gun. 
and he called a halt, but I didn't stop. Seeing that I was going to outrun 
him, the old man did shoot sure enough, and I felt some of the shot, but 


was not disabled much. 1 ran a long distance and took shelter in a pawpaw 
patch. Here I remained till night, wondering what had become of Jake." 

Tom was somewhere a little northwest of Corydon, Indiana, and the 
night following brought him near the Washington county line. The next 
night he stopped on a hill overlooking Salem. Here, while the people of 
the little city were yet in their Sabbath morning sluml:>ers, was a dark stran- 
ger from far away Georgia peering over their town, wondering how he 
might get on the north of it and find a place to rest and sleep during the day. 
Tom said he started round the town, secreted himself in a wheat shock and 
went to sleej). Some time in the afternoon he was awakened by someone 
walking near, when he arose and saw an elderly man, supposed to have been 
Benoni Morris, with a cane in his hand. Tom didn't think it worth while to 
run, but stood his ground, when the old gentleman said, "You look tired 
and hungry, young man; come go along with me and get something to eat." 
Tom thanked him, but said he'd rather not go. The old gentleman told him 
he understood it all — that he was a runaway and had done just right. Being 
thus assured that he was in good hands, they walked back to the house, 
where Tom partook of a hearty meal, and when he was ready to go the way 
was pointed out and he was told where to go to, and he was cautioned not 
to stop to talk to anyone except it be a colored person. 

It was while the evening chores were being attended to at the station 
that Tom was seen approaching, wearing a somewhat dejected look, with his 
head leaning a little to one side. His first words were to ask for a place 
of rest about the barn and said he was tired. Why he had put in an appear- 
ance was known without asking, but inquiry was made about the cause of 
his crooked neck. He said he was carrying some cold lead. The shot were 
probed for, which hurt badly : but they proved upon examination to be 
imbedded just under the .skin. To see his condition and learn how it hap- 
pened kindled a sympathy for the poor fellow, and his comfort was carefullv 
looked after. It was decided that the .shot must be cut out, but it was then 
too late in the evening to undertake the job. 

Breakfast was served rather early Monday morning, and preparations 
were made to take the shot from under the black man's skin. A sharp pen- 
knife, towel and basin of water were procured, and the operation l>egun. 
It was rather painful, but successfully performed. In a week's time the 
Georgian was in good repair and ready to board the train again for Canada. 
Thiimpson himself was to acc()in])any him beyond the Muscatatuck. In the 
evening heforr starting lie shfiwcd Tom a good suit of clothes and said to 
him. "1 \\ant to ^waj) with thee. Thfmias. I will give thee these and thee 


can have thine own to Ixjot in the trade." Toms black eyes sparkled at the 
joke and the generosity of the agent and he thankfully accepted the gift. 
Nine o'clock was the usual time for the departure of trains, and by mid- 
night they were at the river. Here a peculiar halloo, agreed upon for such 
occasions, brought Henry Jason, the trusty ferryman, down to his boat, and 
with the help of his ropes and pulleys soon landed the travelers on the oppo- 
site bank, "and no questions asked." The way was then pointed out. and 
the conductor said, "Farewell. Tom, and to fare well thee must do well." 
Whatever became of Jake will probably never be known. 


In the border slave-holding states the "underground railroad" was ever 
in most active operation. General passenger agents were constantly on the 
alert for business, and each branch road has had a history which if written 
would prove to have been no insignificant factor towards unriveting the 
shackles that held men and women in servile bondage. 

The name of Joseph Sider was once a very familiar one to hosts of 
people in all this country, as he passed from house to house selling goods 
from a tight wagon arranged for the purpose. But his field of operations 
was more in the border tier of counties and over in Kentucky. Few that 
purchased his wares ever knew that he was acting in the double capacity of a 
peddler, earning an honest living and a "guider" to men and women fleeing 
from slavery. He left no record of his works ijehind him, and seldom men- 
tioned anything about his achievements and labors for humanity. It is said 
that beside the packages and boxes of goods and notions he showed to people 
and sold from, there was one box he did not open to the public, but when 
bits of clothing, eyeglasses, false whiskers and mustache had served their 
purpose, and were handed back to him, thev were put in this private box and 
locked up. 

While making one of his rounds through Kentucky, Mder met a rather 
bright looking young mulatto, and drew up his horse to make some inquiry 
about the road. The young man appeared talkative, and the peddler ven- 
tured to lead the conversation oft' towards other things. The mulatoo told 
him that his master, whose home was nearby, had recently died, and his 
property was advertised for sale. Sider asked if this included himself, and 
was told that it did. "Then." said Sider, "I have much sympathy for you," 
and asked if he knew or had thought of any way to avoid this sale, or was 
he satisfied with his condition. Thereupon the young man opened his mind 


i|uite freelv to tlie stranger, and said he "'had thought much about it and by 
no means cUd he want to be sold if there was any help for it." 

He said he had a young wife at the farm house and had talked the 
sul)jec[ o\-er many tmies with her, but they had felt helpless to get out of 
slavery. Sider told him if it was in their hearts to get away from hard 
taskma.sters he could trust him to do whatever was possible to help on the 
undertaking. "1 shall not allow you to ]>e put on the auction ))lock and sold 
away from ^"our wife if I can help it. I will jog around with my wagon the 
balance of the da^■ .selling goods, and will l)e along here at If you 
vant to, you can meet me here and we will head towards the Ohio river, 
and 1 will then lie happy to assist you on your way to freedom." 

They parted. The mulatto turned and went back home and told his 
wife about the stranger he had seen and what he had said. Rose, the wife, 
urged her husljand, Ben, to accept the stranger's proposition and become a 
free man ; but she Avondered wdiat was to become of her. "The offer is for 
lK)th of us," .said Ben. It did not take them long to make up their minds 
w hat to do. They set about at once, in a quiet way, to make some prepara- 
tion for the journey, and at the ajjpointed hour were out at the road. Rose 
came dressed in male attire, and the peddler to change her appearance still 
more and give her a manly look, brought out some of his disguises and a 
mustache. \\'ith her man's outfit donned, her name was changed to Tom, 

After traveling all night, the peddler left his charges for the day with 
some free colored people he knew. He sold some goods during the day, 
l)icked u]) some food for himself and feed for his horse and managed to take 
a nap in his wagon. The second night's trip brought them safely to the 
Ohio river at a point a short distance aliove Leavenworth, Indiana. After 
considerai)le search a skiff was found, and in the dawning light of the morn- 
ing Sider saw the two "boys" steering across the river, having instructions 
from himself to fasten the skiff on the opposite shore and hide away in the 
brusli not far away and await his coming. 

In the full light of day the peddler drove down the river opposite Leav- 
enworth and was ferried over. He put up in the town until towards night, 
w hen he dro\e u]) the river road, soon found his passengers, and soon were 
on their journey northward. A distance of some twenty miles was covered 
that night, o\er hills and hollows that made it anything but pleasant travel- 
ing. The usual discretion was observed through the day, Sider driving 
around enough to pick up food for the three and also feed for the horse 

With an early start the following night and by hard driving, they 
reached Salem just as the sun was lighting the eastern horizon. Who that 


heard the rattHng of the wagon in the streets that morning ever dreamed 
that a "bride and groom" from the "sunny south" were hurrying through 
the town? But such was the case, and it was late breakfast time before the 
wagon was drawn up to the home of Thompson. It was not the first time 
the "guider" had piloted runaways to this station. 

They drove directly to the bam, partly because Ben and Tom felt a 
diffidence in going to a white str.anger's house. Thompson saw the wagon 
drive in and was out to greet Sider and see what kind of passengers he had 
to deliver. He was introduced to Ben, and then Sider said, "This other man 
is Tom." The agent took Tom by the hand and arm, but presently remarked, 
"It may be Tom, but the voice I hear is not a man's." 

The couple were soon induced to go to the house and partake of a good 
hearty breakfast. Tom showed a good deal of timidity until Aunt Sally 
took her to the secret room in the kitchen, where she was directed to lay 
aside her whiskers and pants and assume the attire befitting her sex. After 
this she was known by the name of Rose. Her age was given as twentv 
and her husband's as twenty-four. 

The next day Sider left the station, bidding goodby to his friends and 
receiving from Ben and Rose smcere thanks for having guided them away 
from the peril that threatened to forever separate them in this life. 

They remained at the station for several days, or unti' it was thought 
safe for them to start on their way again. It 'was found out that Ben had 
on his person a pistol and bowie knife, and -Aunt Jennie Thompson, James's 
mother, told him she was very much surprised that he carried such weapons 
along with him. "Grandma," said he, "life and liberty are dear to us, and 
I have heard of some of our people being captured and taken back to slavery 
and cruelty after they had crossed the line into this state. God knows I do 
not want to use these weapons, but I am prepared in my heart to do so if it 
comes to the worst, rather than Rose and myself should be arrested and taken 
back to bondage." 


The time most of all others that set the mind of slaves to thinking how 
they might possibly escape' from l)ondage was when the news came to them 
that they were to be sold at public auction, to be carried awav from their 
old home, they knew not whither. If anything would make a darkey think 
seriously of bolting for freedom it was to know that he was to change 

Edward and George Trimble Cthey taking the surname of their master") 


were owned in Kentucky, and were to be sold to secure funds to meet some 
debt that had been incurred by a profligate master. George was a farm hand 
aged twenty-four, and Edward a house servant aged fifty years. While 
they were discussing in their own minds how it might be possible for them 
to step out of the countrj^, they returned to make inquiry of some free 
negroes living nearby how they had best proceed, and were told where to 
cross the Ohio river, and who to go to at Corydon, where they would be safe. 

Flight once agreed upon, the time of its execution was fixed for the 
first rainy, dark night that followed. For this they did not have to wait, 
long, and with their pockets full of dried beef and bread they sallied forth^ 
not leaving a soul behind informed of their designs or enlightened as to 
their hopes. 

They adopted the usual course of traveling by night, and secreting them- 
selves by day. .\ three nights' journey landed them at the Ohio river, which 
they crossed on a raft made from drift that had lodged among the trees 
along the bank. From some "nigger" boys that were fishing they got the 
direction of Corydon, and the second night from the river found them ia 
the negro quarters of said town. From here they started for Salem, and 
another two nights' journey brought them up in what was called "Africa," 
the negro quarters of the town. 

In this suburban place they were closely hid away the following day- 
It wasn't safe to let even all the negroes know that there was a fugitive in; 
hiding at the place, for some of them would reveal the whereabouts of even 
a dear friend to secure a part of the reward usually offered for runaways. 

When the darkness of night again spread over the land they were quietly 
piloted to Washington Potter's, a colored man who lived near Canton. Pot- 
ter led ihe way in turn to the station, from whence the refugees were sent 
on their way rejoicing by the usual route. 

It is related of Edward that while he was sojourning at the station he 
was once prevailed upon to sit down to the dinner table. Mr. Thompsoit 
was in the act of opening the Bible to read a chapter, as was his custom, 
when Edward let it be known that he was a preacher and commenced to ask 
the blessing. Thompson told him to wait a minute, as he had a duty to 
perform, and of course Edward begged pardon. After the chapter was. 
read. Thompson said to him, "Now, if thee has anything to say, thee is at 
liberty to do so." The negro returned thanks at considerable length, and 
then said "Dis is de fust time I ebber had de privilege to ask a blessin' at a 
white man's table." 



\Vhile large numbers of slaves made tlieir escape by way of the Quaker 
settlement, near Canton, this was not the only route that led to freedom 
through Washington county. The Covenanters were a religious sect that 
threw around them every possible protection, would feed and clothe them, 
secrete them and be their guides to other neighborhoods of like denomination 
and so on across the state. It seems that no one could become a member of 
this religious body and own slaves. There was once a very large congre- 
gation of Covenanters in Jefiferson township, just north of Rush creek. 
None of them are left any more, excepting their remains in the old cemetery, 
where their church house once stood. 

The mo\'ing spirit among these people when it came to the liberation 
of the negro, was Tsaiah Reid. He if was who had charge of the station in 
that pan of the county. His father emigrated to this county, in 181 5. from 
South Carolina, so that he might be awav from among a slave-holding 

Not infrequently was the fugitive, when the slave catcher was close 
on his heelsi forwarded from the Thompson station to Reid's, for by thus 
deviating from the usual track all traces of the runaway were lost. The 
doings of the "underground railroad" were kept in profound secrecy for a 
good many years after the Civil War. which was a contest between the North 
and South to settle the slave question, and it is now only by mere chance 
that tradition has gi\en us some of the inciileiits that occurred in connection 
with this \vork. for the main actors h;i\ e long since passed away. 


Washington Cdunty has fcir sexeral decades lioasted that no colored man 
•or woman lived within her Ijorders. Imt it was not always so. Prior to 1830 
there were many f.iniilies of colored people scattered here anrl there over 
tiie county tiiat earned a In-elihood by working on farms. Charlev Rouse 
and his wife. M.'irtli.i. li\ed on a rented farm near Chestnut Hill, l'"ranklin 
townshij). .^he was thirty-ti\e years old and he ten years her senior. They 
had 1K.1 children. They were considered scrupulous!}- honest and upright in 
all their dealings. Resides their work on the farm they were always ready 
to do odd iol)s in the neighborlK^od. They were regular churchgoers and 


were received with neighborly feehng everywhere and knew their places. 
They could never be induced to eat at a table with white people. 

One night in the year 1852, just after dark, a runner started through 
the neighborhood announcing the fact that Martha Rouse had been kid- 
napped — that she was being taken out of the county by five men armed with 
shotguns. If any of the whites had been assassinated it would not have 
created more consternation. The whole community was immediately 
aroused, and regardless of party, Whigs and Democrats alike, got down 
their guns and started in pursuit. 

It seems that while her husband was out atter the cows these men 
dropped in upon her and forced her into a wagon. She was not permitted 
to make, an outcry, and so in the dark they passed by some of the near neigh- 
bors without creating any sensation, but when a mile away a neighbor was 
met who knew her and demanded an explanation. Not getting any satis- 
faction, he started the alarm. It was not long till seventy-five or one hun- 
dred determined men were in hot pursuit, but by this time the kidnappers had 
gotten a long start ahead. 

It was not certain whether they would go to Vienna or Ilenryville to 
take the train, or go directly to Jeffersonville. Isaac S. Bloss and George 
Clark, with some others, started directly for Jeffersonville, while others went 
towards the above named railroad station. But the kidnappers reached 
Henryville and got aboard the train before they were overtaken. They were, 
however, intercepted by the posse that went on to Jeffersonville, but then it 
was too late and they were too few in numbers to take her by force, as 
they most certainly would have done had they found them on the way. 

The fugitive slave law made any attempt to release her futile. She had 
no rights under the law and could not te.stify against her accusers in any 
court. The kidnappers went before a magistrate and, swore, that she was 
an escaped slave, and that settled it. Bloss and Clark then proposed to buy 
her and return her to her husband, and they were backed in this by their 
neighbors. The leader of the gang asked six hundred dollars for her, but 
said they could not sell her in Indiana: that they would have to go to Louis- 
ville to close the contract. When they reached Louisville, however, they 
said money would not buy her. She was sent south at once to her pretended 
owner. It was believed that she was free-born and had been captured by 
these men and sold for pure gain. Her husband remained in the neighbor- 
hood for some time, but never got over his shock. He always persisted 
that she was a free-born woman and was stolen back into slavery. 



The effect of this kidnapping ni making sentiment in the community 
against the institution of slavery will never be fully known. For many years 
prior to the Civil War the anti-slavery sentiment cropped out here and there, 
as is evidenced by the following piece of poetry, which made its first appear- 
ance in 1822, in the Indiana Fanner, published in Salem. It was afterwards. 
November 9, 183 1, reproduced in the Salem Phoenix, the editor appending 
this note: "This poem was presented to the editor of the Indiana Farmer 
by Samuel Brown, who then resided on the Walnut Ridge, and we presume 
was its author. The late disturbances among the blacks at the south, will 
render the subject interesting enough to preserve it from oblivion." 

A wretched negro who had wandered 

All the night till break of day, 
Thus his woeful case he pondered. 

As beneath an («ik he lay : — 
"Dreadful is my situation. 

Born a slave — how can it be? 
Hear the People's Declaration, 

"Men are equal born, and free!" 

When a child on James' river, 

1 was from uiy master bought ; 
Paid for with sorge pelts of beaver, 

And to wild Kentucky brought. 
There I served a cruel master; 

Time began to make me old: 
There I met that sad disaster ; 

Heavens, It makes my blood run cold! 

Tyrants worse than old Agrippa, 

Robbed me of the joys of life. 
Sailing down the Mississippi 

Are my children and my wife. 
Wife and children ! dear and tender. 

Must we then for ever part? 
Must we more than life surrender? 

This the throe that rends the heart. 

Soon T left this seat of slavery — 

Fled to Indiana's plains. 
Here I met with baser knavery. 

Here where lioa.sled freedom reigns! 
Here I suffered dreadful evils; 

Hell-hounds have pursued me hard. 
Horrid monsters worse than devils — 

Catohing negroes for reward! 


Here keen hunger pinches sorely ; 

Dreadful terrors -haunt the mind; 
Bolts and dungeons lurk before me ; 

Whips and chains are hard behind. 
None on earth will now befriend me, 

SJghs aad te&iB are but^ln valp; 
Come, my knife, you soon shall end me, 

Hell miust be a lesser pain 

See his nervous arm extending, 

In his breast to strike the blade. 
See a heavenly form descending : 

"Hold your hand !" stern Justice said. 
"How, faint-hearted son of sorrow, 

Dost thou thus repine at fate? 
Thou that hast not seen to-morrow, 

Rush on death and force his gate! 

Let no present thing surprise thee; 

God is just in all His ways. 
Come, and I will sure inform thee 

What must be in latter days: — 
For your crimes in burning Afrlc 

Long your nation has been slaves — 
Subject of the basest traffic 

Ever borne in Ocean's waves. 

But shall tyrants reign forever? 

No, I swear it shall not be. 
Every chain that binds I'll sever. 

Soon the Nations shall be free ! 
I have seen all your disasters — 

I recorded all your harm. 
Soon my sword shall reach your masters. 

Mercy shall not stay my arm. 

Grieve not for your sons jind daughters, 

God directs the little band. 
They on Mississippi's waters 

Shall be sovereign of the land. 
Every line of demarkatlon 

That surrounds a negro slave. 
Gives n province to thy nation 

That the blacks shall surely have. 

Go once more and serve with patience — 
Wield again the ponderous sledge. 

Soon the blacks shall form free nations, 
St. Domingo is your pledge." 

Quick the cherub spread his pinions. 
Vengeance blazing in his eye. 

"Down with tyrants and their mlrrions!" 

Nations heard, and Joined the cry. 




In 1854 a Mexican War veteran left Washington county and emigrated 
to Texas. During the Civil War he belonged to the state piilitia, and was 
assigned for duty at a post where a numl>€r of Union prisoners were im- 
prisoned. Major Horace N. Atkinson, of Salem, was a prisoner there at the 
time, and who should he find one day, as his guard, but his old comrade, 
with whom he had fought through the Mexican War. Both were astounded 
at thus meeting each other at such a time and in such a place. They did not 
recognize each other when others were present and conversed together as 
little as possible ; but these two soldiers had feelings within their bosoms 
that common hardships and toils of other days upon Mexican sands had 
implanted there that could not be eradicated by all the antagonisms of the 
rebellion in the land. In due course of time Major Atkinson escaped, and 
it was by the aid and assistance of that old war-worn comrade of his in 
other days that he escaped and made his way back to the Cnion forces. 
This secret was not revealed until the close of .the war, when Anilrew Ratts 
related how he had dared to aid and assist, at the risk of his own life, one 
with whom he bivouacked under the flag of his country : one whom he 
stood beside in the battle of Buena Vista. Andrew H. Ratts kept a diary 
during the time he was a Mexican soldier, from which most of the facts 
now known concerning the part \\'ashington county soldiers took in that 
war are gleaned. 


On May 11, 1846, by the act of Mexico, in which she sent an armed 
force, and invaded the soil of the United States, and killed and wounded 
])eaceable citizens, the Congress of the Ignited States declared that war actu- 
ally existed between the two republics. In order to sustain the honor of the 
llag and carry on the war. Congress authorized the President to call out 
such numbers of volunteers as he thought proper, not to exceed fifty thous- 


and in number. He accordingly called upon the state of Indiana- ^or three 
regiments. Soon after this call, one company and about twa->-ljirds. of • 
another were raised in this county. On May 13, 1846, Abram Dennis and 
David C. Shanks announced their intention of raising a company ^uid called 
a meeting at the court house to raise volunteers. - Speeches were niadc- by 
leading citizens, much enthusiasm was aroused and soon the roll of tJie com- 
pany was completed. The Whig party was opposed to the war, in order to 
prevent the accession of slave territory, while the Democratic party, led 
mostly by the Southern wing, was in favor of the war, for the opposite 

The company as organized was mainly made up of young men .from 
both parties, who were sworn in at Salem on June 4, 1846. The day before 
the departure of the company for New Albany, the place of . regimental 
rendezvous, the boys were drawn up in rank on the north side of court 
square, where they were addressed by Miss Patsy Gordon, who, with appro- 
priate remarks, fittingly rendered, presented them with a fine flag, donated 
by the citizens of the town. Captain Dennis responded for the company, 
pledging their lives to maintain the sacredness of the banner. On the morn- 
ing of their departure, Rev. Cyrus Nutt, a resident minister, afterward pres- 
ident of the State University, delivered an elequent speech, at the cemetery. 
The iron paling around the grave of Mr. Buckman, a Revolutionary soldier, 
was taken down and piled up, and on this was placed the tombstone upon 
which the speaker stood while delivering his address. Each- member of the 
company was then presented with a Testament, and then the march for New 
Albany was ordered, wagons being furnished free by the patriotic citizens 
of the town and country. 


The following was the muster roll: Abram Dennis, captam; David C. 
.Shanks, first lieutenant; Josiali Burwell, second lieutenant; Thomas C. Parr, 
third lieutenant; Robert R. McKinney, Benjamin F. Nicholson, Andrew H. 
I\atts and Moses M. Johnson, sargeants; C. L. Paynter, James McKinney, 
D. C. Thomas and David Parr, corix)rals; Lemuel Weeks and Alexander M. 
Woods, musicians, and the following privates: Horace N. Atl^inson, George 
Bogle, James Bogle, Joseph W. Boling, Samuel J. BoHng, F. \V. Briscoe, 
John Bunch, Benjamin Cousen, Isom Clark. L. B. Cogswell, David Colglazier, 
Peter Colglazier, Elijah Crotts. John Dalton, William Early, William 
England, Riley Fleming, Jacob Fleenor, Bart Fletcher, Arch Golden, John 


Grimes, Lewis. Hampton. Jacob i-laniinerble\ , Michael Hardinian, Samuel 
Hughes, Henry Hogan, George Hendricks, dus Jones. James Karnes. 
George Lane, Michael Lee, John Leach, George Luck, George Launis, Asa 
Lovelace, Phineas Little, James Lockhart, Malachi McCoy. James McCoy, 
George W. McLain, William K. Newcomb, Henry Xaugle. George Xaugle, 
Frank Perdue, Wiley Peugli. \V. R. Reeves. Jonathan Ross, Benjamin 
Rush, William Richardson. James Sladen. William Spaulding. Joseph 
Stotts, David Story, Wiley Spurgeon, Samuel Trueblood, David Upping- 
house, John Watkins, Osborn Wilson, Ollie \Vilsf>n. Nathan Wilson, Will- 
iam Wilson, Abraham Watchtell. James W ebb. U'illiam Wringler and Sam- 
uel Westfall. 

Those who died of disease were John Leach antl I'rank Perdue. Those 
killed in battle or died of wounds received were Thomas C. Parr, -Michael 
Lee. William Richardson and James H. Sladen. 

The second company was raised mainly in the vicinity of Livonia. 
\vestern Washington and eastern Orange counties. The muster roll showed 
the following officers; Nathan Kimball, captain: William Schoonover. hrst 
lieutenant: W. K. Panabaker. second liemen;mt: Thomas T. Hogan. third 
lieutenant: Daniel Haines, P. I). Kels' .\rthur Homer and l'~. Blalock, sar- 
gcantb ■ John Jackson. Simeon Lynn, James Cooke and Thomas Rawlins, 
corporals; T. B. Wilmoth and John M. Redfield, inusicians. These com- 
panies were rendezvoused at New .Mban\' on June i8. 1846, and were mus- 
tered into the service, by Colonel Simonson. of the United States army, 
alx)ut June 22. They were encamped about one mile up the ri\ei from 
New Albany, where they remained for about four weeks, for the purpose 
-of forining the regiment, selecting field officers and perfecting thetrLselves 
in the manual of arms and in the drill. They were drilled imder "Scott's 

There were ten companies in the regiment, the Salem company being 
D and the Livonia G. Joseph Lane \\a> elected colonel. In after years 
he was go\ernor of Oregon and L'nited States senator from that state. He 
was also candidate for vice-president on the ticket with John C. Brecken- 
ridge. William R. Hadden was elected lieutenant-colonel and James A. 
Cravens, major. David C. Shanks was promoted to the adjutancy of the 
regiment. The President appointed Colonel Lane to be brigadier-general, 
thus leaving the regiment without a colonel. .\n effort was made to elect 
one before the regiment left New Albany, but no one was selected and Col- 
<inel Hadden conmianded until the\' arrived at the seat of war. 

M^i 'll'li 





On July II, 1846, the right wing of the regiment was put aboard the 
boat "Uncle Sam," the left wing on the "Empire," five companies on each 
boat, which crowded things up considerably. They were five days getting 
to New Orleans. The regiment was landed six miles below the city and 
went into camp on Jackson's old battlefield. They waited there two days 
before shipping was provided to carry them to Brazos Santiago, at the 
mouth of the Rio Grande. While at New Orleans it rained continually and 
their only chance to lie down was to pile down cord wood and brush upon 
which their blankets were spread. On July i8, 1846, they boarded the 
transport "Governor Davis" and the trip to the Rio Grande took five days, 
and was a most disagreeable one, as the sea was rough, boats crowded and 
everybody sick. Arriving at Brazos, they were not very comfortably situ- 
ated, as the island was nothing but a barren stretch of sand and the water 
brackish. Worse than all, a constant gale filled the air with fine sand and 
made it impossible to get even a good breath. They stayed at Brazos island 
a week ; measles broke out and a number of the regiment died. While there, 
an election was held to select a colonel, Capt. William A. Bowles, of Orange 
county, and Capt. William Sanderson, of Floyd county, being the candi- 
dates. Bowles was successful, but not a few predicted that owing to his 
incompetency, the regiment would have trouble, which certainly came in 
after days, in a real humiliating manner, ft was not that the men under 
Colonel Bowles were not brave and heroic, as much so as any of Sparta's 
sons, but because of the want of sound judgment and prompt decision on 
the part of the regimental commander. Much time was spent drilling the 
troops,, notwithstanding the excessive heat.. 

On the night of August 31, four companies of a Georgia regiment had 
been ordered up the river and went aboard a corvette at anchor, in the river. 
They raised a riot among themselves, wherein some were killed and several 
tiirown overboard. Colonel Baker, of the Fourth Illinois Regiment, was 
sent with two companies to quell the disturbance. They went without cart- 
ridges, and were roughly handled by the rioters, whereupon the Indiana reg- 
iment was called out, with instructions to shoot to kill, if it was necessary, 
which ended the row. 

The regiment remained at Camp Belknap, having a comparatively easy 
time until about the ist of December, when orders were received to get 


ready to move into the interior of Mexico. On December 5, 184O, they 
struck camp and started for Camargo. The trip was made by water and 
wa's very tedious, as the transports were hea\'il\- loaded and the water was 
low. At Camargo a few days' stop was made for the purpose of having 
the baggage wagons brought up, and to break in the mule teams as they 
were as wild as could be. On the 19th of December, they were ordered to 
Monterey, a distance of one hundred and forty miles. The way was dry 
and dusty, which made marching very disagreeable. The\- were nine days 
in reaching Monterey, arriving there on December 27. There were moun- 
tains all about Monterey with fertile valleys between. General Worth had 
captured the city a short time previous and occupied the forts. They 
remained but one day at Walnut Springs, in the outskirts of the city, and 
then took up the line of march for Saltillo, about seventy miles distant. 
They were four days on this march and stopped at Camp Butler, seven 
miles from Saltillo, January i, 1847. There they recuperated and were put 
iji good fighting trim, and on January 12. they were ordered into Saltillo 
for garrison duty. There matters went along smoothly, e.xcept an occa- 
sional false alarm, or slight brushes along the picket lines. Upon one occa- 
sion Major Gaines and Captain Clay were taken pri. oners. 


On February 2, Gen. Zachary Taylor arrived at Saltillo from Mon- 
terey, with a considerable force and ga\e orders for an immediate advance 
to Aqua Neuva, twenty miles out. on the road to San Louis Potosi. The 
Mexicans lay in considerable force farther, on a wild, sandy plain lying 
between the two armies. The Second Indiana marched well to the front 
and on February 6, reached .\qua Nueva, where they remained in camp for 
nearly two weeks, when it was ascertained b\- scouts that General Santa 
Anna was collecting a large force aljout fort\- miles south. It was al>o 
ascertained that they meant to swoo]) down upon the "^'ankees" with a 
force of infantrw lancers. ca\-alry anil artiller\- niuubeiing fully twent\-h\e 
thousand men, while ( leneral Taxlor'^ whole force did uox (|uite reach six 
thou.sand, and the latter therefore deemed it advisable to fall back to a 
stronger position, .\ccordingly they took up a position a few miles back 
at a ranch called "Buena \'i^ta." where the i^round fav(5red a strong defenst 
against greatly superior number.-. General Taylor's command took theii 
stand on the evening of February 21. They had little provision in camp 


and no wood with whicli to cook what they had. Baggage wagons were 
sent back to bring up suppHes, while the troops, after eating up what they 
had carried with them, laid down, rolled up in their blankets, and slept as 
best they could. The baggage train was only partly loaded when they saw 
the Mexicans coming, and started at once for the American lines, setting 
fire to the supplies left behind them preventing them from falling into the 
hands of the Mexicans. The wagon train got back to camp about daylight 
on February 22, and reported the Mexicans in possession of their old camp. 
The train pickets also came in and reported the Mexicans advancing with 
a determination to capture General Taylor's army. By ten o'clock the 
American army was out in line of battle, awaiting the coming of Santa 
Anna's forces. Soon the Mexicans came in sight and they covered the 
whole valley, their arms gleaming and sparkling in the sun like silver. 

When within about a mile of the Americans the Mexicans halted and 
Santa Anna sent a flag of truce to General Taylor for a conference. The 
Mexican general demanded of General Taylor that he surrender his whole 
army and war material. In the message he notified General Taylor that 
he had over twenty thousand of the choicest troops of the Mexican army, 
besides a strong support of cavalry and artillery, against which it would be 
useless and foolish for him to contend, and that he made this overture "to 
save the effusion of blood;" that if General Taylor would surrender, he and 
his men should be well treated. The party bearing these tidings were told 
to go back and tell their chief to come on as soon as he liked, as the army of 
General Taylor had come there to fight, and that they coiila whip all the 
force Santa Anna could bring to bear against them. The wily Mexican 
general did not lead on his army to an attack at once, but undertook to 
weaken the American forces by strategy. He threw out a large body of 
men from his left, expecting General Taylor would send out a lorce to 
meet them, but General Taylor showed that he could not be tricked or 
induced to scatter his forces. 


About three o'clock in the afternoon a cannon was fired by the Mexi- 
cans as a signal that the battle was on. Santa Anna immediately sent a 
large force upon the mountain in front of the American left. The Indiana 
riflemen were sent to Oppose this move and to prevent the enemy from get- 
ting into the rear. Thus was commenced the grand battle that was to have 
its influence on the destinies of America. A remarkable coincidence of 


events happened then and there, it being a battle that meant so much to 
Americans, happening on the birthday of the immortal Washington. Sol- 
diers were exhorted to do their duty and remember that it was the birthday 
of the father of their comtry. As the riflemen advanced, the Second Indi- 
ana Regiment was ordered to the extreme left at the base of the mountain, 
f'iring immediately began and it was kept up till nightfall, very little exe- 
cution having been done on either side. -Vt dark all was silent and the sol- 
diers prepared themselves for their first night on the l^attletield : all anxiou? 
as to when and how the contest that had begun would end. At early dawn 
tlie Mexicans fired a cannon as a signal that the battle was to be renewed. 
They moved down upon the Americans in countless numbers, the whole val- 
ley being lined with glittering steel, with officers, mounted on panoplied 
steeds, riding over the plateau in every direction. They planted a large bat- 
tery at the base of the mountain, opposite the American left. (Jeneral Lane 
marched the Second Indiana Regiment, consisting of eight companies, as 
tjie two rifle companies had been detached, and joined the rifle brigade, to 
meet the onset of the Mexicans. He formed a line parallel to theirs and at 
right angles with their battery. 


A destructive fire was oi>ened upon the Indiana regiment both from 
the line in front of them and from the battery, which was returned with 
much vigor and with great destruction to the enemy. They stood in this 
position until there had been twenty-one rounds discharged, when Colonel 
Bowles gave the order to '"cease firing and retreat." The order was given 
the third time before a single man was willing to obey. At this moment 
Lieutenant Spicely (afterwards a brigadier-general in the L'nion army 
during the Civil War), understood that it was General Lane who had given 
the order to retreat and ordered his company to fall back. When this com- 
pany started, Captain Dennis started his company also, and then the rest of 
the regiment broke off by file, until all had abandoned their positions. About 
four thousand Mexicans then swooped down and helped to scatter the Sec- 
ond Regiment in e\ery direction. The Mexican lancers charged uj)on them 
as they were attempting to rally, but s<i close and so numerous were the 
Mexicans that they were forced to retreat again. 

Some of the officers tried to rally the men after they had crossed a 
ravine, while other ofticers ordered them to retreat to the ranch, still (Jthers 
ordering tju'iii to fall hack t,. Saltillo. Then there was coiifnM.iii c\'ima- 


where and no one knew what was best to do. The greater part of the regi- 
ment went to the ranch, which was the best, as it turned out, for some three 
thousand lancers had undertaken to capture the wagon train which Was 
corralled at the ranch and which was guarded by a part of the Kentucky and 
Arkansas cavalry. It was fortunate for that part of the army that the 
Second Indiana arrived at the ranch when it did, for every man now went 
to fighting on his own hook, without officers or commander and soon haid 
the Mexicans put to flight. ThcA' thus formed themselves into a body and 
returned to the battlefield. Colonel Bowles, with a number of his men, had 
fallen in with Jefif Davis's Mississippians and fought through with them, the 
battle raging furiously all day long. The American forces were driven back 
at times and again drove the enemy, in turn, until dark, when the firing 
ceased. Those who were not wounded, prepared themselves for rest o^i 
the battlefield as best they could, wondering how the contest would end on the 
morrow. It had been a terrible day. The Americans had met the flower 
of the Mexican army and held their ground. The well-mounted lancers 
had charged in serried ranks down upon the American ranks in grand style, 
but it was the charge to their death. It was in one of these charges that 
young Henry Clay fell. It was here, when lancers and infantry massed 
against Captain Bragg's battery, that the memorable order of General Tay- 
lor rang out: "A little more grape, Captain Bragg!" and the gallant captain 
poured in the missiles of death until the Mexican columns halted, reeled and 


The carnage was fearful in the ranks of the Mexicans on the 23rd. 
When the sun arose on the morning of the 24th, there were no Mexicans to 
be seen. During the night they had silently folded their tents and gone 
back into the country. They left dead upon the battlefield over two thous- 
and men. The American loss was also severe, amounting in killed, wounded 
and missing to seven hundred and forty-six. 

The troops were at once .set to work, gathering up the dead, who were 
buried as well as circumstances would permit, and everything was put in 
proper order as rapidly as possible. While the army was being reorgaoixed 
and put in fighting condition again, the officers were busy making out their 
reports of the battle. Colonel Bowles had quite a lengthy report to make to 
his suj>erior, General Lane. He stated that "his regiment had fled 'without 
orders, and that he could only rally forty men with which he joined the Mis- 


sissippi regiment." That his report was false in toto, every soldier who was 
under him was ready to testify, and after they returned home they invari- 
ably pronounced his report an unmitigated falsehood and an outrage upon 
the fair fame of his regiment and all Indian troops. A court of inquiry 
was ordered upon Colonel Bowles's conduct and the evidence showed that 
he did give the order to retreat, and that he abandoned his regiment, and 
also thait the men had rallied again without their officers and had fought well 
all day. It should not be forgotten that Indianians fired the first shot in 
that terrible battle ; that they had the first man wounded, the first man killed, 
the last man killed and that they fired the last gun at the close of the day 
The men under his command always asserted that had it not been tor Colo- 
nel Bowles's order to retreat, no troops would have left that battlefield with 
more honor, or upon whose arms a brighter lustre would have shown, than 
upoH the Second Indiana. 


On February 27, 1847, General Taylor moved his command back to 
Aqua Nueva, where they remained for two weeks, at the end of which time 
they went again to Buena Vista. There General Taylor took leave of his 
command and went to Monterey, leaving Gen. John E. Wool in command. 
The latter was a very rigid disciplinarian and was disliked by the men under 
him. On the loth of May, (ieneral Lane received orders from (ieneral Yay- 
lor to put his command in readiness to march to the Rio (xrande. They took 
up this line of march on Ma\ J4 and were five days reaching Montere}. 
After resting a 'ew days they started to Camargo and were six days in 
reaching that iwinl. The ^Mexicans had now been dri\ en out of the north- 
ern portion of their country, .\fter his defeat at Buena \ista. Santa Anna 
went to Mexico City io battle against (leneral .Scott's force;-, (leneral Tay- 
lor was instructed to return t<i the states with the men he had in his com- 
iiiand. The Second Indiana arriwd at the UKHith of the Rici Crande on 
June 13. The next dav the\ inarched to lirazo- and took shipping for New 
(Orleans, which jjoun was reached on June 1 X. They had to stay at New 
Orleans one week before tlu-y were discharged on June _\^. i<'*47. 

In the battle of Buena X'ista the conipaiiy lost four men killed. Lieut 
Thomas C. Parr. .Michael Lee. jaines Slayden and W illiam Richardson. 
Seven were wounded, nanuly- Andrew II Uatts. J.iines Webb, Gus Jones, 
D \V. C. Thomas. Alexander M Woods llciiiv I logaii. Luke B. Coggswell 


and George Naugle. The remains of Lieutenant Parr were brought home, 
but Lee, Slayden and Richardson were given graves on Mexican soil. 

On arriving at New Albany, the regiment was tendered a grand recep- 
tion. People flocked with their wagons and teams to that city from Salem 
to bring them home, where they were extended a grand ovation. They 
brought with them the remains of Lieutenant Parr, and before arriving in 
.Salem, a meeting was held and a committee was appointed to prepare for 
the funeral. Arrangements were made for the exercises to be held at the 
court house, conducted by Rev. William Shanks, but when the time arrived, 
so great was the crowd that attended the funeral that ten court rooms would 
not have more than given them accommodations, so the assembly adjourned 
to a grove where all could witness the ceremonies. The remains were borne 
liy comrades, to Crown Hill cemetery, where a volley of rhusketry was fired 
over the grave of the dead soldier. A few days later a barbecue was given 
in honor of the soldier boys. An immense procession was formed in the 
IHiblic square, headed by a band and the soldiers, who marched in rank out 
on the Orleans road about a mile where, in the forks of the road, fatted 
calves and pigs browned and sputtered over a roaring furnace. Rev. Will- 
iam Shanks delivered the welcome address, to which several members of the 
company replied. It was an occasion remembered and talked of for more 
than half a century. L^pon this occasion the following lines were read, 
penned by John G. Dunn, assistant surgeon of the United States, who 
attended upon the wounded Indiana soldiers at Buena Vista. 


Wiike. Bugle, wiike! for the foe is advanoiug; 

The lancers' red pennon flaunts fiercely afar; 
Like a light from the tomb the dread pageant comes glancing,^ 

Each trooper's soul panting with vengeance and war. 

Wake. Bugle, wake! see the dark lines are towering 

Adown the white vale like a vision of death ! 
O'er hilltop and mountain the columns come pouring. 

Dark streams of the Spartan-band .stationed beneath. 

Wake, Bugle, wake Sierra Madre's grey slumber! 

Let echo leap out from her ages of sleep: 
Each cave shall lament to the heavens in thunder. 

And War o'er the plateau his festival keep. 

Wake, Bugle, wake ! chill the heart of the c<oward. 

With his chattering teeth and his fear-frozen blood: 
Let him skulk in the rear, while the valiant press forward 

With iron souls stayed like a rook In the flood. 


Sublime was the rainbow, which arching afar, 

Cheered the brave to the fight, on that perilous morn. 

Nor fled with the evening, but hung o'er the strife. 
Bringing glory to us and a calm to the storm. 

All hail, Indiana ! young 'hild of the West ; 

Thy unerring ritles rang first in the fight : 
Fierce echo on echo hied shrilly and fast. 

When one to a thousand they warred on the lieight. 

All hail, Indiana ! how hotly she battled. 

O'er the bloody plateau, when no succor was near ; 
Till o'erpowered by numbers, her columns retired. 

And her wounded sons fell by the pitiless spear. 

O'Brien's loud thunders a-jje silent and hushed. 

Like tempest that's swept o'er a desolate plain. 
Till the words of retreat from a leader's lips gushed; 

Let pity, alas ! throw a veil o'er his name. 

On, on, Illinolsans! Kentucky, press forward! 

They murder the wounded, they plunder the dead ; 
Oil, on, to their aid, ere your brethren perish, 

.■Vnd the foemen exult where the valiant have bled ! 

Ah, vainly ye form in the ravine so deep! 

Ah! vainly your boldest lie ^tark in their gore! 
Brave Clay and McKee on the field lie asleep. 

And Hardin's .^stern accents shall cheer you no more. 

Dark colunni on column, still fierce they crowd. 

The lancer's dead visage shines horrid and grim ; 
His .soul is exulting in murder and bloodshed. 

And his spear in the gore of the helpless is dim ! 

Ah, .still shall it drip. Illinois, in thy gore! 

Ah, still the best blood of Kentucky shall flow. 
As down the wild ravine still fighting ye pour. 

To form by the cannon wliiih thunder below! 

The fierce shrapnel bombs — now whistles the grape. 
Like a voice from the sepulcher's gloom ; 

Shout, Washington — shout ! for the dark columns gape, 
Reeling off throngli the battie'.s red fume. 

Tliey hide in the gulch ; they flee from the fray. 
Well foiled in their mission of blood; 

And their dead and their dyinc nil helplessly lay. 
Convulsed in tlieir own purple blood. 


But, harkeii ! deeii thiuuler afar in the rear, 

Conies rumblins through ravine and vale; 
The crumbling crags tremble, like giants in fear. 

And each gorge is alive with the wail. 

The war-dogs of Webster have wakened the wrath, 

Their sulphur breath sweeps o"er the plain; 
AVhole columns are wrecked in their terrible path. 

And the plateau is reeking with slain. 

Proud Minon had fled with his murderous horde: 

The best of his chosen lie stark: 
And robber on robber lie mangled and torn. 

With their features horrid and dark. 

On, Tliird Indiana, On! On, to the field; 

I^t thy fresli ranks do wonders today. 
Far down from the mountains a forest of steel 

Conies gleaming in horrid array. 

The sons of the Second still charge o'er the plain; 

She was first in the battle at morn; 
And still where 'tis hottest, doth mingle her slain. 

Tho' her warriors are weary and worn. 

On, on, by yon rainbow! On, on, by the stars 

That adorn the flag that you love; 
"ns the spirit which shielded our George in the wars. 

Now arching the heavens above. 

Lancers .-md r'ootnien, in terror arrayed. 

Their liattle song chanting, advance: 
And the air now resounds with the trumpet's bold blast. 

And there's a gleam of the terrible lance. 

Steady, boys, steady ! they come like a wave. 

Far borne on the hurricane's breath ; 
Be firm as yon mountain; be still as the grave. 

And hushed every weapon of death. 

Still nearer! Still nearer! Yet told ye awhile! 

K.-K'h poises his lance o'er his head; 
Fire! Fire! Let them have it! Bold leader and file, 

Gas]! low with the wounded and dead. 

With his Siiddle all empty, the charger flees past. 

And his foot-tangled rider still drags 
O'er ravine and cactus with speed of the blast, 

Till the fear in his fleet spirit flags. 


How they flee to the mountain in pituio and feiir. 

The uiajnie<l on his charger still reeling; 
And the horseless, reliuquishiug scopette and spear. 

In affright up the hillside is stealing. 

On Mississippi ! Let yoDr rifles, so dread. 

Open death on the far-fleeing foe: 
Till away from your slaughter their columns have fled, 

.\nd their p.nthway is peopled with woe. 

Mississippi ! Indiana ! twin siste-rs aneld — 

How proudly, how bravely ye stood^ 
Wben thrice your small number, in pageant of steel. 

Oame down to the banquet of Wood. 

Twin sisters In war ; twin sisters In glory '. 

Together ye battled, together ye bled ; 
And together shall live thro' the mazes of .slory. 

When tUe last of your heroes shall sleep with the dead. 

Yet again to the onset I Once again to the plain : 

Illinois and Kentucky still bleeding. 
Dispute the re<l ravine and pave with their slain. 

The vale where their lines are receding. 

O'er hillock aii.i vale — o'er cactus and thorn. 

The Yankees levengefully speed. 
On the pinions of wrath— like a pestilence borne. 

To the scene where the countrymen t)lce<l. 

On. on. to the front — strike their coliunns with death ! 

I,et the war-fij-e blaze fearful and fiiist : 
Let the battle-clang howl through the sulphurous wrath, 

For the victoiy is ours at the last. 

They yield the re<l jilateau. by inches retiring; 

Too fearful to st.ind — too sulleu to flee. 
Till the shadows of night bring a calm to the firing, 

And victory dwells with the stars of the free. 

Here's a 

tear foi 

the dead — swee 

be their 


Till th 

^v burst 

from the gloom 

of the g 


In eterni 

ty blazi 

ig. like st.-irs in 

the deep. 


light s] 

re.ids its pon.|. 

Ver the \ 


Here's a bumpe4' for Sherman— another for I 
Their lightnings fell Iiot on the foe; 

WTilte Washrngtoii .scattered death at the pas 
And Webster dealt them woe. 


Kere's a star for Kentucky, proud name iu the flg^t ! 

And let not- her fair. daughters sigh 
O'er her dead, for her star shall eVer gleam bright, 

Till its fellows itre wi-ecked ii» the sky. 

Here's a star, Illinois, for thy chivalry stern — 

Here's a star, too, Arkansas, foi: thee! 
And one, Mississippi, which proudly shall burn 

Where'er floats the flag of the free. 

Here's a star, Indiana, young child of the war ! 

Tho' others eternal may shine. 
Like the glorious sheen of the morning star. 

For none shall blaze brighter than thine. 


There were some very interesting incidents connected with the Mexi- 
can campaign. The Salem company called themselves the "Washingt6n 
Rifles." As it was being organized the citizens raised money and purchased 
cloth for their uniforms, as the government then paid money in lieu of 
clothing. The ladies of the town and country made .up the uniforms, each 
soldier being presented with a pair of pants, a coat and a cap. They could 
not obtain clothing in Mexico, so the one suit had to do them till they 
returned to New Orleans, a year later and they were a ragged-looking set 
when they arrived on American soil. 

When the company started front Salem, tne people fomied in single 
file around, tne square to bid thern adieu. The. Salem brass band accom- 
panied them to New Albany and. enlivened the way with music, song and 
laughter. While in camp at New Albany the boys were absent about half 
their time, having a good time. They had a man named James Hammersly,,a 
fine looking six-footer, who was active and could run like a "quarter horse." 
They backed him against all comers, and he always came out ahead. They 
took him to Louisville, where, for a large purse, he ran against the city 
champion, beating him badly. As soon as they got to Mexico this champion 
became homesick, and cried until he was discharged. 

All sorts of gamblers followed the soldiers, and some of the boys would 
take a hand at a chance game occasionally. In the. Third Indiana, was a 
noted character, who once lived in Salem, named "Buck" McKinney, a des- 
perate character. Upon one occasion he went over 'among the Georgians 
and won a lot of money. They got into a row and McKinney slashed one 
of the Georgians with a knife, almost severing his shoulder blade from his 


body. McKinney fled, but wa.s pursued by the (Georgians. Nearing the 
camp, he called for Colonel Lane, who came to his rescue and saved his life. 
At Matampras they found an old resident of Salem, Robert Kingsbury, son 
of John Kingsbury, a not-'d lawyer. Robert had gone to Mexico, married 
a wealthy native and had settled down. He afterwards became a noted 
man of Brownsville, Texas. On the 24th of June. 1847, the Masons in the 
regiment went out on a mountain and opened a Ifxlge in due and ancient 
form, the lodge being presided o\er b\- ficneral Curtis, later of the Civil 
War fame. 

The general government was \ery tardy in granting pensions to Mexi- 
can soldiers, though they deserved the same, if ever a faithful soldiery did; 
for they went to war, furnishing their own outfit, and only got seven dollars 
a month. They waged war in a foreign country, amid its barren and 
desolate plains ; were most of the time on short rations : and added as much 
territory to the United States as was then possessed east of the Mississippi 
— land rich beyond estimation in fertile soil and precious metals. 

At the outbreak of the Civil War th ; people of Washington county 
were very much divided in opinion concerning the right of the South to 
withdraw from the Union, as well as the best means to be adopted in pre- 
serving the Union. All were desirous of seeing the unity of the country 
preserved, but there were many opinions about the best methods to be 
adopted to hold the states together. In the main the Democratic party 
favored the compromise to war, while the Republicans stood for force, and 
would listen to no terms of arbitration. The election of Lincoln, in the fall 
of i860, was regarded by the South as a just cause for tiie dissolution of the 
Union, and on the 20th of December, i8<io. South Carolina took the initial 
step to secede from the Union of States. 

It was a step of fearful importance. The action was contagious and 
the whole country was prompt in taking sides one way or the other. At 
this time there were two papers published in Salem, the Times (Republican) 
and the Democrat, the former edited by Trueblood and Huston, the latter 
by Horace Heflfren. On January 3, 1861, the Ti)ncs said editorially: "We 
are clearly of the opinion that a judicious firmness on the part of the chief 
executive (Buchanan) at the outbreak of this disunion movement at the 
South would have done more toward quelling it than all the compromises, 
concessions or patriotic appeals that have l>een or can be made by our wisest 


Statesmen. He gave the South an inch and they have taken a span. They 
have not been in the least checked in their traitorous movements, but have 
gained strength from the beginning. They see clearly that they are likely 
to meet with no resistance from the federal power, and they are doubly bold 
in executing the damning plan of disunion. It would be useless for us to 
attempt to express our opinion in regard to the cowardly course of the Presi- 
dent. We fail to find words severe enough in the Enghsh language, and 
therefore cannot do the subject justice. Poor old wretch — what can he 
promise himself while he is permitted to live on earth, and when he knows 
in a few years at most he must go down to the grave unwept, unhonored 
and unsung?" The Democrat in its next issue said: "When Abe Lincoln 
and his abolition hordes, or Kepublican allies, undertake to compel our south- 
ern brethren to surrender their rights and lilierties, to compel them by fire 
and sword at the cannon's mouth and bayonet's point, to give up their rights, 
then we become a private in the sovuhern army, and do by them as Lafayette 
did by our fathers." 

The above quotations show the two extreme views of the political lead- 
ers — the moulders of public opinion in the county at that time. The masses 
of the people were probably less extreme in their views, but none hesitated 
to give their views upon the momentous situation of afifairs. Public meetings 
and speakings were held in different parts of the county, called for the pur- 
pose of discussing ways and means of preserving the Union, and if possible 
avoid a bloody civil war. 


The first meeting of this kind was held at the court house in Salem, 
January lo, 1861, the principal speakers being R. Boling, of Kentucky; J. M. 
Brown, of New Albany, and C. L. Dunham, each of whom were willing to 
resort to extreme measures to preserve the Union of States. Later on simi- 
lar meetings were held all over the county, the principal speakers being Hon. 
James A. Cravens, C. L. Dunham, John I. Morrison, S. E. Barr and A. Hub- 
bard. At a public meeting in Salem on February 16 the following, among 
other resolutions, were adopted : 

"Resolved, That in view of the geographical position of the state of 
Indiana in the United States of America, her commercial, agricultural, 
mechanical and manufacturing interests being, as in our judgment we con- 
ceive them to be, interwoven and fostered chiefly by the South and 
southern institutions, that a separation therefrom would be fatal to the pros- 


perity, glory and wealth of our beloved state. And that while we deprecate 
and deplore a separation of our glorious Union and believe it to be our duty 
as well as our interest to do all that can be done to avert so fearful a calam- 
ity; yet if separation must and will come the line of division must run 
north of us. 

"Resolved, That we look with fear and horror upon any attempt either 
of the state or federal government to compel us to take up arms against 
our southern brethren, and while we regret to see this government crumbling 
away and its foundations broken up, yet we prefer that peaceable dissolution 
should take place rather than coercion, which is but another name for civil 
war; and when the time comes, if come it must, and we are compelled to 
choose between marching under the banner of coercion and the banner of a 
people fighting to preserve and retain their equal rights and liberties, we 
should be wanting in patriotism and oblivious to the example of the heroes 
and patriotic sires of the Revolution should we do else than shoulder our 
arms and follow that flag upon whose ample folds is inscribed 'Liberty and 
Equal Rights to All Against Any and All Opposers, Come From Where 
They May.' " 

Minority reports were read at this meeting favoring war rather than 
dissolution, but their adoption was rejected. Excitement was intense. Noth- 
ing was discussed but the possibilities of war and the final outcome of a 
clash of arms which then seemed inevitable. 

There was an ultra element in the county that found fault with Mr. Lin- 
coln's administration because it was not more pronounced in its plans and 
moves against the seceding states, believing in giving them a crushing and 
effective blow as speedily as possible. They looked upon Mr. Lincoln's hesi- 
tancy as a practical acknowledgment that no way could be seen under the 
constitution of a settlement of existing differences. They even charged the 
administration with being weak, vacillating and lacking in courage which 
usually accompanies con\iction. 


This \iew was taken for a time by the Salciii Times, but after the fall 
of h'ort Sumpter. when gigantic prejiarations were begun in earnest, it was 
soon dispelled and a heavy su]>port was extended the administration without 
criticism. It said editorially: "The heart of every true lo\er of the Union 
is fired into a blaze of indignation at the attack on Fort Sumpter and the 
insults off'ered to the star-spangled haiintT. the pride of the I'nitcd .States. 


and her true-lieaited sons and daughters. Shall this glorious Union be 
destroyed, broken up, wiped out, by rebels who are rallying under a rattle- 
snake flag, is a question that rises in the mind of every patriot. Shall, the 
American flag be insulted and trailed in the dust? Will Union men look 
quietly on and see the capitol fall into the hands of traitors? Never! 
Never! The war excitement among our citizens has put a check to all kinds 
of business. The shrill notes of the fife, the reverberating sound of the 
drum and the steady measured tread of the marching soldiers are the order 
of the day and part of the night. Crowds of men assemble upon the side- 
walks, and but one subject engages their attention, and that is war, and we 
rejoice to say that the Union sentiment grows stronger every day. We are 
also glad to see so many of our citizens interested in the formation of a 
home guard. This is right, for while our friends and relatives are gone to> 
fight for our country, our people and property mvist be protected at home."" 


About this same date the Salon Dcniocraf came out with the following- 
editorial : 

"We give up as much room as we can to the war news of the day. The 
battle has begun and God knows when it will end. War, with its grim- 
visaged front, and all its attendant horrors, is upon us. The Abolition party 
of the land is responsible for; the calamity. They are- the ones on whose 
heads should be visited the fierce furies of popular indignation. .Abraham 
Lincoln has done the deed that all good men should regret. He has laid his 
impious hand uix)n the best government man was ever blessed with. By 
his touch the Union crumbles to pieces. By his orders civil war is inaugu- 
rated, brother made to fight brother; and he is but the embodiment of the 
party he leads. When such men as Seward and Chase, Wade and Giddings 
and Greeley control the administration, what can we expect? Lincoln, to all 
appearances an imbecile, old ignoramus, is but an instrument in the hands of 
l)ad men to destroy the Union. Everything he touches withers and crumbles 
away like the sensitive plant from the touch of mortal. Yet we have been 
tolcl In these Republicans that there was no danger. The second Washing- 
ton wuuld make all right, and he told us nobody was hurt. Commerce is 
^ta^;natc(l. industry is paralyzed! in short, everything is prostrated, and 
nohdd) is hurt. .\ c^reat sage is this Lincoln! Now he dips his hand 
in the blood of his countrymen and calls for 75,000 .A.bolition cohorts to- 
licl]) him carry dexastation and carnage among our southern brethren; and 


Governor Morton, the coward at heart, aids and abets him. Indiana is 
called upon for six regiments of volunteers, amounting to about 6,000 troops, 
to go south and fight the men whose ancestors came to the wilds of Indiana 
and protected us from t'-'e tomahawk and scalping knife. We are asked to 
forget Joe Davis and his noble men, whose bones lie sleeping at Tippecanoe, 
where they gave up their lives to save our people. We are asked to fight 
the friends, relatives and neighbors of Washington, Henry, Jackson and 
Jefferson. We are bid by Abolition leaders to plunge the bayonet to the 
heart of our best- friend and make carnage and distress on every hand and 
side. Men of Washington county, will you do it? Will you imbrue your 
hands in the blood of your friends? Will you wage war upon your kins- 
men? No, you never will. Your hearts beat responsive to the 'rights of 
the South,' and of her heroic sons. You cannot be base enough to do so 
horrid and damnable an act, you could not degrade yoursehes l)y so 
ungrateful a course; and if you could, you would be deserving the scorn and 
contempt of the world and should be held up as worse than Judas Iscariot. 
As for ourselves, we say openly and boldly, come life or death, come weal 
or woe, we never will raise our hands or pay one farthing to aid in the 
ungodly act of waging a war upon the southern people, who demand their 
rights and nothing more. May our arm be palsied before we even attempt 
the act. We go a step further, and say we do not desire trouble in Indiana, 
and that we believe none except hot-headed fools do, but We never want to 
see men mustering in old Washington to fight our friends : for we have no 
doubt serious trouble would be the consequence." 

This diatribe, and many others like utito it, emanated from a pen that 
was afterwards laid aside to take up the sword in defense of the Union 


The fall of Fort Sumpter occasioned great excitement all over the whole 
country, and Washington county was soon in a turmoil. In response to 
Governor Morton's call for 6,000 volunteers a full company was organized 
for the service within a week. S. D. Sales, H. N. Atkinson, A. C. True- 
blood and others were active in raising these men. But a dispatch from 
Adjutant General Wallace stated that the state quota was full and that the 
company could not then be received, but should be kept in readiness for the 
first opening. 

On May 9, 1861, a dispatch was received from Indianapolis ordering 
the company to proceed to the state capital at once, and accordingly prep- 


arations were made to leave the next day. It seemed that the whole county 
turned out to see the boys off, and Salem was excited as it had never baen 
before. The company was escorted to the depot by the Salem Home Guards 
and the Silver Grays, two recently organized companies of militia. At the 
station the company was lined up in rank and was addressed by Messrs. 
May, Martin, Dunham and Heffren, in patriotic and eloquent speeches of 
good advice and affectionate farewell. Captain Sayle« replied on behalf of 
the company. The occasion was sorrowful and impressive, and among the 
thousands present there were few dry eyes, as friends and relatives bade 
goodby and Godspeed to the dear ones they never expected to see again. Th€ 
only similar scene was that of fifteen years before, when the soldier boys 
were off for Mexico. 

At last the train came and the boys left amid the tears and clinging 
farewells of loved ones. They remained in camp at Indianapolis, doing 
guard duty and drilling until June 19, when they were mustered into the 
United States service for three years as Company G of the Thirteenth 
Regiment, Indiana Volunteer Infantry, with the following officers : Stephen 
D. Sayles, captain: Horace N. Atkinson, first lieutenant; E. M. Butler, sec- 
ond lieutenant. 

This regiment was among the very first to enter the United States 
service for three years, or during the war. J. C. Sullivan was its first colonel. 
On the 4th of July, 1861, the regiment left Indianapolis and joined General 
McClelland's forces near Rich Mountain, Virginia, in July 10. The follow- 
ing day it was in the battle of Rich Mountain, Josing 8 killed and 9 wounded. 
On July [3 it was removed to Beverly, thence to Cheat Mountain Pass, 
where it was engaged in several skirmishes with the forces of General Lee. 
It was at Greenl)rier on October 3, and December 13 fought at AHeg^any 
under General Milroy. 

The first winter out was spent at Green Spring Run, when in March, 
1862, it moved to Winchester. At the battle of Winchester Heights on 
March 22, it lost 6 killed and 33 wounded. In May, R. S. Foster became 
colonel. At Somerville on May 7, the regiment lost 4 wounded and 24 
jirisoners. It was then successively at Port Republic, Alexandria, on the 
James River, and Fortress Monroe, making a march of over 400 miles ; los- 
ing 2 killed, 19 wounded and 7 prisoners. In June, 1863, C. J. Dobbs 
became colonel. In 1864 the regiment veteranized and was than in en(gage- 
ments at Folly Island, Morris Island, Fort Wagner, Waltijal Junction, Ches- 
ter Station and Foster's Farm; losing in all about 200 men. 


The regiment joined the Army of Potomac on June i. and fouglit at 
Cold Harbor, and took active part in many important nio\-ements. It fought 
at Strawberry Plains, Chapin's Bluff, Fort Gilmore and at Richmond. It 
was engaged in the assa lit on Fort Foster and helped capture Fort Ander- 
son. September 5. 1865, it was mustered out and sent home, reaching Indian- 
apolis on September 15, with 29 officers and 550 enlisted men. 

Captain Sayles was the first man in Washington county to head the list 
of volunteers in his country's cause. By reason of disal)ility he was mustered 
out of the service, February 22. 1863, but shortly thereafter again went to 
the front as lieutenant-colonel of the CJne Hundred and Seventeenth Regi- 
ment, and was in command of the regiment until his final discharge in 1864. 
He was twice wounded, once at Malvern Hills, and again at Winchester. 


With the departure of the first company to enter the war, it was plain 
to l>e seen that the conflict was likely to continue much longer than at first 
expected, and with the second call for volunteers mass meetings were held 
in all parts of the county to form new companies of militia. On Saturday, 
May 18, John I. Morrison and oihers spoke at South Boston, where a full 
company was raised, with Jasper N. Rodman captain, and Horace Gra}-, 
first lieutenant. At a meeting at Li\'onia, May 25, several speeches were 
made, and it was "Resohed, That we approve of the vigorous but cautious 
steps taken as a last resort by the government and General Scott to check and 
put down the treasonable rebellion and re-establish its rightful claims, author- 
ity and supremacy over the places and property belonging to the United 
States and its legal jurisdiction within the seceded states." 

June I, at a large meeting at Kossuth. Monroe township, a combined 
pole of hickory and poplar was erected, and on the flag run up in large letters 
was the word "Union." The parties had united meetings at Flower's Gap, 
Claysville and Kansas school house, Howard township, where Jonah Green 
organized a company. Capt. F. W. Shanks organized a company in Pierce 
township. Captain \"oyles also had a company at Martinsburg. 


Aloout the middle of July, i8()i, D. C. Tho s recruited a companv for 
the war. The officers were Capt. Dewitt C. Thomas and Lieutenants James 
T. Howell and T. F. Morrison, (^n luK' 2y. hundreds of citizens assembled 


at the depot to see them off. There was quite a turn out of militia, with 
martial bands playing and fiags flying to enliven the occasion. At Indian- 
apolis they were made Company G of the Eighteenth Regiment, Indiana 
Volunteer Infantr}-, Captain Thomas was advanced to the office of major. 
John ^V. Jones was selected captain in Thomas's place. 

The company was mustered in on August i6, 1861. The Eighteenth 
Regiment saw a great deal of hard service. It was first commanded by Col. 
Thomas Pattison. The day after it was mustered in it was moved to St. 
Louis, and at once participated in General Fremont's movement on Spring- 
field and Otterville. It was in the battle of Pea Ridge and Leetown. After 
the fight at Elkhom Tavern it marched to Sulphur Springs, Missouri, where 
it remained on duty during the winter of 1862-3. The following spring the 
regiment joined Grant's army, participating in the movement on Grand Gulf, 
the fight at Port Gibson, Champion's Hill and Black River Bridge. During 
the siege of Vicksburg it was actively engaged in numerous assaults on the 
enemies' works till they were captured. It then saw service in Texas, for 
se\eral months. 

January i, 1864, the regiment veteranized and returned home on fur- 
lough. It took the field again in July, joining General Butler's forces in 
Virginia. It joined General Sheridan on August 19. September 10 it fought 
at Opequon, losing 54 killed and wounded; September 22, lost 7 men in the 
pursuit of General Early; October 19, lost 51 killed and wounded and 35 
l)risoners at Cedar Creek. In January, 1865, the regiment was stationed at 
Savannah and Augusta, till the war closed, and was mustered out, August 
28, and sent home, arriving at Indianapolis on September 17. 


Early in August, 1861, twenty men left Gibson township to join Com- 
pany H, of the Twenty-second Regiment, Indiana Volunteer Infantry, re- 
cruiting at Lexington, Scott county. .Vbout the middle of August the third 
company for the war was raised, the officers being Capt. John B. Glover, 
A\ ith Lieuts. Stephen C. Atkinson and James H. Low. They left on August 
24, and joined the Thirty-eighth Regiment, Indiana Volunteer Infantry, 
organized at Camp Noble, New Albany. They became Company P, and 
were mustered in, September 18. 1861. As usual a very large crowd were 
at the railroad station when the company took its departure, John I. Morrison 
delivering the farewell address, a speech very impressive, eloquent and 


This regirtient Was stationed at Elizabethtown, Kentucky, September 21, 
in which vicinity the winter of 1861-2 was passed. In February it moved 
with BueTl's army against Bowling Green and Nashville. It was located for 
a time at Franklin, Colrmbia and other points, moving several times against 
Morgan's cavalry. It pazticipated in the campaign against Bragg in Ken- 
tucky, fighting gallantly at Perry ville, losing 27 killed, 123 wounded and 7 
prisoners. It was next placed in the Fourteenth Army Corps and for a time 
was stationed at Nashville and Murfreestoro. On December 31, 1862, and 
the 1st and 2nd of January, 1863, it took part in the galling battle of Stone's 
River, losing 14 killed and 86 wounded. It then moved towards Chatta- 
nooga and at Hoover's Gap lost i killed and 15 wounded. On the 19th and 
20th of September, 1863. it was desperately engaged at bloody Chickamauga; 
losing 9 kflled, 59 wounded and 42 missing. Later it was in the battles of 
Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge. 

The winter was passed at and near Chattanooga. The regiment was 
veteranized, and allowed to return to Indianapolis on furlough, where they 
arrived on January 9, 1864, with 360 men, and officers. Late in February it 
took the field at Chattanooga, and was in the Atlanta campaign, participating 
in all the engagements on that famous march; losing a total of 103 men, 
killed, wounded and missing. The regiment was on Sherman's "March to 
the sea," thence to Richmond and on to Washington. It reached Indian- 
apolis on July 18 with about 600 men, where the veterans were given a public 
reception by Governor Morton and discharged. 


In the eariy part of Septewiber, 1861, W. L. McKnight issued a call 
for volunteers to form a company of cavalr}'. During September, October 
and Novemfefer, various fragments of volimteers through the county were 
finally united, and selected as otficers : H. N. Atkisson, captain; with 
Joseph L. Marsh and Delos Heffren, lieutenant. Later on Atkisson was 
promoted to lieutenant-colonel of the Fifteenth Regiment, to which this com- 
pany, known as C, was assigned. Dr. W. C. Flack, of Salem, was regimental 
surgeon. Cyi-us L. Dunham was chosen colonel and Horace Heffren served 
as lieutenant-colonel for about nine months, in 1861-2. 

The Fiftieth Regiment, Indiana Volunteer Infantry, was raised at 
Seym^our and mustered into service late in December, 1861. Its first duty 
was to serve as guard for the Louisville & Nashville railroad. August 20, 
1862, Captain Atkinson, with twenty men in a stockade near Edgefield June- 


tion, was attacked by i,ooo men under John Morgan, and repulsed them 
three successive times in three hours' sharp fighting, killing 8 and wounding 
1 8 of Morgan's men. In September the regiment moved to Munfordville, 
where it was overpowered and captured. The. men wer* paroled and. returned 
to Indiana, and on November i were exchanged and sent back to Tennessee. 
On December 31, the regiment fought all day at Parker's Cross Roads, 
capturing 500 prisoners and seven pieces of artillery. In the spring of 1863 
it was sent to Memphis and thence to Little Rock, where it engaged the 
enemy. In January, 1865, it moved down to Mobile and participated in its 
capture. It was mustered out at Montgomery, Alabama, September 10, 1865. 


During the winter of 1862-3 very few men left the county for the war. 
Everyone anxious watched and waited. Aid societies were organized in 
almost every neighborhood and supplies were collected and forwarded to 
hospitals where they were most needed. About the ist of June, 1862, J. H. 
Red field and others again began to "beat up" for volunteers. Under the call 
of July 2, 1862, for 300,000 men, the county, fearful of a draft, began to 
stir herself. The two county papers came out vigorously for volunteers. By 
the 1 6th of July a full company was made up for the reorganized Sixteenth 
Regiment. It became Company B, with James H. Redfield. captain, and 
Cyrus Rayhill and John N. Thompson, lieutenants. 

The Sixteenth Regiment, Indiana Volunteer Infantry, was mustered in, 
August 19, 1862, with Colonel Lucas in command, and on the same day left 
for Kentucky to assist in repelling Kirby Smith. On August 30, it was in the 
battle of Richmond, Kentucky, losing the appalling number of 200 men 
killed and wounded and 600 prisoners. The prisoners were paroled and sent 
to Indianapolis, but, were exchanged on November i. On November 20, the 
regiment moved to Cairo, thence down the river in the Vicksburg campaign. 

On the way it made a forced march of sixty-five miles in thirty-six 
hours, cutting the Texas & Shreeveport railroad at Dallas, swimming two 
bayous, destroying ten miles of railroad and burning one million dollars" 
worth of rebel cotton. In the fight at Arkansas Post it lost "jj men, killed 
and wounded, and was the first to plant its colors on the fort. After engag- 
ing in various skirmishes, it entered the trenches before Vicksburg on May 
19. During the siege it lost 60 men, killed and wounded. 

From Vicksburg, the regiment was moved on down to New Orleans. 
.Vftt^r being refitted and remounted, it moved with General Banks up Red 


river, participating in sixteen engagements. It was transferred to the Thir- 
teenth Indiana Cavalry, early in 1865, and reached Indianapolis on July 10. 
when it was discharged. Captain Redfield was promoted until he was colonel 
of the legiment. 


Washington county was dropping tehind in furnishing its quota of 
volunteers in the fall of 1862, so an enormous war meeting was planned to 
be held at the old fair grounds, a mile east of Salem, on the Canton road. 
At least five thousand people were present. James A. Cravens delivered a 
lengthy speech, before the basket dinner was served, advocating a vigorous 
prosecution of the war. After dinner Col. Roger Martin took the stand, and 
for more than an hour exhorted all able-bodied patriots to rally to their 
country's standard. A subscription of one hundred and eighteen dollars and 
fifty cents was raised for soldiers' families. At this meeting and following 
it the enlistment of men was pushed forward under hard work and threats of 

A company of 107 men was raised in the county under Ca])t. J. i\. Koa- 
man, and being the first in camp, early in August, for the Sixty-sixth Regi- 
ment, won the $400 prize as the first company to report. The lieutenants of 
this company were Samuel P. Reid and William H. Peters. It became Com- 
pany B, About the same time another company was raised at Saltillo and 
became Company A, of the Sixty-sixth Regiment. The officers were: John 
F. Baird, captain; Charles H. Cornwell, first lieutenant; Archil>ald Baxter, 
second lieutenant. Company F, of the Sixty-sixth regiment was" also raised 
in Washington county, mostly from around Little York, and officered as fol- 
lows : Alfred Morris, captain; Chester P. Davis, first lieutenant, and George 
R. Davis, second lieutenant. Company H, of the same regiment, was also 
almost wholly from Fredericksburg and vicinity, with the following officers : 
James D. McPheeters, captain; William N. Bogle and David Simson, lieuten- 
ants. Company K, of this regiment, contained about fifteen men from this 
county; there being in the Si.xty-sixth Regiment over four full companies of 
troops from this county. Dr. D. \\'. \'o\'les and Dr. J. R. Barr were sur- 
geons to the regiment, and Dr. S. F. ^Martin, assistant surgeon. Roger 
Martin went out as lieutenant-colonel, and in March, 1864, was made 

The Sixt\--sixth Regiment, Indiana \'oluntecr Infantry, rendez\(nised 
at New .\lban\-. It was sent at once to Richmond, Kentucky, where, on the 
30th of .Vugust, it participated in the battle, losing the greater portion of the 


command as prisoners. The paroled men were sent to Indianapolis. The 
entire regiment was gotten together on November i8, and an exchange was 
duly made, when it was sent to Corinth. It wintered at Pulaski. Tennessee, 
and in the spring of 1864, participated in the Atlanta campaign; fighting at 
Resaca, Lay"s Ferry, Rome Cross Roads, Dallas, Kenasaw, before Atlanta 
and Jonesboro. In December the regiment marched across Georgia to 
Savannah. It then moved through the Carolinas, and after Johnson's sur- 
render reached Washington city, May 24. 1865. It was mustered out on 
July 17, 1865, at Louis\'ille. 


On the 1 6th of August, i80j. james P. Banta commenced enrolling 
names for a cavalry company. The day previous some thirty-five men had 
gone to New Albany to enlist in the Sixty-sixth Regiment, but it had just 
completed its full quota, so most of them returned to Salem and enrolled 
their names as members of the future Company E, Fifth Indiana Cavalry. 
By the 21st of August the company was full and started on their way to 

At this date aft'airs looked none the best for the Union army. In the 
East there had been many disasters and defeats. The army of the West had 
made little or no progress, and this state of affairs had partially unsettled 
the feeling of confidence that had prevailed in the minds of loyal people every- 
where, and doubt and uncertainty seemed to discourage all. Every day 
brought fresh tidings that the L^nion forces had been defeated with terrible 
losses, and day after day the feeling of gloom and despondency increased. 
McClellan had met with a reverse at Chickahominy and was retreating, 
(jenerals Pope and Hunter had been forcefl to retire after severe fighting and 
great loss of men. The magnitude of the war became more apparent than 
e\ er before, showing the necessity for a much larger force of men to be sent 
to the field. A call was issued by the President for 300,000 more men, and 
the Fifth Indiana Cavalry was raised in obedience to this call. The regiment 
was mustered into the service on September 4, and received arms, bounty and 
uniforms. The company officers were: James P. Banta, captain; with Will- 
iam H. Ward and Thomas J. Menaugh, lieutenants. 

On I])ecember 18. 1862, Companies It and H were ordered to Cannelton, 
to perform guard duty on the Ohio river, and they remained there most of 
the winter. F,arly in March, 1863, they were sent to Glasgow, Kentucky, 
where they were scouting for several months and battling John Morgan's 


forces. They burned Celina, Tennessee, and spent almost a month chasing 
Morgan through Kentucky. On the ist of September, 1863, they reached 
Knoxville. They were the first Union troops that had ever penetrated that 
part of the country and hey were greeted with applause by the native Union 
people, and stars and stripes were fiung to the breeze that had been hidden 
away since the war began. 


The stop in Knoxville was brief, the cavalry being ordered to scout 
through the country taking in Smoky Mountain, and Greenville, and taking 
part in the fight at Bristol, Virginia. A skirmish was of almost daily 
occurrence from September to January, 1864. On September 2t, the Fifth 
Indiana Cavalry lead the fight at Zollicotfer, which lasted for four days. On 
the 22nd it was engaged in the battle of Blountsville. This was a battle in 
the woods. On Octolser 11, 1863, it was engaged in the battle of Hender- 
son's Mill. The next engagement was at Rheatown where the regiment was 
surrounded and had to cut its way out. Another desi)erate right occurred at 
Blountsville on October 14, in which the regiment lost several men. There 
was a stubborn fight at Dandridge. January 17, 1864. in which Company E 
lost several men. 

.After doing scout duty for almost a month, a halt for a few days was 
made at Mt. Sterling, and the regiment was remounted and refitted. In May 
it joined General Sherman, in Georgia. With him it made many long, wear\- 
some marches and almost every day battled with Gen. Joe Johnston's forces, 
who fiercely contested every inch of ground for fi\e long months. Company 
E took part in the historic battles of that contest, including Buzzard Roost, 
Resaca, Peach Tree Creek. Burnt Hickory, Chattahoochie, Kenesaw Moun- 
tain and in front of Atlanta. 

On July 2", 1864, Company E was able to muster only Ji al)le-bodied 
men, with equipments, to participate in General Stoneman's raid on Macon, 
Georgia. The armies engaged in a hard fight at Clinton, which continued a 
part of two days, when Stoneman's forces were compelled to surrender, in- 
cluding the Fifth Indiana Cavalry. It stood the l)runt of the battle, and e\ery 
other regiment was retreating when the old Fifth held her ground. The 
loss to the regiment was i8 conimissioneil officers and 368 men. Of the Ji 
men belonging to Company E it was at first thought none were left to tell 
the tale, but after some days, 7 of them came straggling into camp. 14 hav- 
ing been captured by the enemy and sent to .Vndersonville prison. Tlie l'~ifth 
had lost all their horses and were transformed into infantrv. ( )n the nuTP- 


ing of September 2, 1864, news was received that Atlanta had surrendered, 
which all considered was the death knell of the "lost cause." 

Early in 1865 this regiment was located near Pulaski, Tennessee, where 
the Fifth saw its last service, skirmishing with bushwhackers and doing 
guard duty. It was mustered out after Lee's surrender, in April, 1865. 
Company E, or what was left of it, arrived home in Salem, on June 29, 1865. 
The regiment was in twenty-four hard-fought battles, and skirmishes un- 
numbered. It marched oxer 2,500 miles and was transported 1,000 miles by 
water. It captured 640 prisoners; lost 34 killed in action, 13 by wounds, 115 
were in rebel prisons, 74 in hospitals, ^2 wounded in action, 497 captured, 6 
officers wounded, 17 taken prisoners. Total casualties, 829. 


The extra effort put forth in, 1862, to enlist men in the service 
resulted in something near 500 recruits, but not quite sufficient to fill the 
county's required cjuota. In polling the county in Septeml^er it was found 
that the total enrollment of militia was 2,352; volunteers sent out, 1,339; 
exempt from duty on account of imperfections, 493; opposed to hearing 
arms, 35; total volunteers in the service, 1,272;. total subject to draft, 1,824. 

It seemed for a time that several townships in the county would be behind 
and their quotas would have to be filled by draft. James T. Campbell was 
appointed draft commissioner; James F. Cutshaw, provost marshal; ?,. S. 
("rozier, surgeon. The enlistment of men continued until the last day, when 
eleven townships came u]j with full enrollment, the other two, Polk and 
Pierce, being a few men short. The draft was held on October 6, when 
twelve men were drafted in Pierce and four in Polk. While the drawing of 
names proceeded, a very anxious throng awaited the result, for it was a seri- 
ous matter to l>e taken from home to serve in the army which then seemed 
to lie getting the worst of the tussel. But the county then had all demands: 
for men supplied and people settled down again to watching and waiting. 

The emanicipation proclamation, issued the latter part of 1862, brought 
forth a great deal of comment and criticism. The Salem Democrat, which 
was again edited b)- Horace Heffren, who had surrendered his commission in 
the Fiftieth Regiment, on account of the freeing of the negroes, contained 
some extremely bitter editorials on questions growing out of the conduct of 
the war. In the issue of January i, 1863, it said : "This is the day Abraham 
Lincoln is to proclaim all the negroes free in the rebellious states. Such an 
act is a violation of the Constitution, without warrant or form of law. Will 


the American people always submit to tyrants? Will they become base hire- 
lings? Will they l)ecome slaves of a more than dictator? Will they long 
continue to tamely be insulted and mocked at? Will they not send forth a 
mighty shout against the act and deed?" in many succeeding articles the 
course of the President in proclaiming the slaves free was denounced in the 
severest terms. The paper took the position at this time for a vigorous prose- 
cution of the war, for the quelling of the rehellicjn and the maintenance (if 
the Union, but bitterly denounced the freeing of the slaves as wholly un- 
necessary and unwarranted under the Constitution. It also took the pnsitinn 
that the prosecution of the war as far as it related tn freeing the slaxes, ^hiiuld 
receive no countenance or support. 


At a. mass meeting held at Salem, January 31, 1803, a series of resolu- 
tions based on these facts was adopted. One read as follows : "Resolved, 
That we denounce and condemn the proclamation of the President in taking 
negroes as soldiers or marines and that the present bill before Congress, which 
makes negroes brigadier or major-generals, and allows them to command 
white soldiers is a damnable act of abolitionism, a disgrace to humanity and 
the age in which we live; and if such act ever Itecomes a law that we fa\or 
the instant recall of Indiana's 100,000 soldiers, that they may return to the 
pursuits in which the\- were heretofore engaged, instead of being made the 
associates of negroes, or commanded by them." 

In the spring of 1863 an organization known as the Knignis ol the 
Golden Circle was started in the Ixirder states and found support from those 
who disliked the manner in which the war was being conducted, particularly 
in regard to southern slaves. It was reported that this organization had 
secured and were concealing arms and anmiunition at certain points through 
the county and several military officers with search warrants came into the 
county to locate the same, but they made no important discoveries. Their 
visit only tended to increase the bad feeling that alread\- existed between op- 
posing factions, the result of which was that contentions arose, serious fights 
ensued and in some instances murders were committed, caused liy the agita- 
tion of war cjuestions. 

It seemed that the whole conntr\- wa^ doomed to rack and ruin, for no 
one could foretell what a few days or weeks might develop. But the war 
went on, and with it came the demand for more soldiers. There was no way 
<if shifting or a\-oiding the call for men to go to the front, accordingly, early 



in June, 1863. enrolling officers for the county were appointed as follows: 
Gibson township. Hezekiah Thomas; Monroe, Norval Peugh; Jefiferson, R. 
L, Brown ; Brown, R. A. Campbell ; Vernon, S. S. Robison ; Washington, B. 
F. Huston and James F. Manley ; Franklin, Henry Wright ; Polk, Richard 
Newlen ; Pierce, Thomas Baker ; Howard, John Grubb ; Madison, James A. 
McPheeters; Posey, Charles Mitten; Jackson, Robert Strain. The enrollment 
was conducted without excitement or much opposition, and the names of 
e\ery able-bodied man, subject to service in the army, were secured. 

War meetings were kept up, and there was scarcely a school house in 
the county where some sort of a war demonstration was not held. The 
best of talent the county afforded was sent out to orate to the people, and 
speakers usually were given a good hearing. Col. C. L. Dunham, spent con- 
siderable time attending these meetings, strongly advocating giving rebellion 
a death blow, and exhorting all Union loving men to rally and stand by the 
flag. Many others lent a helping hand at these meetings, but Dunham was 
by far the most eloquent man in the county, few equalling him upon the 
stump in the entire state. These meetings did a great deal of good, encour- 
aging the doubting and timid ones to renewed efforts in *-^e Union cause. 


Occasional rumors of rebel raids into Southern Indiana kept the county 
in a state of uneasiness. On June 22, 1863, great excitement was caused in 
Salem by the report that a whole regiment of rebel cavalry had crossed the 
Ohio river into Harrison county, and was marching north, its objective point 
being Salem and its purpose pillage, burning and plunder. In a few hours' 
time over 400 Home Guards, armed in the best manner possible, gathered on 
the public square in Salem, 500 collected at Hardinsburgh, and strong squads 
assembled in other places through the county to protect life and property. 
The report proved to be false. 

A short time after a Captain Hinds, with a company of rebels, crossed 
the Ohio at Blue River Lsland, and came north as far as the southwest corner 
of the county, capturing horses, and creating a great deal of excitement, but 
otherwise doing little damage. Some of the Home Guards joined in chasing 
them back to the river, and assisted in capturing most of the raiders. A few 
of them succeeded in making their escape by swimming their horses across 
the Ohio, but some were drowned. 

During the first days of July, 1863, frequent reports were circulated that 
General Morgan intended to make a raid through Indiana, and preparations 


were made to receive him in battle array. Several companies of "minute 
men" were organized in the county, and in all thirteen regiments were put in 
fighting trim along the border of southern Indiana. Captain Carr raised a 
company at Campbellsburj.- becoming Company C, of the One Hundred and 
Twelfth Regiment, which was mustered in on July 9, and mustered out on 
July 17, 1863. The regiment was located at Mitchell, Indiana, under Col. 
H. F. Braxton, was sent thence to Seymour, and on to Indianapolis where 
the troops were discharged. 


Relying on numerous reports received concerning public sentiment in 
southern Indiana, as well as information that large bodies of men were 
organized and ready to do battle for the South as soon as an opportunity 
presented itself, General Morgan planned a raid across the Ohio and up into 
the state as far as practical, recruiting his forces as he went along. The 
Ohio was crossed at Brandenburg, on July 8, 1863, his force consisting of 
some 4,000 men. They carried along with them three rifled twenty-four 
pound parrots and two twelve-pound howitzers. At Corydon there was 
quite a skirmish in which two of Morgan's men were killed, and some twenty 
wounded, who were left l)ehind. They failed to And any sympathizers 
armed and ready to join their cause, -ijut concluded to press on and do as 
much damage as possible. 

Salem was reached on July 10. Xo one knew what route General 
Morgan would take and there was no concentration of Home Guards at 
Salem in sufificient number to offer resistance. A few companies had gath- 
ered on the public square, but Morgan's forces were on the hills south of 
town so suddenly and unexpectedly that the militia skedaddled in short order 
without tiring a shot. 

Captain Jones, of -Morgan's vanguard marched down to the top of the 
rise just south of the creek, where he displayed a flag of truce, and came to a 
halt. In a short time a delegation of citizens marched down, also under a 
white flag. The surrender of the town was demanded, and inquir}' was made 
as to whether or not resistance was intended, b'inding the way clear, the 
rebels moved on, promising to resjject prixale projierty. except such as was 
needed for food, clothing and mounts. The}" immediately took complete 
possession of the town, placing guards over stores antl streets. 



General Morgan made his headquarters at the Persise House, on the 
southeast corner of the square. The raiders entered the town at nine o'clock 
in the morning and left at three o'clock in the afternoon, going east through 
Canton and New Philadelphia. Several parties who refused to obey the 
commands of guards when ordered to halt were shot at. John H. Wible, of 
Livonia, was killed and Henry Hoar and Joshua Bottorff were wounded. 
Mr. Hoar died from the effects of the wound several years afterward. Others 
were shot at, but managed to escape injury. Jacob Hattabough, a cripple, 
and eighty-three years old, was hobbling down Main street when he was 
halted by a sentinel and asked if he was an abolitionist or a Democrat. "I 
am a Democrat," replied the old man. The rebel then ordered him to hurrah 
for Jeff Davis, to which demand the old man bluntly refused. He was then 
commanded to move on or "he'd have a bullet hole put through his carcass." 
This the old man refused to do till he got ready, saying: "You don't know 
who you're talking to. Shoot, d — n you. Kill me if you want to, for you 
can't cheat me out of many days, anyway, you dirty scoundrel." The rebel 
moved on saying to a companion, "that old chap is the grittiest and con- 
trariest old fellow I ever saw." Hattabough then went to the hotel, intro- 
duced himself to General Morgan, passed a few jokes with him, and told him 
if he ever got back south alive he might consider himself a very lucky indi- 

While in Salem the raider burned the large brick depot and all the cars 
on the tracks and the railroad bridges on each side of town. They taxed the 
two fiour-rrrills, owned by- De Pan w and Knight, $i,ooo each, and levied the 
same amount on Allen's woolen factory. They looted the grocery and 
clothing stores, and appropriated many things from ail the merchants in town. 
Total loss sustained was estimated at about $15,000. While on the march 
they spread out over the country quite a distance. Some of them got as far 
east as Pekin, when they encountered a company of Home Guards, and in 
the skirmish i rebel was killed and 5 wounded and 19 captured. 


Morgan's men were always on the go, and had been riding most of the 
time day and night, and this had caused many of their horses .to have sore 
backs and to be out of condition in many ways. Every j;ood horse they could 
find was picked up and one of the jaded, worn-out critters was left in its 


place, while they sang, "We'll ride them till their hacks are sure, then turn 
them out and steal some more." I'robalily 500 horses were thus appropriated 
by Morgan's men as they passed through the count}. Alany of those who 
lost horses at the hands of "^he inxaders picked up the sore-liacked horses and 
thought the\" would keep them in place of the ones they had lost; but the 
government sent men around and ])icke(l uj) all horses that Morgan's men 
had left behind, and a sale was held in Salem at which they were all disposed 
of. Many farmers who learned that ^Morgan was coming took the precau- 
tion to hustle their horses back into the hills, or secreted them in out-of-the- 
■.\ ay t'lickets where they were kept till Cieneral Hobson's L'nion forces put in 
?n appearance the following day 

There were nt) residences burned as the eneni_\- passed through the 
Co mty the greatest hardship endured lieing put upon the w<jmen folks who 
were required to cook for the hungT_\- marauders until their larders were ex- 
hausted. The scene changed on the nth when Hobson's men came into the 
town on forced march, hoping to soon overtake the rebels. They were greeted 
i)y squads of young ladies on the street corners, who sang patriotic songs, and 
scores of elderly matrons who carried baskets of cooked food for the hungry 
soldiers, which they handed out without price. 

The many amusing incidents that were related concerning this raid for 
years after would fill a good-sized volume. \'ery few persons suffered any 
severe loss, outside of merchants. 

A SI.K months' company. 

In July and August, 1863, under the call for six months' men, the county 
furnished a full company, officered as follows: S. 1). Sayles, captain; David 
B. Vance and John R. Freed, lieutenants. They became Company G, of the 
One Hundred and Se\enteenth Regiment and were mustered in August 12. 
Sayles was promoted to the lieutenant-colonelcy and \'ance became captain. 
September 17 the regiment left Indianapolis for Nicholas\'ille, Kentuck}-, 
October 3 it was mo\ed to Cumberland Ciaj), and later to Clinch Gap, where 
it was attacked by the enemy in large numbers, and after i)utting up a stiti' 
fight retreated during the night to Bean Station. It then '^aw ser\ice at 
Tazewell, Knoxville, .Strawberry Plains and Mav-n.-irdsxille. The winter was 
a severe one and the men suffered severely, marching often without shoes 
and living on quarter rations. Having serx-ed out their time the regiment 
was returned to Indianapolis and discharged. 

The county's quota under the call of October 17, 1863, was J07. Ti> 


raise this number of men considerable effort was required. The county com- 
missioners named a recruiting committee to take the matter in hand and if 
possible avoid a draft. This committee consisted of Dr. H. D. Henderson, 
John H. Butler and D. M McMahan, and they selected township assistants 
as follows. Gibson township Henry Thomas; Monroe, G. A. Smith; Jeffer- 
son, E. S. Shields ; Brown, F. D. Badger ; Vernon, T. D. Voyles ; Washing- 
ton, Emanuel Zink ; Franklin, E. W. Cadwell : Polk, J. A. Bowman; Pierce, 
E. W. Shanks; Howard, W. A. Lowery ; Madison, H. J. Mobrey; Posey, 
Charles Mitton; Jackson, Dr. W. Bright. Se\'eral deserters were picked up 
and returned to their commands. 

During the winter of 1863-4 many veterans came home and were warmly 
welcomed. As most of them re-enlisted they were credited to the county. 
No effort was made to organize new companies, but many recruits were sent 
to fill up the ranks of old regiments, so the county's quota was made up and 
the spring of 1864 passed by without event. In June, at a mass meeting in 
Salem, a general fight occurred over the wearing of butternut breastpins. 
Some of these pins were snatched from the coats of several parties, which 
brought on the fight and several persons were seriously injured. 


About this time the Knights of the Golden Circle were very numerous 
throughout the county. Almost every neighborhood had an organization. 
Threats were made that drafts would be resisted and the South given aid, and 
to this end military companies were secretly organized and officered. It 
was rumored that Salem was to be laid in ashes and that several of her citi- 
zens were to be hung or shot. A very uneasy feeling took possession of the 
people generally. Governor Morton was advised of the condition of affairs, 
and sent spies among the ranks of the Knights, who easily got unto the secrets 
of the conspirators by representing themselves as being emissaries, sent 
from the South to ascertain the moti\es of the organization, its strength, and 
aid in every way to secure arms and ammunition for tne men who were 
organizing for the uprising. 

As time passed on the worst fears ot the law-abiding citizens were tound 
to be based upon substantial causes. A large element of the county had been 
organized to oppose the war and to resist the laws. Leading heads of the 
organization were appointed throughout the southern part of the state, and 
a time was agreed u]jon for the general uprising. The governor of the state 
was now perfectly familiar with every move the conspirators were making 


and had the leaders spotted. -\t the prcjper time they were prtiniptly arre.sted 
by United States marshals and taken to Indianapolis where they were lodged 
in prison. Horace Heffren and Dr. J. B. Wilson we. _ taken into custody at 
Salem. Arrests were m?de at the same time in almost every coimty in the 
southern part of the state, and consternation was scattered everywhere aniung 
the ranks of the conspirators. 

They were in the main without arms, and wholly unal>le to carry out 
their plans or offer resistance to the authorities, even if they had been so 
mclined. All were glad to get out of the trouble hy peacefully submittuig to 
the authorities and ol>eying the laws. By prompt and concerted action in the 
arrest and imprisonment of the leaders all serious consequences of disorder 
and lawlessness were obviated. 

A military commission was appointed to try the parties arrested, almost 
a Imndred in number, which commission consisted of Col. W. \i. McLean, 
J. T. Wilder, T. J. Lucas, C. D. Alurry, Benjamin Spooner, K. P. DeHart, 
E. A. Stephens and (ien. Silas I'olgroxf. It was plain to be seen that the 
uprising had been effectually wiped out, and the autho'-' es were of the 
opinion that the best results would be obtained by being as i.-ment as possible 
with the prisoners. They all were expecting that their doom would be death, 
and no hope was held out to them during the protracted trial that followed. 
Witnesses were examined, and upon promise of lenienc}' benig e.xtemled to 
him, Heffren turned state's e\idence, making full confession of his connec- 
tion with the Sons of Liberty, so that when it came to his turn to l>e tried 
he was acquitted and sent home. .\ number of the proiuinent parlies arrested 
received severe sentences, but the governor stepped in and granted them 
pardons upon }>ronuses of good behaxior and they were released on bond and 


While this excitemeiU was on \ery little was done to clear the county 
quota under the call of July i8, for socc^oo men. Some small squads of 
recruits were sent t(.i recruit the various regimeiUs already in the held. .\ 
heavy draft was made in ()ctol)er to bring the count}- up to requirements. 
After each township was allowed full credit for all \-olunteers furnishetl, men 
were drafted to make up dehciencies as follows: Gibson township, i ; Mon- 
roe, 16; Jefferson, 25: Brown, 11 : X'ernon, 14: Washington, 22; Franklin. 
7: Polk, 5; Pierce, 16: Howard, 20: Madison, 13: Posey, 16: Jackson. 11. 
A total of 177. 



Under the last call of the war, December 19, 1864, for 300,000 men, 
great efforts were put forth to avoid another draft. That of October having 
met with a great deal of disfavor, it' was determined, if possible, to avoid 
another. On January 14, 1865, the county board offered $325 to each 
\olunteer under the call who should be credited to the county. The quota 
under this call was 244, but this number had been reduced considerably by the 
surplus credited to the county after the last draft. 

The following recruiting officers for the county were appointed: James 
A. Ghormley, H. F. Nicholson. T. J. Menaugh and J. A. Redfield. Bonds 
were issued and money was raised by subscription. The end of the war was 
plain to be seen, so the danger and risk for volunteers seemed much less than 
it had been formerly, and it was less difficult to find men who were willing 
to take their chances in the army. G. W. Smith called for recruits, and soon 
succeeded in enlisting 22 men for Company A, of the One Hundred and 
Korty-fourth Regiment; 7 to Company B; all of Company C; 26 to Company 
F. and about a dozen to other companies in the regimen,t. 

The officers of Company C were : S. C. Atkinson, captain ; George W. 
Smith and Oliver Stanley, lieutenants. The officers of Company F were: 
Jonathan Peters, captain; D. M. Alspaugh and P. D. Neal, lieutenants. 
Philli]) L. Da\is was lieutenant in Company B. They entered the service in 
I'ebruary. 1865. On March 9 the regiment left Indianapolis and reached 
Harper's Ferry, \'irginia, the 13th. The One Hundred and Forty-fourth 
Regiment was employed in guard duty most of the time. First at Halltown, 
thence to Charlestown, Winchester, Stevenson Depot and Opequan Creek , 
until August 5, 1865, when it was mustered out, reaching Indianapolis on 
August 9, it being one of the last regiments to l>e relieved from active duty. 


On September 19, 1862, the county was credited with having furnished 
iv^39 volunteers. Under the June call, 1863, it furnished 100 men. Under 
the October call, 1863, its quota of 207 men was filled. During the year 1864 
a total of 896 men were furnished by enlistment and draft, and under the 
last call. Deceml)er 19. 1864, 253 men were sent out, a surplus of 9, the quota 
being 244. Thus the county had a total credit during the entire war of 2,804 
men. almost three complete regiments. 




With the beginning of the war there were aid societies in most all tiie 
towns of the county and in .nany neighborhoods as well. The first recorded 
aid furnished was in N(5veinber, 1861, when two large boxes nf S(X-ks, 
blankets, quilts, shirts, drawers, pants, gloves, mittens, wines, etc., to the 
value of over $100 were forwarded to the county boys then in X'irginia. Be- 
sides this, $56 in money was sent to be used in the best manner possible for 
the benefit of all. A forwarding committee was established at Salem, who 
took care of all donations for relief purposes, and saw that they were for- 
warded as rc'inested. In the latter part of December. i86t, two large boxes 
of wearing apparel and presents, valued at near $_'oo, with $50 in money, 
were sent to the boys located in Missouri. Several boxes were sent to the 
boys on the fighting lines in Kentucky, (^ver .'*^-|oo in nume}- and su]>i)lies 
went to the Kentucky troops. 

All destitute seWiers' families were looked after b\- the head commutee, 
and their needs supplied. This good work was continued through the war. 
Donation parties were held everywhere, and in addition to food and wearing 
apparel, all sorts of hospital supplies, such as lints, bandages, linens, towels 
?Jid delicacies of all kinds, were sent where demands were most urgent. 
During the holidays these aid societies paid especial attention to soldiers' 
families, soliciting funds which weie spent for supplies most needed and 
necessary. Township trustees were constantly looking after families left 
without means of support, so that no one was allowed to suffer at anv time 
during the war. 


Samuel Reed Womans' Relief Corps \o. U>o. auxilliary to Samuel Reed 
Post No. 87, Grand Army of the Republic, was organized and initiated on 
May 18. 1891, by Margaret M. Pennington, of New .Albany, Indiana, with 
twenty-three charter members. The first oliict rs were : President, Mattie 
S. Hobbs; senior vice-president, Elizabeth Panning : junior vice-president. 
Pucretia Prow: treasurer, ,A.lice X. Menaugh : secretary, Mary N. Overman; 
chaplain. Mary R. Smead : conductor. Mora .\', Rerkey : assistant conductor. 
A-tarie Zinch; guard, Pizzie Zinch ; assistant guard. XX'ilhelniina Shank-. 

The objects of the organization are as follows : 

First. To specially aid and assist the Grand .Army of the Reputilic 
and to perpetuate the niemor\' <if their heroic dead. 


Second. To assist such Union veterans as need our help and protec- 
tion, and to extend needful aid to their widows and orphans. To find homes 
and employment, and assure them of sympathy and friends. To cherish 
and emulate the deeds of our army nurses and of all loyal women who ren- 
dered loving service to our country in her hour of peril. 

Third. To maintain true allegiance to the United States of America; 
to inculcate lessons of patriotism and love of country among our children 
and the communities in which we live; and encourage the spread of universal 
liberty and equal rights to all. 

The corps has a present membership of twenty-five, with the following 
officers : President, Ida Overshimer ; senior vice-president, Hannah Hous- 
ton ; junior vice-president, Etta Johnson ; secretary, Anna Sullivan ; treasurer, 
Mattie S. Hobbs ; chaplain, Alice N. Menaugh; conductor, Flora N. Berkey; 
guard, Irene B. Reyman; assistant conductor, Emma Rutherford ; patriotic 
instructor, Mattie S. Hobbs; press correspondent, Lillie Dale Lewis_; color 
bearers, Leoria Dobbins, Lorinda Conner, Lillie Dale Lewis, Martha Telle; 
musician, Lula Cauble. 


Early in April, 1865, came the news of the evacuation of Richmond, tlie 
flight of the rebel army in the last throes of its existence. On April 10, 
word came to Salem that Lee had surrendered and that the Civil War was 
ended and the Union preserved. People were overcome with the glorious 
news. Nearly every woman in the county came forth in her habiliments of 
mourning for some dear one lost in the fray, and rejoiced that the terrible 
struggle was ended, and successfully, for the Union armies. For some days 
little was done but to meet and congratulate and hold public meetmgs to 
voice the universal and overpowering happiness felt by all. 

But in the midst of their rejoicing, five days after the fate of the South 
was sealed at Appomattox, came the dreadful news that Lincoln had been 
assassinated. The revulsion in public feeling was sickening. Millions o-f 
men and v\omen throughout the country had learned to love and revere the 
name of Lincoln. He had piloted the ship of state through four long, dark 
and dismal years of death and destruction — had been the cloud by day and 
the pillar of fire by night through all the starless gloom of civil strife, and 
now when the national heart was surging with boundless joy, and every 
knee was bent and every eye filled with tears of grateful thanksgiving, to have 
tlie great leader cut down was a lieavy burden to bear. Scores wept as 


they were told of the great misfortune that had befallen the nation as if they 
had lost their nearest friend. It was weeks before tlie people recovered 
from the sudden and unexpected stroke. 

Arrangements were Made for appropriate memorial services to be held 
at the Christian church on Wednesday. April iq. and an overflow crowd 
was present. The church was tastefully draped, as was also the whole town. 
A large silk flag hung to the left of the pulpit, twined with crape and ever- 
green sprigs, and over and around the pulpit were back-grounds of white 
draped with the sable trappings of death. 


A brief eulogy on the martyred President was first delixered b\- Rew 
I. I. St. John, of the Presbyterian church, after which the Rev. IP B. Naylor. 
pastor of the Methodist chrrrch delivered the fullowing able address: 

"The American people were never before conxened together in their 
respective houses of worship under circumstances the same as those that now 
surround them. Presidents have died it is true, biu those deaths ha\e taken 
place when the official loss was comparati\el\- light. (The ship, ydu know, 
is safe in a calm, though the helmsman slee])s at his post. ) Presidents ha\e 
died, but never in our land by the hand of the assassin. 

"The honest heart voluntarily pays its homage to the worthy dead. 
When the news was borne to David that Saul was slain, he forgot his act.-^ 
of enmity — that his hand could have smitten him with the javelin, that he 
it was that robbed him of a wife he loved, that liis hatred had drixeii him like 
a brute to seek a hiding place in the mountain fastnesses — he remembered 
only that the Lord's anointed had fallen, and he mourned for him many 

"Though dift'erences of opinion may have existed, though particular 
faiths, creeds, or partisan views may ha\e separated in life, yet these are 
ever forgotten by the true man when the ojjponent lies cold in death. Thus, 
do I beliexe that today, the voluntary affections of an appreciative nation pav 
their tribute to the memory of .\l)raham Lincoln. .And why should it not 
be so? (lod speaks to us in ex'erything : the opening bud, the expanding 
leaf, the fragrant flower speak His ])vaisc. There are sermons in the mur- 
muring brook, lessons in the warbling lark, and instructors in the brute 
creation. livery heart that beats with life, speak^; of its ("realor. and c\'ery 
death is an impressi\e lecture, whose -subject is 'The Mortalit\' of .Man.' 

"With no other obiect then, than the im]ir(T\ ement of this dark pro\i- 


dence; this great national calamity, to our good, and the glory of God, we 
invite you to consider with us in the language of David: Know you not 
that there is a Prince, and a great man fallen this day in Israel ? 2 Sam. 3-38. 

"All men pay a willing sacrifice of admiration to greatness, and the 
world in every age has possessed objects upon which man has been invited 
to gaze for that purpose. Who can, gazing down the vista of time, catch 
a view of the cool determination and continued patience of Columbus, as 
from city to city, and nation to nation, like the pauper begging bread, solici- 
tating the patronage of the powerful and the rich ; through all the opposition 
of the old world forcing his way, daring the dangers of the deep, the treach- 
ery of his crew, and unveiling to the world the object of his long cherished 
hopes — who can, I say, while gazing upon such a character withhold his 
silent admiration? 

"The wonderful genius and profound knowledge of human nature, 
exhibited in the writings of a Shakespeare or a Scott beget for their author 
the homage of thousands of hearts. Independent of his inconsistent, nay, 
degraded life, Byron, for his pregnant mind and poetic imagery, received 
the plaudits of his own nation, and many of his writings are today, welcome 
visitors to every fireside. So, the unbounded arhbition and military skill 
of an Alexander find their ready worshippers in every land. 

"It is in this category of great men we are compelled to place Abner, 
son of Ner. In the days of David's predecessor, Saul, this man was com- 
mander of the Israelitish forces, and when Saul and Jonathan were slain 
upon the heights of Gibbon, he espoused the cause of Ishbosheth, the King's 
younger son, and for seven years he struggled against David, vainly hoping 
to place the crown upon the head of his young master. Having become 
insulted by his master charging him with a great crime, he forsook the young 
aspirant to the throne, and oflfered his services to David. David in turn 
fearing him as a foe, and appreciating him as a military chieftain, gladly 
acce])te(l his services: hut Joab, the King's 'Captain of the host,' prompted 
!)>■ a desire for revenge for the loss of a brother, and probably urged like- 
wise by a spirit of jealousy, treacherously slew him. David mourned' his 
death, refusing to eat or participate in any of the enjoyments of the court, 
saying to those who invited him. Know ye not that a Prince has this day 
fallen in Israel? 

"However pleasing it may be to look upon greatness of this character 
— there is always something lacking. Fame may tell of the wonderful 
ex]>loits of the sword ; orators may ply the subtle power of the tongue, breath- 


ing thoughts that Hve and words that burn ; poets may entwine around the 
brow the fairest wreaths of poesy, set with gems of thought that sparkle 
hke diamonds and beautify the path. Skill may expend its million blows 
upon the rough marble, 'hanging it into a thing of beauty, and of almost 
life, yet, there is a higher greatness that demands a higher praise; this is 
the greatness of the soul : For to be truly great I must be truly good. 

'It is not thus tha-t we can view Abner. He was bold, daring, skillful 
in war and wise in statesmanship ; yet was he cruel, ambitious, criminal. 
Hence, in meditating a few moments upon this passage of scripture and apply- 
ing it to the present, let us look for that true greatness which, developing 
itself into moral character, receives not only the admiration of earth but the 
plaudits of heaven. 

"There is perhaps no more beautiful trait in the human character than 
humilky. Arrogance and pride beget hatred and foster resentm.ent ; but 
true condescension on the part of those in high position creates respect, and 
not unfrequentiy, love. It was through this knowledge and the practice of 
it that Napoleon bound to liimself the heart of every soldier in his services. 
It is thus to a great extent that N'ictoria gained the affections, and occupies 
today the position of a mother in the hearts of the British nation. Thus, too, 
it is with your own Grant. It is not so much his stragetic excellence, his 
firmness of purpose, his braver\- in danger, that endears him to the masses, 
as it is that great heart that beats in union with theirs beneath so unassum- 
ing an exterior — the soldiers are his comrades; they know this, and they in 
turn make him their idol. 

".And was not this a prominent trait or virtue of the character of the 
lamentetl chieftain of our nation? To me, his past history makes jilain 
the fact that he never met an honest man whom he deemed his inferior. 
Taught in infancy \>\ a pious mother, that all men are created e(|ual, and 
reared in a community where moral character was the only standard of nian- 
h(X)d, he never forgot the lessons he leartied so young; this \er\- excellence 
earned for him among his brethren of the bar, the title of Counsel for the 
Poor. Did he lose sight of the first great principle when elected to the higli- 
est seat in this great Republic^ If he was not fearfully slandered, he was 
accessible to all. the high, the low. tlie rich, the jioor, the learned and 
unlearned; nay, so much so was this the case, that hi>^ enemies charged him 
with disgracing the hig-h ofifice by his democratic manners. \'erily he was 
great for his true humility of character. I'nswening honesty deserxes our 
admiration as being great in the char;icter of man. .Sureh' an honest man 
is the noblest work of God. 


"Earth may confer her degree? of honor upon her favored children, but 
this is the impress of God alone. A man may be gifted, and remain a villain; 
he may be learned, and yet be a knave ; he may be a millionaire, and yet devoid 
of moral principle ; the three may be in the possession of one man, but lack- 
ing moral honesty, they but degrade him all the more. Honesty of life and 
purpose was a distinguished trait in the character of Mr. Lincoln. Mani- 
festing itself in the early portion of his life, it gained- for him the enviable 
sobriquet of Honest Abe. His profession as a lawyer stole it not. His 
career as a statesman sullied not its beauty, and during the four years while 
acting as President of the United States — in the midst of the boiling, surg- 
ing waves of treachery and rebellion — the world of friends and foe, in 
unison, have granted him the noblest title of earth; that of an honest man. 
Another trait of excellence in the character of the deceased President was, 
he was himself always. He is an encouraging example to the young men 
of our age. 

"Whatever shortcomings Mr. Lincoln had, it is manifest he was neither 
a parasite nor an imitator. One of the reasons why we have so few truly 
great men, is, because they are satisfied to echo the tones and principles of 
others. Like the mistletoe that clings to the giant oak for support, so they 
are contented to remain where Nature placed them — or to rise only by the 
growth of others. I believe that man (ever dependent upon God) may be, 
and is, just what he chooses to be, and not what Nature made him. Nature 
can, and does do much for man — but he can do vastly more for himself. 
Nature gives me existence, but self enables me to live. Hence I say it is 
because so many disregard the culture of self that so many remain in 

" 'The tissue of our lives to be, 
We weave in colors all our own. 

And on the field of destiny, 
We reap as we have sown.' 

"Do you doul)t this? Cast your eyes down the great scroll of man's 
history. What do you see? Europe is already trembling with the 
approaching storm of revolution. The wild billows are madly dashing their 
bloody crests against the thrones of despots, smiting empires and shaking 
them to their very foundations. See that lad, romping where nature has 
placed him in his sea-girt home, on the isle of Corsica. The wild storms rolls 
on, the lad becomes a man. The youthful Corsican watches its approach, 
and when the dread flood comes up, he leaps upon her topmost crest, and like 


the ark in olden days, it bears him to the Ararat of his clearest hopes, the 
throne of France. 

"'Take another glance. It is further down the scroll, nearly 400 years 
before the Christian Era -No howling storm — no political strife. Greece, 
beautiful Greece, is the land I would have you look upon. See that lad, he 
has seen sixteen summers. Speak to him! He stammers in answering, he 
hesitates in every utterance, he trembles in your presence, and with a glance 
of pity you turn away. A dozen years pass. You enter the Grecian Forum 
and listen to that Athenian (irator as he pours forth his rtery philippics against 
the Macedonian invader. Xay, you cannot listen long, for before the power 
of his eloquence ten thousand swords flash from as many scabbards, and 
Phillip is driven from tlieir shores. What earthly arm did Demosthenes 
lean upon? What did nature do to him? What good gifts did she throw 
into his lap? Nature gave him a tremulous voice, a hesitating manner, and 
a stammering tongue. Self burned with a desire to become an orator, his 
eye was set upon the highest seat in classic Greece, and by God's help he 
stopped not short of that. 

"And am I presuming too far. when I say that the histor\- of the 
deceased President yields a parallel case in American history? Xay, I deem 
it stn>erior to either. Napoleon received a thorough military education, fit- 
ting him for a higher sphere in after life: and Demosthenes had the, ablest 
tutors in the land. But young Lincoln had no tutors. What did nature do 
for him? She placed him in a rude cabin on the frontier of Kentucky, 
with an honest but poor man for a father, and a Christian woman for a 
mother. A good heart (if I may use that expression in a (|ualihed sense), 
a good head, and a good share of poverty, composed his inheritance. But 
with God's assistance, oneness of purpose, laudable persexerance, and ardu- 
ous labor, both mental and physical, he stood a member of the American 
Forum, humble in high position, honest to all, self-reliant e\'er. Do you 
doubt his ability? Do you say, as he said — Tt was political ca]jrice that 
placed him in a position for which he was not qualified. 

"Ask the great Douglas, the champion of American statesmen and ora- 
tors. He soon esteemed the hitherto almost unknown lawyer a foeman 
worthy of his steel. He expressed himself truly, when sjjeaking of his 
political opponent, he said : He is the strongest man I e\er met. For like 
the two bold champions who met on Bosworth field to struggle for the crown 
of England, so these two political generals met and struggled in the Illinois 
conte,st. It was there that Richard met with Richmond, and there the child 
of the forest mounted the proud wa\e that bore him to the niagistrac}' of 


the United States, a position infinitely higher than the Forum of Greece, 
and vastly more excellent than the Throne of France. 

"I need not dwell on his acts during the four years and forty days he 
was your Chief Magistrate. They are written in your memory and in your 
heart. In disguise he fled througH the midst of his enemies to his new home 
in Washington. A proud foe threatened us, investing our national capital. 
The nation trembled, and the world watched in deep suspense. A million 
swords were bbastingly said to be ready to pierce our national heart. A 
mighty confederacy had us by the throat. Four years have passed. What 
now? A Confederacy? I see it not! A mighty army? Where? Flee- 
ing, bleeding, falling, scattered, to seek their desolate homes. A Confederate 
Congress? Where? As one has said, in the saddle. 

"Nay, we cannot deny the fact, neither would we, the Rebellion is 
crushed. Secession is dead, and let all the people say, amen. And while 
I would give all the glory to the Great Ruler of all things, I would not forget 
His servant, the instrument in flis hand, of our great salvation. Like the 
immortal Farragut, he lashed himself to the Old Ship to ride triumphantly 
over the deceitful, treacherous waves of Treason, or find in her sinking hulk 
an honored grave. Dark has been the night of her voyage — huge billows 
l^a^•e beat against her — black rocks were on her larboard — wild winds were 
on her starboard — sunken reefs were seen right ahead — dread whirlt)bols 
vainly attempted to suck her under. Faintly, at times, the glimmering star 
of Hope could be seen. But the morning has dawned, the sun has arisen, 
and the old ship still lives : the sky is almost cloudless, the winds are fair, she 
rounds the pier and will soon anchor in the harbor. 

"But why do those flags droop at half mast? Why do you not shout 
loud huzzas of welcome? Your sons, our fathers are coming, they grtfet 
you from afar. Oh! the text points to the malady — know ye not that there 
is a Prince and a great man fallen this day in Israel? 

"(ireat for his true humility. Great for his unswerving honesty. Gi;eat 
for his self-reliance. Mr. Lincoln died on Saturday, April 15, a victim of 
rebellious hate, and in that death the fragments of rebellion lost their best 
earthly friend. W^e would not pry into the dark, mysterious providences of 
Him who doeth all things well, but the thought has presented itself to us 
that perhaps the hour had come when one of harder heart, and more iron 
aim was necessary to fill the executive chair, and carry out God's will con- 
cerning us. Then, again, the thought has occurred to us, that the hation 
bad learned to love their President too fondly, and we had made him a 
god, therefore He took away our idol. O, let us humble ^ursdves to^y 


before Him whose most glorious attribute is to have mercy, beseeching Him 
to make us better, wiser, holier." 


Early in the Civil War some of the W ashington county volunteers were 
assigned to duty in Missouri, where the Confederates were concentratmg 
under Gen. Price, and were making serious inroads upon the Union forces. 
An old soldier relates that in the fall of iS'62, while they were in camp at 
St. Louis, they were called out one morning to shoot a comrade for the crime 
of sleeping while at his post on duty. Ihey had Ijeen in camp nearly two 
months drilling and preparing for a raid on Price's force, then in the west- 
ern part of the state. General Fremont was m command in St. Louis, but 
had only a small force, which did not deter the rebel sympathizers from 
making frequent and insulting demonstrations toward soldiers and ofticers, 
who regarded the situation as rather dangerous, and for that reason an e.xtra 
guard was kept at headquarters and over ^he large go\ernment warehouses 
for fear of an attack by night. 

Major Zagonia was put in charge and was a soldier all o\er. as his 
subsequent record proved. Among those detailed for special guard duty 
was a six-footer named McDonald, who wa.i sent down one Saturday night 
to guard the private headquarters of the major, who at that time was not 
held in very high regard b\- those who ser\ed under him. being considered 
an imported German more able to command a beer wagon than American 
soldiers. McDonald found him out that Saturday night in particular. 
About four o'clock in the morning the major went out to see how his guard 
was keeping watch, and found him fast asleep under a cherry tree, gun and 
pistols lying on the grass. The major softly stole his arms away and had 
him arrested at once, charged with sleeping on duty. At dress parade that 
morning it was whispered around that a ciuirtmartial would be held that 
day to investigate Mc"s case, and no doulit the sentence would be death. 

At last the mournful ncw> came, the major pronouncing the sentence, 
saying: "De \'erdict shall be you kee]) untl guard prisoner safe till sunrise 
in morning ven 1 see him sJnot dead." it wnuld be difficult to picture the 
disma_\- and consternation on the faces of liis comrades during the rest of 
the day as they realized the stern necessities of war were about to Ije visited 
on one of their own l)oys. who so recentl}- had left a ytiung wife and two 
children, many friends and a profitable business, to fight for his country, 
now to be shot down like a dog w ithout having committed an}' crime deserv- 
ing such punishment. 



Other officers of the regiment and company counselled together to sec 
what could be done to save the condemned man. The major's blood was 
up, discipline must be maintained, "It wouldn't do for de poy to be par- 
doned, dere vould pe no safety in de armie." Messages were at last sent 
thick and fast to Washington and Cincinnati. The Judge Advocate had 
little influence personally to change affairs and it seemed that a sacrifice must 
i)e made for the benefit of those yet young in the service. 

Gen. Fremont was then laying a deep plan to capture Price and had 
little time to attend to matters less serious. He was appealed to, but said 
the matter was in the hands of the proper ones to see that army regulations 
were lived up to. Rebels were loud and bold on all sides, and things looked 
gloomy. No one can know what terrors, what anguish, what awful thoughts 
filled the mind of the doomed man. He had little time to prepare or to write 
his last words and recjuests to his family and friends at home. 

Some time before daylight the roll call was sounded, breakfast j)re- 
pared, but little of it was touched, and the wonder among the men was which 
ones would fire the fatal shot. The order then came, "Fall in line." Slowly 
they marched out through the suburbs nearly four miles, into an open wood, 
near some earthworks. The prisoner marched in front, with arms pinioned 
behind, eyes looking straight down on the ground. Scarcely a word passed 
a lip, scarcely a sound was there heard but the mournful thud of the drum 
and the heavy tread of soldiers. Suddenly a troop of horse appeared com- 
ing in from the right. "The Dutch from Siegle's corps." the men muttered. 
They then knew who were to do the killing. 

.A halt was called and in almost Ijreathless silence a hollow square was 
formed, opening towards the thick wood. Pale and mute the prisoner was 
led out near the center, where the charges, findings and sentence of the court- 
martial were read amid the stillness of death. The chaplain prayed, the fir- 
ing party of twelve men took their places, the white bandage was being 
adjusted over his eyes, when the ground seemed to tremble and a troop of 
horse came galloping up. The officer in charge handed the major a sealed 
envelope, which was hurriedly opened and proved to l>e a reprieve from 
President Lincoln. The announcement brought forth shouts and cheers 
from almost e\ery throat present, ca]js went up, guns were fired in the air, 
and for a few minutes it seemed that a real battle was or. The reprieved 
man swooned away as soon as orders were given to remove his shackles and 
lie was carried off the field on the litter which was intended to remove his 
bullet-ridden bodv. 



At ;iii early date Wasliin.ijtrin dmiity timk rank a^ the leading educa- 
tional center of the state h'arly emigrants were generally well educated 
for that day, in fact man\- were college lired and some had acquired a 
finished education. All realized the imiiortance nt educating the young as 
thoroughly as conditions would permit. The tirst school house built in the 
county was situated in the northeast corner of the southwest quarter of sec- 
tion 4, township J north, range 4 ea<t, in tlie smith sitle of Firock creek, and 
two and one-half miles northeast of Salem, A pile of crumbled stone 
where the chimney once ^tood. still marks the spot. As all school houses 
in the count}-, up to about 1820. were Iniilt after the model of this one, a 
description of it will do for all. 

The size of the room was eighteen by twenty feet. Rouml logs were 
first notched down till the l)uilding was of the desired height. They were 
then scored and hewn, thus gi\'ing the walls a smooth ajijjearance on the 
outside. .\n opening for light was made by cutting the upper half out of 
one log and the lower half <if its next neighbor abo\e, when short sticks 
were fastened in the opening thus made at ))roper interxals of space upon 
which greased pajier was ])aste<l for \vindow lights. The floor was made 
by cutting down small trees, cutting them to proper length and hewing down 
for sleepers. Then other trees were cut. split o])en and hewed down to an 
even thickness and laid u]3on the sleepers, the broadest and smoothest side 
up. There was one opening for a door, which was closed by two shutters. 
opening from the center inwardly. 'ldie\ were also made of split and hewn 

vere fastened to battens 
inches l)e\on<l the door 

>le ribs, running length- 
jilace by pole weights, 
out of red oak. whicii 
'I'he room was heated 
img out nne end of the 
t;h. The logs thus cut out 



ght d.- 


to i 

an e\en 

1 titled 




with w 


1 pins. 


se 1 






on one 

side 1 

to ser\-e a; 

^ a 

part of 

the h 


The ro, 

)f was 




. laid 

Iv . 


f the 





^ bem 

g '-tc 




ad a 

loft \ 



:le ..t 1 

nng ] 


■ sa 



t(i ret 

ain th. 

e he 

at r 



the 1 



b\' mea 

ns of 

a Inu 

:;e u 


.lacr 1 

It wa^ 

. IlKld 

e 1) 



were used to he^iii the construction of the chimney. Tliey were placed 
some four feet l)aci< from the btiilding, then short logs were cut and notched 
down, one end on these logs, the other end passing back into the crack 
between the logs in the building, where the ten foot pieces had been cut out, 
thus forming a sort of pen as high as a man's head, on top of which the 
remainder of the chimne}- was Iniilt u]) of sticks or rived lath, laid down in 
and ])lastered mer with cla\- mortar to prevent them from catching fire. 
The inside of the base of the chimney was then filled with rocks and clay 
so as to make a safe firebox. The cracks between the logs of the building 
were chinked with juggles of pro])er size and then well daubed with clay. 
There was alw.iys a large fire liurning during school hours. The back logs 
were usu;dly from seven to eight feet long and from eighteen to twenty- 
four inches thick and other wood was piled on as long as there was room. 
One ma\- well conceive that with such a roaring fire the house would be 
warm in the coldest of weather. 

The seats were strong and si .lid. They were made of small poplar 
trees split in hahes and dressed on the to]) or split side. Holes were bored 
in the round side with a two-inch auger and pins put in for legs. The 
writing desks were equal in simplicity. Holes were bored in the wall and 
strong pins driven in upon which puncheons were laid, dressed down as 
smooth as could be done with the tools at hand. C'hildren were supplied 
with but few books — probably some sort of a speller, the old English reader, 
which would now be considered a difificult book for a twelve-year-old to 
read, and an arithmetic. So the .girls were taught to read and write, it was 
considered enough for them to know. 


The attendance at this first school in the winter of 1809-10 was over 
twenty-five most of the time, some of whom walked a distance of three and 
e\en four miles. The teacher's name was John Barns and he taught a 
three-month subscri])tion school, as there then was no public school fund 
yet provided by the state. Harns taught two winters in this first school 
liouse. In the fall of 181 5 two other schocjl houses were built, of the same 
priniiti\e style as this first one. ( )ne nf them was located two and one- 
half nules Udrlh of .Salem, on the P)rownstown road, near the center of 
section 5. ^i **"" rods iKjrtb of John Hitchcock's cabin. This school was 
conducted for sexeral years Ijy Shadrack Lewelling and Robert Loudon. A 
second one was biult in the I^enny neighborhood, on the northwest quarter 


of section 6, town 3 north, range 4 east. The Quaker.? had built a church 
two miles east of Salem, now known as the Hicksite church, and it was used 
for school purposes for several years. At these three points schools were 
started in the fall of 181 s, which necessitated the abandonment of the first 
school house built, which was allowed to rot down. 

From these beginnings school houses soon sprang up in other settle- 
ments and by 1825 there were houses in every township in the county, but 
their locations were not arranged with any system and schools were con- 
ducted for longer or shorter terms as patrons could afiford. .\.mong other 
early school houses there was one on the north end of Dawalt's farm, three 
miles east of Salem, not far from the first Baptist church, erected in 1814. 
Here John Smiley taught in 1816-17. In 1817 a Mrs. Pritchard taught 
school in a house then known as the Hensley place, about a mile and one- 
half northeast of where Harristown is now located. This house had loop- 
holes along the sides, so that the cabin could be used as a fort in case Indians 
should make a raid jn tiie settlement. 

Salem's first school was taught in the \\ inter of 181 5-16, by Duncan 
Darrow, in a cabin that stood on the southwest corner of Market and 
Water streets. Darrow conducted a school here during two seasons and 
was followed by Ebenezer I'atrick, who taught in a cabin that stood where 
the library building now stands. Of the first "knights of the birch," some 
were highly educatetl. James Cochran .\yas a classical .scholar and astronomer 
of more than local note. He had once been rich, but the Embargo .Act of 
1807 left him penniless. He came west- to forget his financial troubles and 
became a common schoolitiaster. He taught several years in a school house 
erected in 181 7, a few rods west of the residence of Ernest Purlee, in 
Canton. John Smiley, a well-educated Irishman, taught successfully at the 
Dawalt school house in 181 6. James Denney was an early teacher and one 
of the first surveyors in the county. Jesse Rowland, Richard Di.von, Jona- 
than Prosser and William McAfee were all early teachers and for their 
excellent work were long remembered 


In the de\eloi>nient nt the public school system its advocates had a hard 
battle to fight. Those who opposed the creation of a public school fund 
— and there were many of them — said: 'A\"e lia\e educated our children 
at our own expense and why should we now lie taxe<l to death to create a 


fund to educate the children of the next and succeeding generations?" This 
subject was uppermost for public consideration about 182^^6. 

On July 4, 1826, the people of Salem decided to observe the fiftieth 
anniversary of the nation's birth in grand style. John H. Farnhain was 
decidedly the leading orator of Salem at that time and was invited to 
deliver the. nddress. He accepted the invitation upon condition thsrt he be 
])ermitted to choose his own subject. ".\nd what is the subject," inquired 
the committee. "The necessity of a i)ublic school system in Indiana," was 
his reply. The committee expressed doubt as to the popularity of such a 
subject, fearing its effect on the speaker himself, but it was finally agreed 
that he should l)e allowed to shape his address as he pleased: Although the 
1^'ourth was a rainy, bad day, at an early hour there was a vast gathering 
of tlie people from every portion of the county. In the pouring rain a 
large procession was formed on the public square, which, led by , martial 
music, proceeded to the old Presbyterian church at the north end of High 
street, where after the usual preliminary ceremonies, Farnham delivered 
one of the most logical and powerful orations ever pronounced before an 
Indiana audience. Hut a portion of his address gave unpardonable offense 
to many present. He took a decidedlx* bold and irjtelligent stand in favor 
of free schools for both rich and ))oor. His position on this question was 
far in adxance oi the politicians of the day. His opinions were bitterly 
assaulted and relentlessly condemned on every hand. However, he met his 
opponents with manly firmness and unconnnon ability. Previous to this 
he had been a regular attendant at the sessions of the Legislature held at 
Corydon and man)- enactments passed by that body bear the imprint of 
bis mind, although others received credit therefor. But this man of power 
and now of un(|uestionabk- right, did not live to witness the success and 
trium])h of the great truths and principles which he so ably enunciated and 
ad\ocated on that jubilee day — he fell a \'ictim of the cholera scourge in 
18,^3. Xo man of his day did more to advance thcicause qf e<|ucation than 
did John H. Farnhain and miny of his assistants lived to see the common 
school sxsteni he advocated lieconie a living, permanent necessity. 


As one searches tlie country over it is a \ cry difficult matter to find) 
old school hooks, more so than almost any other class of bound literature. 
\cr\ few ]>ersons are found who have even one of their own old books 
iirocixcd, for \\ hen they were out of date thev were considered as value- 


less as a last year's almanac and most of them perished miserably long ago. 
The text-book equipment of the first schools in this county was exceedingly 
n-ieager. After children were taught to read thev carried to school anything 
they could find in the hoine that would do to read. This might be a cate- 
chism, a history, a testament or bible. \''ery few oi the older pupils could 
afford arithmetics, so they \\ere taught mathematics without a book. Teach- 
ers gave out to their pu]iils rules and iJrobleuT^ from manuscript "sum 
books," Avhich they themsehes had made under their teachers, or had pre- 
]>ared them for use in the school room. Some pupils were thus taught 
mathematics without ever having seen an arithmetic. The\' in turn would 
copy down all the "'sums" they learned "ami the liook thus made was care- 
fully preserved for future reference. 

Schools had no blackboards and no maps, but there was occasionally 
founfl a teacher who owned a small globe which attracted a great deal of 
attention and dubbed the possessor as a learned man. Slates did not come 
into use until about 1820, and lead pencils not until about 1835. In filling 
the pages of their '"sum lx)oks,"' and copy books as well, children used pen 
and ink exclusively. Every family kept a few geese, if for no other pur- 
])ose, so there might always be a good suppK- of pens in the house, for pens 
then were all made of goose (|uills and one of the master's most essential 
accomplishments was the ability to make and mend these pens. Even if he 
were an expert, the making and repairing for a large school consumed a 
good deal of time. Each family was also its own ink manufacturer. The 
usual process was to dissolve ink powder : but many country folk gathered 
the bark of swamp maple, b<jiled it in an iron kettle to give it a more i>er- 
fect black color ami when the decoction was boiled down sufficiently, cop- 
l)eras was added. If this ink was allowed to freeze it was spoiled. Ink- 
stands were often used as candlestick>. in which case grease ran down and 
s])oiled the ink. 

The paper used in the school room was dark and rough. Its cost caused 
it to be used s]jaringl\-. It came in foolscap size, unruled and for writing 
books each sheet was folded to make fo\ir leaves, or eight pages. Enough 
of these were slipjjed within each other to form a Itook of desired thickness. 
Lastly a cover of c(jarse brown i)ai)er wa^ cut out the size of the book and 
the whole \va^ sewed together. The children ruled the book themseh-es by 
means of le:id ])oint. made from a bullet, which \vas kept tied to the ruler. 
The master alway> set the copies at the to]i of each nage, usuall}- some 
moral precei)t like '"Honestv is the best ]iolicy," etc. Alany children soon 



became excellent scribes, as may l>e seen from oM copy books and letters 
that are still extant. 

About the year 1782, Noah Webster brought out his first speller, which 
bore at first the ponderous title, "The First Part of a Grammatical Institute 
of the English Language," the name being adopted at the suggestion of 
the President of Yale College. For a score of years it survived this title, 
when it was changed to "The American Spelling Book," and still later to 
"The Elementary Speller." From almost the first it took a leading place 
among books of its class and held it for many decades. Besides bringing 
order out of chaos, Webster counteracted many vulgarisms in pronunciation. 
\\'hen the first edition of this spelling book was printed Webster had to give 
bond to make good any loss that might result to publishers, but the copy- 
right came to be very valuable. Webster sold his privilege to publishing 
firms all over the country, the old-time difficulties of transportation afford- 
ing the firms ample protection from rival encroachment. 

In 181 7, when the speller was revised, one printer" gave Webster three 
thousand dollars and another forty thousand dollars for the right to publish 
the work for a term of years. Cincinnati and L,ouisville firms published 
the speller for all this western country for many years. One edition appeared 
with a dreadful woodcut that purported to show the features of "Noah 
Webster, Jun., Esq.," which was the subject of much ridicule. One man 
in particular made himself obnoxious to Webster, who challenged him to 
"meet him on the field," but the offender "chose to shed ink instead of 
blood," and the warfare was confined to the columns of the newspaper. 

In 1829 the usual binding of the speller consisted of a back of leather 
and sides of thin oak boards, pasted over with a dull blue paper, -which 
gave it the name of "old blue back." This cover was without lettering 
and the sheets were held together and fastened into the cover by means of 
two strands of tape that pierced the folds of paper a quarter inch from the 
l)ack and the book opened very stubbornly. There was considerable read- 
ing matter mixed in with the spelling and in the back part there were eight 
"fables," each with an illustration, which were the delight of young students 
who never forgot about the rude boy who stole apples and the maid and her 
milk pail. 


No man in the county — or possibly in the state — ever had as varied an 
experience in the school room as James G. Mav. He came to Indiana when 



he W2ES nineteen years of ;ige and began at once teaching school in Jefferson 
township. A short time previous to his death he gave his experience in 
"boarding "round," as was the custom at that time. School patrons then 
paid a fixed- sum per scholar, the price of subscription being so regulated 
that the teacher womld gt: about six dollars a week and "boarded 'round." 
His experience was similar to that of most other teachers of that day and 
was as follows : 

"I came to Indiana in 1824 and at once found employment in the school 
room, in a sparsely settled district. I received the munificent emolument of 
six dollars a week and boarded with my patrons. Some lived within one- 
half mile of the old log school and others two miles away. When I boarded 
with patrons who lived furtherest away I had to be up betimes in order to 
get to the .school and have a good hot fire burning when the children came 
in. Havihg Ijeen the fortunate possessor of an abundant sense of humor, 
I enjoyed a good many situations that a person not having any of the good 
gift of humor to his portion would have found most trying. I preferred 
boarding 'r6und to being knocked flown to the lowest bidder, as was the 
custom in some rural districts many years ago. Lest this seems a little 
va:gue. I may add that in some districts the teacher was paid a certain sum 
and hoard. Then the directors or committeemen of the district asked for 
bid,s for hoarding the teacher, and he was turned over to the lowest bidder, 
no rhatter what that bidder's environment might be. An old gentleman 
once tofd me that he was present at a meeting held in the school house in 
which hfe Was to teach his first term of school sixty years ago when a num- 
l>er of the residents of the district met to make bids for boarding him. He 
suffered tht hurrfili.ation of being knocked down to a bidder who oiTered to 
board him for eighty-seven and one-half cents a week. One bidder offered 
to board him for seventy-five cents a week if he would help with the chores, 
biit as he was studying to fit himself for college, he refused to fall in with 
this oflfef. It was well that he did. for he discovered that one of his prede- 
cessors Who had agreed to such an arrangement discovered that helping 
with the chbres meant the milking of six cows before daylight in the morn- 
ing and the responsibility of keeping a huge w(-iod-box filled with wood he 
was expected to cut, saw and split himself. 

"I had no such arduous dutic'i thrust upon me when I boarded "round. 
but T did make myself useful in rather unusual ways on different occasions. 
T remember that T was for two weeks the guest of an old lady who asked 
me if t wotiW mind -sewing carjjct-rags for her in the evenings. Wishing to 
oblige. T consentefl to this pro[>osition and pursued the task diligently while 


there, presenting-, no doubt, rather a ludicrous spectacle sitting in an old 
split-bottom chair sewing rags for the twisted stripe of a rag carpet, the first 
ever seen in that part of the settlement. A week or two later I spent my 
allotted time with the family of the woman who was to weave the rarjiet. 
It was of my own accord that I sat beside the big, clumsy loom in what she 
called the weave room, a lean-to adjacent to the two-room cabin and watched 
her beat some of the rags T had balled into their final resting place in the 
hit-or-miss body of the carpet. 

"I spent a week with one famil\- in which there were no less than eight 
boys all under twelve years of age, and when bedtime came I was asked if it 
would bother me any to have Tommy and Jimmy and Sammy sleep with me. 
Discovering that there was no other place for them to sleep if I did not 
acquiesce in this arrangement, I agreed to it, and spent sleepless nights with 
the three little scjuirmers, who were heedless of their mother's admonition 
not to "wriggle and sc|uirm all night so the teacher can't sleep none.' 

"I recall one week spent with a musical family. The father was proud 
of the fact that he could outfiddle any one in the neighborhood; a daughter 
played on the dulcimer, a home-made instrument, while a boy of thirteen did 
fearful execution on a flute and fife; another daughter created awful dis- 
cords with an accordeon, while a boy often played alternately and agoniz- 
ingly on a jews-harp and a common coarse comb. The proud father was 
(|uite right when he promised me that I would 'hear something' when all of 
them 'started up ""^'ankee Doodle'' " at the same time on their various instru- 
ments. .\t the close of this and some nine or ten other selections played in 
concert by the entire family I was informed that gran'ma'am and gran'dard 
would sing for me if I wished them to do so. Courtesy compelled me to say 
that 1 was eager to hear them, and the old couple began to sing some of the 
<|ueer ballads frequently sung by rural firesides some years ago. 

"The singing of old ballads was a very popular diversion in the rural 
homes of >'ears ago. Nearly all of these ballads were very long and dismal, 
and they were sung to droning and dismal tunes. Sometimes the singers 
would weep as the)- sang them, and the nervous strain was great when one 
had to listen to ten or fifteen of these harrowing ballads in a single evening. 

"Customs change with each decade, and the old-time custom of the 
teacher boarding 'round does not obtain to any great extent at the present 
time. But I have some happy memories of the days when I boarded 'round, 
and 1 remember with pleasure the simple comfort and genuine kindliness of 
some of the homes in which I was a guest, and T have always been gL-^d that 
it once fell to my portion to board 'round.'' 



As the forests, Indians and wild game disappeared before the advance 
of civihzation, so many of the old-time customs of pioneer days have passed 
away to give place to the habits and manners of a new age. One hundred 
years ago the schoolmaster had to stand treat to his pupils some time during 
the holidays or he was likely to be barred out of the school room and per- 
haps take a ducking in the nearest creek or pond. But the practice, once so 
common, has long since died out. A fatal tragedy or two in the county had 
much to do in making this practice unpopular and the doing away with it 

While there were many good teachers in early times, there were quite a 
few who were adventurers, broken down or dissipated professional men. 
There were many Yankee clock peddlers and Irishmen, the latter unusually 
being men of severity. They generally claimed great scholarship and exhib- 
ited a masterly skill in the use of the rod and the ferule. It must be said, 
however, to their credit that they were the most thorough instructors of 
their day, and usually managed to keep sober from Monday morning until 
Friday night, while the remaining two days of the week they could be found 
about the nearest still house in the settlement. 

John Smiley was a full-blooded Irishman, of positive character, well 
educated and conducted his schools to suit himself. He taught several 
winters at different places in -the settlement southeast of Salem. In the 
winter of 1817-18 he taught in what was called the l^odman neighborlu)od. 
The school house was of the regulation model of that da\-, about eighteen 
feet square, heated by a huge fireplace. Smiley was a stern, husky fellow 
and spoke in a harsh, rough voice. He occupied a chair, the only one in the 
room, at the rear end opposite the door. He had tnade up his mind that lie 
would give no treat to his pupils at Christmas time, Ijut had kept \ery quiet 
on the subject, not intimating to anyone what he intended to do. 

Christmas came on Wednesday that year, and the first twd days <'{ the 
week order seemed to reign lietter than usual. Rut there were mysterious 
conferences held before and after school hours, and the knowing lix^ks of 
some of the larger boys and girls indicated some secret plot was on foot oi 
which the master was to be ke[)t profoundly ignorant. At first the secret 
was confided to a favored few, who would be able at the proper time to liring 
the others into line and help to carry out any measures they might adopt. 
The master was supix)sed to lie ignorant of what was going (^n ; he ne\er 


alkicled to the subject, and if anyone mentioned it his angry looks and blunt 
demeanor seemed sufficient to pre\ent any attempt to defy his plans or rebel 
against his authority. But he was not unmindful of the fact that trouble 
was brewing. 

By Tuesday night everything was prepared for the siege, for there was 
no treat in sight. Very early next morning the conspirators assembled at th^ 
school house, carried in enough wood to run them two or three days, if 
necessary. Provisions had also been provided for a lengthy siege. The door 
was barred and a lot of wood was piled up against it to keep it from being 
forced open, ."sentinels were left outside to announce the approach of the 
enemy. Suddenly the cry was heard, "He's coming." In fact, he had come 
upon them in a round-about way and was upon them before they knew it. 
The door was tried but was found to be fastened. "Open the door," thun- 
dered the master. But there was no response. Again he demanded that the 
door should be o]iened, or the guilty ones would be severely punished. Still 
there was no answer. He then decided to force an entrance, and secured a 
good-sized stick of wood to be used as a battering ram. Then the house 
shook, the hea\\' door creaked and the smaller children within scrambled to 
be let out. But the door was strong and stood firm. Finding himself unable 
to force an entrance without doing serious damage to the house, the master 
retired a short distance and sat down. 

.Some su])posed he intended to wear out the garrison by simply letting 
them alone, otiiers suspected a ruse to decoy them out of the house. Sud- 
denly, however, he returned with a handful. of rods and climbed on top the 
house, intending to stop up the chimney and smoke the young rascals out. 
But in this he failed, for the cracks in the ceiling were so large that the 
smoke escaped and but little inconvenience was exjierienced. Finding his 
efforts to obtain admission fruitless and having been informed by some of 
the larger boys that if he broke in they would duck him, the master now 
])ro])o.sed a truce, and asked for their terms of capitulation. These had been 
carefidly prepared and were passed into his hand through a crack under the 
door. The\- read as follows : "First — A full pardon for all concerned in 
the l)arring out : second, a donation of apples, cakes and candies to be served 
to the wliole school Frida}' afternoon; third, holiday until after New Year's 

After parleying a time, the terms were accepted, and the paper was duly 
signed by both parties. The siege was ended; the door was unbarred and 
the master entered amid hearty cheers. Fvery one was in good humor and 
went home rejoicing. At noon on Friday, teacher and pupils were on hand 


promptly and festivity and pla\ w-ere indulged in. The master unbent him- 
self far the occasion and some of the larger boys and girls were appointed to 
.assist in serving the feast that had been provided. There was no time for 
sullenness, and the mastc" entered into the occasion with as much pleasure as 
the victorious pupils. After a speech by the master, full of kind words and 
good wishes, all were dismissed, and with happy hearts and merry voices 
hastened to their homes to relate the day's experiences and to return at the 
close of their holidays and resimie their studies with renewed zeal and \igor. 
Thus happily ended the "barring nut" of the school master as it occurred a 
.century ago. 


As homes were Ijeing established on the new townsite of Salem the 
inhabitants directed some attention to providing means for religious services 
and the training of their children in the rudiments of education. Religious 
(Services were frequently held in private homes and in the citurt-house as soon 
as it was completed. In the winter of 1814-15 there was a private school 
conducted in the new town. Schools then, of necessit}-, were all pri\ate 
institutions. Nearly all the inhabitants in the state were then cimhned to the 
i)order counties along the Ohio river and no [niblic school system had been 
created — hardly thought of, and when the matter was first discussed it was 
bitterly opposed. 

The teacher secured his or her scholars b\' circulating a subscription 
paper, and when enough names had been secured to justify the undertaking 
the school was o]:)ened. Scholarships were, not alwavs jxiid in cash, for in 
many instances it was specified in the subscription ])aper that the fee was to 
he paid in wood, vegetables, household goods and the like. Tlie instruction 
was in the main all elementary. The stress in teaching was placed mainly on 
spelling, reading, writing and arithmetic. Other >(i-calle<l cummon branches 
received but little attention, and when a stud.ent took on grammar or geo- 
granhy he assumed an air of superiority over his kss fortunate schoolmaster, 
and it was usually prophesied that he would some time be a professional gen- 
tleman too lazy to work. 

School terms were seldom more than three nr four months long. 1 wo 
rude school hciuses were built in Salem about 1S17. one in tlie northwest 
part of town, in the creek bottom, about three blocks north of llackberry 
street. .\n(4her stood on the west bank of Brock creek, a short distance 
south of Market street. 

The earl\' teachers were Duncan Darrow, Ebenezer Patrick, who after- 


wards started the first newspaper; Thomas Nixon, Mr. M^rriweather, Mrs. 
Mary Bates, who operated a school regularly on north Main street for sev- 
eral years; Mrs. George Cook, who taught on south Main street, and an 
Irishman named Adamson. A Miss Combs taught several sessions on the 
south side of east Market street, about two blocks from the square. Later 
on William McCoy taught in the basement of the old Baptist churdl, and 
the basement of the Presbyterian church was used by Burr Chase and Dr. 
Jesse Moore. Private schools continued long after the schools began to be 
supported by taxation. For several winters schools were held in the old 
Lutheran church that stood on East Market street. 

Free schools were established in 1837-8. About this time Saiem was 
divided into two districts, north and south= — the north district having its 
school in a brick building on the east side of North Water street, a short 
distance above Hackberry street. The south district occupied a brick build- 
ing on Fast Poplar street, originally erected as the first Methodist church of 
the town. This building finally passed into disuse and a frame structure took 
its place, erected on the same lot on the corner just east of the old brick. 
Schools were conducted regularly in these two districts until 1869, when 
the town built its first high school building. 


.Some of the early teachers in the north and south school districts were: 
Barclay Moore, Lucius Hobbs, Elijah Heffren, Alice Townsend, Pauline 
Henderson, William Alvis and Alice Powell. As early as 1824 the progres- 
sive citizens of Salem saw the need of establishing a school for more 
advanced instruction than could be obtained at the ordinary winter term of 
school. .\ conference was held and it was decided that a commodious house 
should be built and the best educator in the country secured to conduct the 
school. The house was a one-story brick, situated two hundred feet south of 
East Market street, on College avenue, where John Hay was born and where 
George W. Telle has lived for a number of years. John L Morrison was 
chosen to head the school. He was a promising young man, had been 
brought up and educated in Pennsylvania, had taught in his native state, and 
in 1824 had conducted a very successful school in Walnut Ridge. 

On the first Monday in April, 1825, under the supervision of an mtelli- 
gent board of managers, young Morrison began his labors, the school having 
been given the then somewhat high-sounding title of "The Salem Grammar 
School," and it was a grand success from the very start, and Morrison 


became a power in the community. During the winter of 1825-26 the 
grammar school was full to overtiowing; in fact, a number who sought admis- 
sion had to lie turned away for lack of accommodations, and a new school 
building was planned. 

The provisions of th.e state constitution had enaliled the county to 
accumulate a fund sufficient to erect a commo<lious seminar}- liuilding. A 
two-acre lot was procured on the northeast corner of Hacklierr\- street and 
College avenue, and work on the building was l)egun in the -pring of 1828 
and was completed in time to begin school the first of October. The build- 
ing was a two-story lirick, forty by sixty feet, and stood the long way east 
and west. The end walls had no openings. On the east end the boys con- 
strucfed a ball alley. On the west end was a large chimney, with huge fire- 
places on both floors. Ten feet on the east end was cut off for hallway, in 
which the stairway was located. One end of up-stairs hall was fitted up for 
a sort of laboraton'. The eastern end was surmounted by a cu|>ola, adorned 
with a weather-cock and supplied with a bell. 

Morrison found it necessary to ac(|uire a more thorough knowledge of 
the branches he would be re([uired Xn teach in the new seminary, and while 
it was being planned and built he sought that education at Oxford, Ohio. 
During his absence the grammar scIkioI \\a-; luanaged one \'ear b\- Alerrv- 
weather. ATorrison ojiened the seminar}-, with James G May as assistant. 


The seminary sprang at once ii-ito prominence and there were students 
m attendance from all parts of the state, and adjoining states as well. Its 
commanding success induced I\Ir, IMorrison to build and put in operation the 
"Salem Female Collegiate Institute." This he located on the corner lot im- 
mediately west of the seminary. It was a three-story brick building, forty 
by fifty feet. It was planned by a Philadelphia architect and cost eight 
thousand dollars. This was completed in 1834, and was run in connection 
with the academy for young men. One may' judge of the amount of work 
Morri.son drd, the interest taken and the good accomplished when informed 
that there were about one hundred young ladies and as man}- }-oung men 
going to his school at one time. At this time Morrison's school was empha- 
tically the most jjopular school of the state. There were two literary 
societies connected with it, the Zelo-Paducian and fhilomathian, which were 
very influential in giving pupils practical training and accurate scholarship. 

Among the men who were educated in Morrison's schools and \\ hri made 


their mark in the world, were Dr. EHjah Newland, one of the foremost phy- 
sicians of the state in his day and at one time state treasurer; Dr. Edmund 
Albertson, a noted physician and eehicator ; Gen. Rol>ert Allen, who distin- 
guished himself during the Civil War; Minard and Zebulon Sturgis, who 
held responsible positions at the nation's capital; Gen. Nathaniel Kimball, a 
celebrated soldier and treasurer of state; W. C. DePauw, a most successful 
financier and for whom DePauw ITni\ersity was named; Barnabas C. Hobbs, 
one of the foremost educators of the state; John L. Campbell, the originator 
of the centennial exhibition; Thomas J. Rodman, a soldier and inventor of 
the Rodman gun during the Cix'il \\'ar; Newton Booth, at one time governor 
and United States senator of California, and many others who were leaders 
in their respective callings. 

In 1840 Morrison sold the school building to the Presbyterians, and the 
name was changed to "The Salem Presbyterian Female College." Rev. B. 
M. Nyce. of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was put in charge. His father was 
a \\ealthy merchant and he studied for the ministry and came west as a mis- 
sionary. When ]\Tr. Nyce took charge of the seminary he brought his sister 
with him as an assistant. Miss N}'ce brought with her the first piano that 
caiue to Salem. It attracted great attention and -was the beginning of a new 
era. Every young lady in the town wanted to take lessons, and Salem thus 
became (-(uite noted for its music. Mr. Nyce was a finished scholar, espe- 
cially well up in chemistry. Some ten years later he invented a process by 
which fruits were preserved with scarcely a perceptible loss of flavor, which 
realized him a small fortune. During his first year in Salem there was a 
great revival in religion, and he became so absorbed in religious work that 
he gave up the school at the close of his first year and became a preacher, 
and a very celebrated one. His successor was George Bradley, a graduate of 
Marietta College, Ohio. Near the close of the vear the .school building 
caught fire and burned to the ground. .\ new house was immediately built. 


Mr. Morrison was again installed heafl of the institution and was pirinci- 
]3al again for two years. Morrison then entered the newspaper business, and 
was succeeded by Professor Blackington, who conducted the school for two 
years, when, not being self-sustaining, the buildings were sold at sheriff's 
sale — M. M. C. Hobbs being the purchaser. He conducted the school for 
three years, with considerable success. He sold to Professor Wilson, he to 
Professor Biggs, which carried the school up to 1858. At that time a stock 


company, headed by James G. May, purchased the building and grounds and 
Mr. May was put in charge of the school. From March i, 1858, to February 
2. 1872, he sustained a continuous private school; a portion of the time being 
assisted by his son, W. ^V. May, who was one of the best instructors that 
ever taught a school in southern Indiana. 

put in charge, transferring his private school to the new building. He con- 
On the 5th of I'^ebruary, 1872. the town completed her first graded 
school building, on the cast end of Walnut street, when James G. May was 
tinned in charge till March 15, i<'*!74, after which date Professor May taught 
private classes at his residence in the old female institute. 

W. \V. M'ay taught very successfully a number of years at Corydon and 
New Albany. In 1873 he was engaged by W. C. DePauw to open a pre- 
l)aratory school in New Albany for the benefit of his own sons in the main, 
but with the understanding that other pupils might be taken in up to twenty, 
but no more. It was called the "Fikosi" school, this being the Greek word 
for twenty. The name became popular, and this school having fulfilled its 
mission. Professor Ma}- decided to reopen the old Salem academy, which 
he did in 1878. and this institution bore the name of "Eikosi Academy.'' 
Ijut there was no limit -to the number of ]jupils. This school he conducted 
successfully until his death, in 1885. 

The old female institute building was afterward purchased b\- the town 
and remodeled for the use of high school pupils. When the new graded 
school building on Water street was built, the old institute was abandoned 
and sold to private parties. In 1878 \V. W. Stevens purchased the old 
academy building and grounds, after it had been abandoned for school pur- 
poses. Karly in 1880 it burned to the ground and the lots passed into 
private hands. 

\\'hen James (i. Ma\- retired from the .Salem graded school, in 1874. 
he was succeeded b\' Prof. \\'illiam Russell. \\ho taught till 1877, ^vhen 
James A. Wood became superintendent. Then followed I. M. Bridgman, 
W. S. .\lmond, C. E. Morris. H. R. ^^'ilson. I. D. Caufman. F. A. Gause 
and R. M Cavanaugh, who is the present efficient superintendent. The new 
grade school building, erected in iQoo. has twelve recitation rooms, with 
g_\-ninasium. auditorium, etc.. and is well euuiiiped. 

The Salem and Washington township joint high school was erected in 
1008 and dedicated on Xovenil)er 27. that }car. It is located on Water 
street, on land donated 1\\ tlie heirv of Martha I.}on, and in livr honor 
I. yon Mall is named. It gi\es a com]>lete four-year course, incliuling mod- 
ern instruction in manual training, agriculture and household arts. The 


school-has an enrolhnetrt at present' of two hnntlrdd eighty-fix^ students from 
the town rmd townshi]), and ranks among the best schools of its class in the 

Prof. K. E. Cavanaugh, superintendent of the schools of Salem; Prof. 
Heorge H. Telle, principal ; Lera Berke}', Cora L. Simpson, Clem O. Thomp- 
son, John H. Davis, Roy Huckleberry, Jennie Wright, Lola Parker, Ethel 
Shultz an<l F"iorence Graham are the present teachers. 


The first school taught in the Quaker neighborhood was at the old 
church, two miles northeast of Salem, in the winter of 1815-16. There is 
little known of this school except that there was a school there on the above 
date. The first school house built in the settlement was on John True- 
blood's farm in 1817. In 1822 a hewed log house was erected alx>ut two 
hundred yards west of the bridge that spans the creek a mile west of Can- 
ton. This was used till 1827, when John Reyman became owner and 
oj>erated h cabinet shop tliere. for, some time. 

In the summer of 1828 a brick house was built -back on the hill where 
what is known as the "Quaker school house" now stands, and near the 
church and cemetery. The lirst school taught here was in 1829, under the 
charge of Edmund Albertson, who afterward distinguished himself so hon- 
orably as a physician. Abigale Albertson won considerable distinction as a 
primary teacher in this school. Under the administration of the Albertsons, 
which continued for eight years, the school flourished and built up rapidly, 
parnabas C. Hobbs began his educational career here as successor to Albert- 
son, and Semisa Lindley succeeded .A.biga]e Albertson as assistant. The 
school continued to flourish under Hobbs' management, which could not 
have been otherwise under such a man as he. 

Probably no man in the state ever distinguished himself more in the 
matter of education than did Barnabas C. Hobbs in the rolls of teachers and 
state su])erintendent of schools. He taught here two winters very success- 
fully. Then followed Benjamin Albertson, Aquilla Timberlake, Abram 
Trueblood. Calvin Pritchard, Timothy Wilson and others, who carried on 
the school in a successful manner. 

In 1867 \A'illiam P. FMnkham took cliarge of the school and taught till 
1873, when he resigned to take charge of the Paoli public schools. Under 
Professor Pinkham's management the school became widely known and had 
a large attendance from all parts of the county and surrounding counties as 


well. The whole coniinunity regretted the loss of this able instructor ,vhen 
he chose other fields for his labors During Professor t'inkham's superin- 
tendency there were at times o\er one hundred pupils enrolled. 

Among those who w -'ut forth from Pilue l\i\-er Academy and l>ecame 
famous were Joseph Moore, who l)ecame |)resident of I'.arlham College, and 
Benjamin Trueblood, who was for many \ ears secretar\- of the liUernatioual 
Peace A-sociation. The academy continued until iSXi. a ]ieriod of more 
than tifty ye.ars. Private schonls were conducted for ^everal years, 1)ut 
smce looi) the building has been used by the cnmmon schools of the district. 

nt.'NKER lin.L SCHOOL. 

A school (if considerable note in its da\- \\;is "Punker Hill School." 
situateil in the forks of the Brownstown and Spark's b'errv roads, about 
one-half mile north of the present corporation Ime of Salem. To get up to 
the school house from Brock's creek there wa^ (|uite a little hill to climb, 
hence its name. It was buih in 18J3. It was a brick building, twenty by 
thirt}' feet, with a huge fireplace. It stood the long wa}- east and west, 
with one door in the- center of the south side and windows on tlie north 
and south sides. The fireplace was in the west end, and in the east end there 
was a flue and sto\e. The seats were of heavy sawed slabs, of different 
heights to suit the scholars. In real cold weather fire was kept running in 
both fireplace and stove, the girls gathering about the open fire, the boys 
around the stove. Around the house there was about an acre of cleared 
land for a play ground. .\ few rods south of the house stood what was 
Cdusidered the largest poplar tree in the county, being near eight feet in 

This school Avas always a large one, there being ]iupils from town and 
as far l)ack in the country as two miles or luore. Many of the older ])eople 
in and around Sak-m at this time attended this school. ( )f the teachers 
that taught there were Cornelius Edick. William Phillips. Siiueon Clayton, 
Samuel Lusk, William McCoskey. Mr. Draper and H. -\therton. A cele- 
brated debating society was maintained for a number of years at this school 
house. ])artici|xite(l in bv the best talent in the count). The old-time sing- 
ing schools were frequentl) held at Punker llill. ;uid it was used quite fre- 
quently for church pm-])oses. 

This old house stood until Mav jj. iS(.o, xxlien it was wrecke.l bv a 
terrific tornado that swept through the county. Malinda Hitchcock was 
teaching schdol at the time. The chil.lreii were out fur a recess when the 


Storm came up. A wagon load of people going to town sought shelter in 
the school building. With the first crash the windows blew out, and in a 
few seconds the walls came tumbling in upon the children, and but for the 
protection of loft timbers and ceiling most of them would have been crushed. 
Nearly all. including the teacher, were more or less bruised and two were 
killed outright — Estella A-Iorris and Lida Hodgins. 


Between the years 1836 and i860 another important private educa- 
tional enterprise maintained a lively and useful existence, called the "High- 
land Seminary." The teachers were Cornelius Edick, a bright Irishman 
named Bryant, and the Harold sisters. This seminary was located about 
two and one-half miles northwest nf Salem, in a settlement sometimes 
known as Brushville. 

\Vhile athletics, in its modern significance, was perhaps not so prom- 
inent as a feature of school life as it is today, yet the games and recreations 
were not neglected. .\s early as 1869 or 1870 a regular baseball club was 
organized in Salem with the following players comix>sing the nine : M. K. 
Chapman. \\'arder W. Stevens, Mr. \A''ood, Winnie Clark, John McKinney, 
John Mansfield, .\]>s Armstrong, Menaugh and John Crow. The sur- 
\ivors of this team, who were winners of many a contest on the diamond, 
declare that in athletic skill and thrilling pla}'s no modern ball game could 
sur]jass these contests of more than forty years ago. 

Who that e\er attended a neighborhood school in "the olden times" — 
that is, se\ent\- or more years ago— can e\-er forget his experiences there. 
How vividh' and distinctly dn the building and the persons and scenes 
within reappear when conjured up li\ memory. There was the huge fire- 
place or large "ten-plate" stove, in which blazed a roaring fire of dry rock- 
maple logs which sent forth a grateful warmth into the room very acceptable 
to the shivering incomers. The first tiling the schoolboy did after going 
to his seat in the morning was, generally, to thaw out his ink, which had 
frozen ^olid durnig the night. This was a grateful trouble, as it gave him 
an excuse for basking in the warmth of the fire. 

Whittling in the school room was strictl\' forbidden, yet there was 
scarcely a s(|uare foot of bench or desk that was not hacked by a jack-knife. 
There was not a semblance of a black-board or wall map in early school 
rooms; the only decoration, aside from the gauzy network of the geometri- 
cal spider in the corners, were the hieroglyphics of "keel" and charcoal on 


the walls — ■made by spectacular urchins. The only broom available for 
sweeping out the room was a rough scrub riffair made of a small, tough 
white oak sapling, which was usually wielded by the larger girls at the 
noon hour. School was called by the loud rappings of the teacher upon the 
window sash, and the entrance of the mixed, coughing throng of knowledge 
seekers into the room was characterized by an indiscriminate rush for the 
more desirable seats. It was strictly a case of "tirst come, first served," 
and everywhere there might be observed animated bevies of both sexes in 
promiscuous and hilarious enjoyment. 

Nothing but the most flagrant violation of decorum was noticed by the 
a\erage instructor, and the rod and ferule were the panacea for all severe 
offenses, f'upils came intd school at all hours of the day and no questions 
were asked ; and seldom did a teacher rebuke the social communications and 
sly mischievousness of the young tyro, unless the noise became too pro- 
nounced or was continued at too great a length of time. There was no 
school iioard to regulate teachers or pupils and the "master" was truly 
monarch of all he surveyetl. 

The recreative sjiorts and amusements ui the olil countr\- schools were 
many and varied in character. The boys mostly engaged in what was termed 
"town ball," "bull-pen," "cat," "base," "marbles," and "roly poly;" while 
the girls jumpetl the rope, played "puss\- wants a corner." "ring around 
rosy," and other more (|uiet games. Then there was the grapevine swing, 
and the searching for wild lowers and strawberries in the spring time. 
.\ttending all these were innumerable little joyoils pleasures of youthful 
associations that have ])assefl with the age of the olden time. 

Not to be forgotten was the old-time singing school. Few country- 
bred men and women now past the noon of life but can tell something of 
those happy davs when the singing schools were in full blast in almost every 
neighborhood during the winter season — long gone now but for their mel- 
low memories. In this age of jirogress many old-time practices and customs 
have been inipro\ed on. but the old-fashioned singmg school is gone and 
nothing takes its place. Life in those days offered nothing comparable 
with the innocent zest found at these assemblages. How simple it all 
was and how pleasant ! The teacher w ent from \illage to village, from 
school house to school house, and was .always .a welcome guest at one house 


after another, among his patrons. Ofttimes it was a difficult matter to 
decide where he'd better go without wounding the feelings of some of his 
urgent friends who proffered to share with him their bed and board free of 

Sometimes the singing teacher brought with him a melodeon, with its 
mysterious arrangement of folding legs and pedals: sometrmes he was a 
master of the violin, or "bass fiddle." More often, however, the only musi- 
cal instrument was a tuning-fork, whose "B-z-z-zz" was the delight of the 
small children. At ''early candle lighting" the singers began to gather at the 
school or meeting house. A song by the teacher was usually the first thing 
in order, after which the lesson was given. A term consisted of thirteen 
lessons. The books used were "The Sacred Lyre," "The Old Missouri 
Harmony," "The Psalmist" — notes being represented by the numerals — 
"Mason's Harp," and others. The prime object of the school was to learn 
to read music- -learn the songs — and that end was faithfully pursued. The 
modern terms applied to voice culture and expression were unknown. 

There are few hearts so withered and old but that beat faster when 
they hear the wailing, sobbing or exulting strains of those old-time hymns 
or chants ; and the mind floats down on the current of these old melodies to 
that fresh young day of hopes and illusions; of voices that were sweet, no 
matter how false they sang, of nights that were rosy with dreams, of girls 
that blushed without cause, and of lovers who talked for hours about every- 
thing but love. 

The following is a list of those who have filled the office of county 
school commissioner, examiner or superintendent: Micajah Newbv, 1835; 
John Nixon, 1841 ; James G. May, Jeremiah Rowland and John H. Butler, 
1840-41; B. M. Nice, J. G. May and J. N. Heylin, 1842; J. H. Butler, 
Lindley Sears and Jeremiah Rowland, 1843; Elijah Newland, 1845; J. H. 
Butler, Elijah Newland and John I. Morrison, 1846; John M. Lord, Dewitt 
C. Thomas and James J. Brice, 1850; Zacharias S. Garriott, 1854; Thomas 
J. Jordan, 1854; Z. S. Garriott. 1856; James B. Wilson, 1856; W. C. 
McCoskey, i860: Hamilton S. McRae, 1861 ; C. L. Paynter, 1861 ; W. C. 
McCoskey, 1862: M. D. L. Prow, 1864; John L. Williams, 1866; M. D. L. 
Prow, 1868: A. A. Cravens, 1871-75: James M. Caress, 1875-79: John A. 
Beck. 1879-83: W. C. Snyder, 1883-93: W. W. Cogswell. 1893-97: S. H. 
Hall, 1897-99: J. C. Bush, 1 899-1907; Ona Hopper, 1907 to date. 

The rural schools of the county, under the direction of these officials 
and a corps of competent teachers, have been of inestimable vakte in the 


development of a prosjx;rous and progressixe rural life. .Vn educational 
rejxjrt of the county, published by Professor Hopper, in 1915, gives a 
splendid review of the work of these schools, and demonstrates the educa- 
tional value of the modern methods of instruction which ha\'e been intro- 
duced here. 



The first preachers in the county, like those in almost every new country, 
were almost contemporary with the first settlers. None of them were sal- 
aried, none were missionaries sent out into the wilderness by church organi- 
zations and societies in more densely ])opulated parts of the country. They 
cultivated the soil for a living and when there was time to spare would visit 
around through the different neighborhoods, get a few people together in 
some cabin and exhort them to repentance. The service consisted of a hymn, 
lined out by the preacher and sung by all present, then prayer, a sermon 
and another hymn. The preacher usually had the only hymn book among 
the congregation, hence the necessity of reading two lines, singing them, 
then reading two more and so on. The old familiar tunes were all of melan- 
choly character, and sermons were delivered in a 6ing-song tone and the text 
was followed ver\' closely. Almost everyone who came into this new coun- 
try had predilictions upon religious subjects, and when a few kindred spirits 
happened to locate together they soon formed a nucleus around which a 
church organization was afterward formed and a place of worship erected. 

The beginning of Christianity in this county was under many unfavor- 
able circumstances, but here and there were a few energetic, God-fearing- 
people who worked for the Master, not for reward in a pecuniary sense, but 
for the salvation of the people. For many years the work progressed slowly, 
as there were many difficulties to overcome. In the outset they experienced 
serious trouble with the Indians, and it was not an uncommon thing to see 
men accompanying their families to church on Sunday with the bible in 
one hand and a gun in the other. And while the energies and forces of the 
nation were being directed against Great Britain in the War of 1812, they 
were compelled to be on the watch continually or seek refuge in forts to 
avoid the tomahawk and scalping knife. 


When peace and safety were once more restored and the Indians were 
moved further west, the pioneer ministers entered again with increased zeal 


into the work of establishing churches. A tew had ah'eady obtained firm 
footing and were moving gradually on the road to success. One of these 
and the first church organized in the county, was called the "Blue River 
Separate (or Free-Will ) Baptists," located about four miles south of where 
Salem now stands, and some few years before the county seat was estab- 
lished. The organization was perfected in May, 1810. and the master spirit 
of the same was Elder John W'right. He was born in Rowan county, 
North Carolina, in 1785. He came to Clark's Grant in 1807, In 1808 he 
and his wife were immersed in the Ohio river by William Summers, of 
Kentucky. He found occasion to hear the gospel expounded a few times by 
Alexander Campbell, and at once decided to become a preacher. In Janu- 
ary, 1810, he located in what was then Harrison, but now Washington 
county, some five miles below Royce's Lick, the then capital of this part of 
the country. His father and others came into the neighborhood in March 
and April, and in Alay they organized the church. This was the beginning 
of- the "Church of Christ," or "Christians." 

Having established a church at Blue Ri\er, Elder John Wright, assisted 
by his father, .Vmos \\'right. and his lirother, Peter, who were all good 
preachers, went out into diflferent parts (if the county and organized 
churches. They were called "Free-^^"ill Baptists." "Xew Lights or Inde- 
pendent Baptists," and it was only a few years before the_\' had ten church 
organizations formed into what \\as termed the Blue River .Association. 
From the very first Elder Jnhn ^^'nght was of the iipinion that the Bible 
alone was the nnl}- infallible and sufficient rule of faith and practice. He 
was the first man in Indiana who tnnk thi-; position. He laliored tci destroy 
di\-isinn and promote union among all the children of God. Though at first 
he tr)lerated the term Baptist, or wlKite\'er term a congregation chose for a 
name, he afterwards came to the conclusion that it would lie better to wear 
some name authorized in scri]iture, to designate the entire bod}- of his adher- 
ents. In i8tq he ])re-ented to the church at Blue River a resolution to this 
end. As individuals he was willing that they should be called "Friends," 
"Disciples" or Christians," but as a body he preferred the "Church of 


The resolution was adn]ited and the association has since been known 
as the "Church of Christ at Blue River." Alost all the other congregations 
in the county adopted a -iimilar re^nhnion or styled themselves the "Christ- 
ian Church." This church, thrnut-h the efforts of the Wrishts. took the 


lead in the county and has ever maintained it. Elder Jacob Wright, a son 
of John Wright, was also a preacher in the county for years, and Hved up 
until 1884. Another branch of the Free- Will Baptists was organized in 
1820, about four miles northwest of Salem. The place was called Sluder's 
meeting house. Henry Sluder and John Custer were the leading members 
and the church was very prosperous, for a number of years, but its adherents 
moved away and the place was abandoned, and the house, a log structure, 
was allowed to rot down. At the present time there is a membership of 
about four thousand two hundred in the county, the largest church organiza- 
tion in the county. The church in Salem was organized in 1849, with Jacob 
Wright as pastor, and has always been in a flourishing condition. B. F. 
Taylor has charge of the church at the present time. 


Of the Presbyterian churches of the county, Livonia stands first in the 
point of organization. In February, 1816, at the house of Alex McKinney, 
Sr., one mile south of where Livonia now stands, this church was organized 
by Rev. Samuel Shannon and consisted of thirteen members. It was first 
called Bethel, but soon after took the present name, Livonia, and erected a 
commodious house of hewn logs, the first, probably, built after the town 
was laid off. In April, 1818, Rev. William M. Martin was installed pastor 
by the presbytery of Louisville, which met there that year. In the relation 
of pastor he was retained there — with the exception of about six years, 
which he spent at Bloomington, for the purpose of educating his children — 
during a period of thirty-two years. He possessed the true missionary 
spirit and perhaps there was no man in the state who did more in laying the 
foundations of the church in all this new country than he. 

Though making Livonia his home, pastor Martin went almost every- 
where and few men ever had a more extensive . acquaintance. There was 
hardly a Presbyterian church in a dozen counties around Washington at 
which he did not preach some time or other and if a neighborhood desired 
to organize a new church "Billy" Martin was always sent for and he seldom 
failed in his purpose. He delighted to preach in log cabins and was not a 
stickler for church rules in every instance, but adopted the shortest plans 
for doing the greatest good, whether they accorded with Presbyterian doc- 
trine or not. He usually preached three discourses on the Sabbath and on 
communion days began the work with a sunrise prayer meeting. Seeing 
the need of thorough intellectual culture among the masses in order to make 


them the liest at Christians, he estal/hshed a school which was very suc- 
cessful, calling in many young men and women from this and adjoining 

For this school thero was built a large house of hewn logs, which was 
called by the students the "Log College." It continued under the manage- 
ment and tutelage of Reverend Martin some fifteen years. His wife lent 
a helping hand in the school room, especially when he was called away in 
church service. His life was one of true benevolence and while his purse 
was open to the needy he gave of the bread of life to the perishing. His 
three sons became ministers of the gospel and five daughters became the 
wives of as many ministers, all of the same faith. Two sons and a daugh- 
ter went forth as missionaries to China and -A-frica. Mr. Martin died on 
September lo. 1850. 

An unfortunate division of the cliurch growing out of the split of the 
genera! assembly took place in iST,i^ and a second church was organized in 
Livonia. To this second church Rev. Benjamin ]\f. Xice ministered for a 
time. After a few years the division was healed and the branches came 
together again. During this and up to 1864 the church was suiiported by 
Reverends Augley, Pering. McCrea, ^^tcKinney and Barr. The Rev. 
Samuel E. Barr was 2>astor up to about 1880. 

The Presb}-terian church at Salem was organized on .August 15, 181 7, 
by Rev. Samuel Shannon with twenty-eight members. The organization 
meeting was held in Washington county's first temple of justice and services 
were held in this court house fc5r almost a year, when the first house of wor- 
ship was erected on the east side of High street, at that time in a grove, 
in the extreme north end of town. 

This building was a frame structure with south and west doors. The 
pulpit stood at the middle of the east side of the house and from each door 
there was a broad aisle running towards the same. The pulpit was ele\ated 
to the height of five steps. Everything about the entire structure Avas as 
plain as could be and no painter's Inrush ever touched any portion of the 
building inside or out. Up to Afay iq, 1821, it was known as L'uion church, 
when the name was changed to the Salem Presbyterian church. Services 
were held regularly in this church for twentv-fi\-e }-ears. Tn 18^59 work 
was l>egun on the conimodi(^us lirick building which is still a house of wor- 
ship, but it was not completed till Januarv. 1842. when it was formally 
dedicated by Rev. James _Tohns(in. of Madison, assisting the regular jiastor. 
Alex McPherson. 

The entire cost of this building and original furnishing was about five 



thousand dollars. The church has had the following ministers : Revs. W. 
W. Martin, Benjamin C. Cressey, Solomon Kittridge, S. Sealsbury, Joseph 
G. Wilson, Alex McPherson, B. Cole, N. L. Steele, Charles Marshall, S. M. 
Warren, Benjamin Franklin, W. H. Rodgers, E. Black, T. A. Steele, I. I. 
St. John, James McCrea, T. W. McCoy; and later Revs. Montgomery, 
Sutherland, Miller, Dickey, Wilson and Forrest C. Taylor, the latter now 
holding this ixjsition. 

At one time, about 1857, there was a division in the church and a 
second Presbyterian church was organized, but a union was again brought 
about, and the membership has moved along smoothly ever since. 

After severing his pastorate with the Presbyterian church in Salem, 
Rev. I. I. St. John built a little chapel on the hill in the west part of Salem,' 
adjoming the Catholic cemetery, where for several years he conducted 
services regularly every Sunday, with Sunday school. He finally moved 
back east and latterly services have been conducted in the chapel by the 

In the spring of 182 1, fifteen members of the Salem church who resided 
in the country east of Salem organized themselves into a church and erected 
a house of worship about a mile and a half up the creek east of Canton and 
named it Franklin. This church was quite prosperous ' for many years and 
a large burial ground was laid out and is still maintained. About 1840 the 
membership concluded that a house, of worship would be more convenient 
to all at New Philadelphia and a building was accordinglv erected, when 
the old Franklin church was abandoned. The church at New Philadelphia 
built another house of worship at a point called Beech Grove, three miles 
farther east, where services were held regularly for a great many years. 
The organization of Bethlehem church took place on April 10, 1824 
The first person licensed to preach in Indiana was ordained and installed 
over the united churches of Bethlehem and Blue River in June, 1826 The 
Blue River organization never built a house of worship but meetings were 
held at Mrs. Armstrong's residence, near Fredericksburg, for a time, when 
It disbanded. Bethlehem church was in Jackson township, near Martins- 
burg and Its first pastor was Isaac Reid. For manv vears thie church was 
very prosperous, but a number of active members moved away and in 1843 
It united with the Greenville church; but in 1877 they rebuilt a church on 
the old Bethlehem grounds and put the church again in good working 
condition. ^ 

The Monroe church, now the Walnut Ridge church, was organized in 
the spring of 1833, by the Rev. Benjamin C. Cressey. He continued to 


preach till his death, in 18^4. The church in the pa'-t derived much of its 
persistent working ability and high moral tone from those who came into 
its fold from the old Covenanter church. 


The Covenanters are now an organization of the past. At one time 
this was a very strong and influential sect on Walnut Ridge. Their intiu- 
ence was for good and no doubt is still felt in that community. They were 
a people that were bitterly opposed to slavery and emigrated from South 
Carolina because they desired to live and rear their families in a free state. 
Most of them came to Washington county in 181 5 and at once had a society 
of several families. For some years they sojourned in the wilderness with- 
out the preached gospel. Sometimes, once or twice a year, a minister 
would come along and preach to the little flock for a Sabbath ur two. 

In 1823 Reverend Lusk, who was an itinerant missionary, came into 
the settlement and tarried for two weeks preaching most every da\' at homes 
of the faithful. The society increased considerably during his stay and 
put up a log meeting house, where services were held regularly fur many 
years. At the first communion there were eighty communicants. They 
aided and abetted those who were active in conducting the "underground 
railroad," and when a slave succeeded in getting to the Co\-enanter neigh- 
borhood he was considered safe. 

After the Civil War the society diminished graduallv, the old ones (Hed 
and the young ones in many instances moved off, which (1isru])ted the 
society forever. As long as the old adherents to the faith lived, when there 
was no preaching they gathered in some of their neighborhing families and 
spent the forenoon of everv' Sabbath reading the r>ible and instructing their 
children along religious lines and duties. The\- were \ er\- strict ol)ser\-ers 
of the Sabbath; cooking no meals, cutting no woixl ;ind on]\- caring for stock 
as necessity demanded. 


Among the early emigrants to this count}' there were a number of Ger- 
mans who were members of the Lutheran church. As early as ]Si6 a 
Doctor I'frimmer preached frequently at the residence of Joseph Reyman, 
who lived north of Salem and at other homes east of Salem. Rev. Rhiner- 
son preached occasionally in \\'ashington township and at Henry Wynian's, 
near Martinsburg. In 1822 a church was organized near Ilarristown and 


a log meeting house erected. Connected with this church were Col. Henry 
Ratts and family, John Paynter and family, Peter and Jacob Naugle and 
their families, Mr. Goss and family, the Zinks and their families, George 
Holstein and family, Mr. Daily and family, Mr. Plowman and family, 
George Scifres and family and Mrs. Ward. In 1837 this church was 
abandoned and a new one was erected in Salem on the lot where Asa Elliott 
now resides. The church was called Zion and services were maintained for 
a few years when it was abandoned. 

Among the ministers who preached here were Reverends Zink, Moretts, 
Ruser, Gaerhart and Henkle. Se\eral of these ministers were very highly 
educated Germans. Other churches came in and during their revivals suc- 
ceeded in enrolling many of the Lutherans under their banners, so the few 
who remained faithful to the church, seeing that an organization could not 
be maintained longer, sold the property and that was the end of the church 
in Washington county. A few adherents to the Lutheran faith lived south 
of Martinsburg and got together occasionally for church services, but no 
building was ever erected and the organization dfd not last many years. 


The only Roman Catholic church organization that ever existed in the 
county was in Salem. They finally l>ought an entire block on the east side 
of High street between Mulberry and Hackberry streets, which had been 
held by some early comers for church or school purposes, as it was the most 
eligible situation in town for such purpose. In 1856 a brick church was 
built and the same was dedicated by Bishop M. J. Spaulding, of Louisville; 
Kentucky, June 2, 1857. At that date the church had considerable follow- 
ing in and around Salem and Fathers Murphy, Xeeron, Doyle, Gintz, 
Pensor. Kintrip, Dick and Kenneth served as priests at various times. A 
cemetery was purchased and laid out on the north of Crown Hill. But 
those who were once active in this church work moved awav or died until 
there was little following left and about 1895 th'e church and block was sold 
to private parties. Afterward the Church of Christ people purchased the 
old church .ind have conducted services there regularly for several vears. 


Baptists were among the very first church workers that came into the 
county. Their first church organization was perfected only a few months 


after that of the Christian, or Free-will Baptists. The Baptist churche 
organized in the count}' in the fore part of the nineteenth century were ali 
what was known as "Hardshells," believing in predestination and opposed 
to foreign missionary wcrk and Sunda\- schools. They also believed that 
all preachers were called to the ministry by direct voice of God. This voice 
they heard while at labor on the farm, in the still hours nf night— under 
most all kinds of conditions and circumstances. ,\nd when they received 
the command to go furth and ])reacli for the salvation of souls, they promptly 
obeyed the call. 

The first Baptist organizutiun perfected in the county was at the house 
of Colonel Dawalt, September 7, 1810. about three miles east of Salem and 
one mile east of's Lick. Its membership was made up of emigrants 
from North Carolina and Kentucky, l-'or the tirst three years after the 
church was organized .services were held around at the homes of the mem- 
bers and were necessarily very irregular. In July, 1S14, a log church was 
completed, rather a rude affair, with ])tHir fixtures. The benches were made 
of split and hewn logs, the pulpit and Hnur nf puncheons. This church was 
called Sharon and the tirst regular pastor was hTder John Wilson, who 
preached occasionally till the house was erected and after that at stated 
times. In 1817 he was succeeded by ITder James McCoy, who, in 1819, 
was ordained to the full functions of the ministry, after which tune he was 
called to the pastoral care of the church and remained ni charge until the 
church was dissolved, November, 1830. Elders Moses Sellers and Isaac 
Worrall united with this old bo(,ly but remcnecl their memljership to other 
Baptist churches out of the county before they were ordained to the ministry, 
but each of them was afterward prominent in organizing new churches in 
the countv while they lived. Most of the members of this body went to 
Salem and assisted in organizing the church there a1)out the time Sharon 
was di.sbanded. 

The next church organized in the county was the Clifty Baptist church 
at Mt. Carmel, in 1815, with twenty-one members. In this body Elder 
Thomas N. Robertsi n commenced his labors in the ministry and remained 
here some ten vears The last ]>astor was Elder Harrison Cornwell, who 
put in his entire time and life preaching in Washington and adjoining 
counties. Reuben Starks was for a time pastor of this church preceding 

Mill Creek Bai)tist church was next organized with twehe member^, on 
June 5. 1S.22. at which time a council was called for this i)uri)ose from 
Union, Sharon and (^oncord churches, all ^f which are now ilissnlved. 


Occasional meetings had been held in the neighborhood for several years 
prior to that date. At the organization meeting, Stephen Stark was chosen 
moderator and Elder Royse McCoy, clerk, the latter also served as pastor 
from date of organization to June 28, 1834. The first church house was a 
log building, located four miles southwest of Salem and was dedicated on 
August 3, 1823, the sermon on the occasion being preached by Elder Rossan, 
assisted by Elder James McCoy. 

Jikler Jacob Crabbs was second pastor, who took charge on October 
24, 1835. About this time the anti-mission spirit infested the churches of 
Lost River Association, of which Mill Creek was a part and a split occurred, 
when Mill Creek church pulled out and joined the Bethel association in 1837, 
of which she is still a nieml)er. Crabbs continued as minister to 1844,. 
except six months \\hen John C. Post was pastor. On the fourth Saturday 
in Xoveniber. 1844, J',lder William McCoy was chosen pastor, which posir 
tion he filled till January, 1891, covering a period of forty-seven years. 

The church is now ninety-three years old and has had three meeting 
houses. There are very few churches in the county that have been kept up 
so long or have been so successful as Mill Creek. 

The organization of Hebron church occurred on August 21, 1819, with 
only thirteen members. Under the pastorship of James McCoy, John Wil- 
son and Arch Johnson it grew at one time to o\'er f)ne hundred. In 1876 
there were Init fourteen communicants 

About ten miles east of Salem, Zoar church is situated. Its organ- 
ization took place in 1830 an<l at one time numbered seventy-five members. 
Elder John Wilson was pastor as well as a member of this body. The 
church at Salem was organized on January 17, 1829, with fourteen mem- 
bers. .\n imposing structure for the day was this first place of worship, 
built at the south end of Water street. At a cost of ten thousand dollars a 
new brick church was erected on the corner of High and Walnut streets. 
The pastor now in charge is E. P>. McKinley. 


The first Methodist body in the county was organized in 1816 at 
Salem. The first church services were held in private homes and in the 
court house, which was open to all denominations. The first church erected 
in the county was called the "Cooley meeting house." about two miles south- 
east of Salem on the Jeffersonxille road. This church is supposed to have 
been erected about 1818. It was a very important point in the old Salem 


crcu.t, but the church .s now a thmg of the pa.t; the old .hlapidated ceme- i 
terv IS the onlv thing that remains. j 

■ The first' church erected ni Sale.n was on Last Poplar street ,n 828. j 
As all old records are los' few particulars of this early church a- avadab e^ 
Of tlus church Rev. Wdham Shanks was first paster. He probal K lad 
n,ore to do the organization of Methodist churches ni NX ashn.gton 
countv than anv other nnui. He was an able man and an earnest church 
worker. He was of Scotch ancestry and his parents were Presbyter.ans. 
but hfe entered the Methodist ministry m i8u. at h,s home ,n \ .rguua^ 
He was ordained bv Bishop Asburv m 1813. He marr.ed a daughter of 
the celebrated William Oavens and came west m 18.2. In 1825 he was 
adnutted to the llhn.ns conference and was apponUed to the Sa em station 
and for a number of vears traveled what was known as the Salem crcmt. 
He was a great friend to the cause of education and was the leader m advo- 
cating 'the^oundmg of Asbury University. In 1835 he acted as its first 
agem ^ohcitmg donations and. subscriptions from its fnen<ls to put up the 
first college btfilding. It wa^ at his suggestion that the name "Asbury Col- 
leo-e" was first adopted. He was for fifty-two vear. a minister ot the gos- 
l.el and fo. twentv-fivO vears was never known to luiss an appointinent. 

The second building m Salem was erected on the corner of High and 
Market street, the building now being occupied by the ^^'-^ ^^ ^epart- 
n.ent Th,. church was dedicated on September 10, 1854. Dr. W dham 
Dailv officiating. Mauv pastor, who m after vears became eminent divines 
and occupied exalted stations in life were at dift'erent times stationed with 
the Salem church. 

In 18QO Merril Weir, of New .\lbanv. desired to erect a luouument to 
his mother upon the .pot where he was born and offered to donate funds 
for a new church to be known as the 'AVeir memorial. fhe otter was 
gladlv accepted and the present edifice was erected and de<licated m 1891. 
The present pastor is F. W. Hart, D. D. (Others who have served as 
pastors in this church since the erection of the ,ew building are Reverends 
Zanng, Wood, Clinton. Brown, O'Xeil. Batcheb.r, Robertson and ken- 


-\s early as 1808 some Ouakers came into the county in search of 
homes foi themsehes and their pcple. bur the tide of emigration did not 
set in until about 1810. Most of them were from slave-holding states- 
South Carolina, Georgia and X'irginia- and tliev came m trains nt fifteen 


or tvvent\ wagons at a time. The trreatest influx into this territory was in 

The old Blue River monthly meeting was organized seventh month, 
first, 181 5, and the building of a meeting house was begtm that winter and 
completed in 1816, on land donated by Matthew Coffin. This house was 
originally of two rooms, twice as large as the building is now and it is said 
there was then scarcely room for those who came there regularly for wor- 
ship. On January 6, 1816, a meeting was held at this place and a commit- 
tee was appointed "to promote the civilization of the Indian natives," and 
also a committee "to consider the establishment of an Institution for the 
Instruction of our Youth." 

In 1 818 a house was built about eight miles west of Salem called Mt. 
Pleasant, near where Smedley now stands. This house has long since gone 
down, but a graveyard still marks the place. About 1820 the Blue River 
church house was too small to accommodate all who belonged there and a 
new church was built near Seba, called Poplar Grove. This house, too, has 
long since disappeared. 

Weddings were all held at these chufch houses and when the ceremony 
had been completed the partners signed their names in the church book 
with witnesses thereto. Priscilla Hunt, who later married Joseph Cad- 
walader, was a celebrated minister in her day and was called to visit the 
meetings of friends far and wide. Edmund Brooks came west, in 18 16, 
to preach : Elihu Hoag came from Vermont ; Hannah Thompson, from 
North Carolina; Stephen Gillett, a French minister; Hugh Judge, from New 
York; Dungen Clark, from North Carolina; and many others visited the 
church from time to time and conducted services through a series of years. 
Upon one occasion Samuel Coffin and sister wanted to hear one of the above 
eminent divines and they had but one ox to carry them, so Samuel walked 
while his sister rode the ox a distance of seven or eight miles. 

It was through the influence and practice of these early Quakers that 
the practice of having whisky in the harvest field and at all public gather- 
ings was broken up. 

In 1828 an unfortunate division occurred in the church in all parts of 
the country and the division extended to this county. The old Blue River 
monthly meeting was t«rn asunder, one branch becoming the Hicksite, the 
other the Orthodox. The Ixjdy known as the Hicksites were so named 
from holding to the views advanced by Elias Hicks, of Long Island. They 
retained the old church and the Orthodox branch held meetings at the 
private homes of members and at Nathan Trueblood's mill house for a time 


until a buikling was erected about a mile and a half northeast of old Blue 
River. Here the Orthodo.x people still worship. In 1841 the Highland 
Creek meeting house was erected, five miles northwest of Salem, where a 
strong congregation is s'ill in existence. 

The early Quakers deemed 'it a part of their Christian duty to look 
after the Indians. A special committee was appointed to look after the 
scattering bands of savages who still were to ])e found in the surrounding 
country and members of this committee made frequent visits among the 
red men in this and adjoining counties to assist if possible in bettering their 
condition and keep them on peaceful terms. The Quakers were always 
strong advocates for good schools and did much in early times to place the 
county in the front rank along educational lines. 




Masonry in Washington county is as old as the town of Salem, for 
while the first cal>ins were being built a move was started to organize a 
lodge of Free and Accepted Masons. John DePauw and INIarston G. Clarke 
were the prime movers. A petition was signed by all who were Masons 
in the county, asking the grand lodge of Kentucky to grant them a dispen- 
sation, empowering them to organize. This authority was given them in 
the fall of 1815 and the lodge was named Melchizedek Lodge No. 37. The 
organization was perfected in a half-story room in General Clarke's log 
hotel on south Main street and the lodge continued to meet here from time 
to time until Rodman built a three-story business house on lot i, on the 
south side of the public square. 

Marston G. Clarke was the first master of the lodge. He also represented 
the lodge at Corydon in September, 181 7, when the first steps were taken 
to organize a grand lodge in Indiana. He also represented the Salem lodge 
at Madison, January 12, 1818, when the grand lodge was organized, at 
which' time the name of the lodge was changed to Salem Lodge No. 21, 
■which number and name it still retains — now almost for a century. When 
the Rodman building was torn down, about 1830, the lodge was removed to 
the old Lutheran church, which had a kind of second story. The next move 
was to a low third-story room that stood on lot 16. on the south side of the 
pul)lic s(|uare. When Lyon's three-story block on the west side of the square 
was completed, about i860, a room was fitted up expressly for a Masonic 
hall and the lodge occupied the same until the block was burned, .August i, 
1864. All the furniture, regalia and lodge records were destroyed in this 

.\t the time of the fire two lodges occupied the rooms, a second lodge 
ha\ ing been organized about the time the Lyon's block was completed, called 
Newland Lodge No. 286. This lodge flourished for several years, but was 


consoHdaled wUh Salen. Lodge No. .>i. March 6. 1884, after an existence 
of nearly twenty-five years. Louis N. was tir^t master after the two 
lodges were consolidated. 

After the burning cf the Lyon's hlock, lodge rooms were next fitted 
up on the third fioor of a brick budding owned by Paynter Brothers, on the 
Jest side of lot i, on the south side of the public s„uare_. The next move 
was to the third story of a bra-k block on the corner ot lot i. where the 
blue lodge, chapter and counc.l have elegant quarter, provuled -.h ban 
hall and waiting rooms, the location bemg exactlv the same as that first 
occupied by the lodge one hundred years ago. 

A Masomc lodge was established at Lanton m the fall of 18,3. and 
abandoned in 1875, .hen the hall was destroyed bv fire. The charter was 

surrendered in 1884. 

A Masonic lodge was organ,ze.l at Campbellsburg, under dispensation, 
on Mav -Q, 1861. with George W. Bartlett, worshipful master; C. Prow 
senior warden; John C. Voyles. jtmior warden; D. Badger, --^-^^ ^^^^ 
Wesner. treasurer; W. B. Teague, semor deacon; 1°'- ^^^\;f >-• J""'; 
deacon; H. C. Malott and E. B. Driscoll, stewards; and \Mlliam Colher 
tvler The lodge was named Rob Morris Lodge No. 28.. m honor of Rob 
Morris, of Versailles, Kentucky, who was a frequent visitor f. the lodge 
named for him. The lodge now has a membership of about eighty. 

Canton Lodge, Free and Accepted Ma.ons, was organized m 1873, 
with W R. McKnight, T. B. Hobbs, Carey Morris, Peter Morris Wdhs 
T tlock D C. AuTs, Tames fi-aulckoner, George M. Morns and \\ arren 
Wdson'as charter members. At one time the lodge ha.l thirtv-hve mem- 
Te's but the fire of 1875 destroyed their propertv and in 1884 the charter 

^''' ^"^..r No. I.I, Royal Arch Masons, at Campellsbur^ has a 

membership of forty-five. _ Campbellsburg Chapter, Order of the Eastern 

Star, has a membership of forty. i, , . „(■ fV,^ 

There is a Masonic lodge at Hardmsburg,; and also a chapter of the 

Eastern Star 


Salem lodge No. 67, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, was organ- 
■ 1 on neV 1849 bv special officers from New Albany. The meetings 
;: e^^ld ^t^'ve;irs in the building where B. M. Li-g^e & Son's bar- 
er' ore is now located. The order afterwards bought the property a 
^ c^ of East Market street and the public s„uare. Tbev remodeled 


the l)uildino- and built a two-story brick addition, the second floor of which 
was used for the lodge room. In 1896 the three-story building which now 
adorns the east side of the square was erected. The memjjership at that 
time was one hundred and thirty, and it has grown rapidly since to a present 
membership of three hundred and fifty. 

Besides the above, which is known as the subordinate lodge, Odd Fel- 
lowship has two other branches here, the encampment and the Rebekah 
lodges. Salem Encampment No. 52 was instituted on July 17, 1856, under 
a charter granted on May 22 of the .same 3'ear. W. C. DePauw was the 
first chief patriarch. The present membership is eighty-five. Salem 
Rebekah Lodge No. 188 was organized in the seventies, and is in a prosper- 
ous condition, having a membership of about one hundred and fifty. 

.\zur .Lodge No. 250, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, was organ- 
ized at Campbellsburg on January 25, 1866, with the following charter mem- 
bers and officers: T. F. Shanks, noble grand; J. S. Shanks, vice-grand; 
W. H. Shanks, secretary: Zack Pollard, treasurer: William Davis and 
George Bigsley. 

The following is a list of past nolile grands, beginning with the first: 
Robert Denney, James Stephens, Corkins Brown, C. Prow, A. Overman, 
William Pollard, John Wilkins. CTCorge \V. Bartlett, Joseph Lee, John Huff- 
man, Joshua Da\is. Samuel Martin, R. C. Martin, C. G. Robinson, Benton 
Driscoll, John H. Denney, and the present incumbent, Harry Wesner. The 
present membership of the lodge is ninety-five. 

Azur Encampment No. 280, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, at 
Campbellsliurg, has a membership of forty-five. Silver Star Lodge No. 
562, Daughters of Rebekah, has a membership of fifty. 

There is a pros])erous Odd Fellows lodge at Martinsburg, having a 
membership of ihirty-nine. Their meetings are held in Denny's hall. 

At Hardinsburg there is a lodge of Odd Fellows and a chapter of the 

There is also a lodge of Odd Fellows at Livonia, with a membership 
of eighty. 


Salem Lodge No. q6. Knights of Pythias, was organized on, August. 9^ 
1881, with fifteen charter members. Of the organized charter mernbers 
onlv three are now living, H. H. Routh, Benjamin Boling and William M. 
Linscott. Salem lodge ranks among the best in Indiana and at present has 


a membership of two huiulred and ninety-eight, and is composed of the best 
citizens, including men from all branches of business. 

The officers for the ensuing year are: Orville Williams, chancellor 
commander; AJenze Denny. ])relate; Archie Ccnvherd. master at arms; 
George Xuckles, outer guard; Harvey W'arriner, vice-chancellor; R. R. Tash, 
master of work; Tom Oliver, inner guard; C. H. Jackson, Lewis Dennis and 
John \\'. Spaulding, trustees; Carson I'eden and Claude Simpson, repre- 
sentatives; I'harles H. Jack'^on. special dei>uty. The oldest member is Will- 
iam M. Linscott, who came from Rescue Lodge Xn. 26, Old N'ernon, Jenn- 
ings county, Indiana. 

Campbellsbnrg Lodge Xo. 167. Knights of Pythias, has a membership 
of eighty. The Pythian Sisters have a lodge at Campbellsburg. with forty 

The Knights of Pythias also have lodges at Saltillo and at Hardins- 
burg. At the latter place there is a lodge of the Pythian Sisters. 


Tokai)e Tribe Xu. 116, Improved Order of Red Men, at Salem, was 
•organized on Tuesflay night, Pebruary 12, 1891, with twent_\'-seven charter 
members. District Deputy Tolbert X. Sudbury and the degree team of 
Bloomington, Indiana, had charge of the work. The first officers of the 
tribe were: W. J. Prow, prophet; W. S. Alnumd. sachem; H. M. Hender- 
son, senior sagamore; R. B. Mitchell, junior sagamore; C. E. I\Iorris, chief 
■of records; James B. Berke}", keeper of wampum; John B. Clarke, Thomas 
M. Loudon and Louis P. Benua. trustees. 

Regular meetings are held each Tuesday night and the tribe has gradu- 
.ally increased in membership, the July report showing three hundred and 
five in good standing. Besides re!ie\'ing the widows and orphans of the 
tribe much charfty work has been done, and the new two-story brick build- 
ing, valued at thirteen thousand dollars, is almost paid for. The present 
officers are : Ernest Xuckles. ])rophet ; Archie L. Cowherd, sachem ; Oscar 
Machtoff, senior sagamore ; Will S. McLemore. junior .sagamore; Robert 
W. Myers, chief of records; Ered X. Clarke, collector of wampum: George 
W. Xuckles, kee])er of wampum: W. Oliver Marks, Jolin W. Spaulding and 
James W. Griffin, trustees. 

White Rose Council Xo. 207, Degree of Pocahontas, at Salem, was 
■organized on Tuesday, June 15, iqcq, with seventy-two charter members, 
Jessie Cornell, great [xicahontas. presiding; the degree team of Mitchell. 


Indiana, doing the work. The following officers were then installed : 
Bertha L. Moon, prophetess; Sylvia Hedrick, pocahontas; Martha Hedrick, 
wenona; John S. Gorman, powetan; Mary S. Green, keeper of records; 
Agnes Purlee, keeper of wampum; Lula J. Barnett, first scout; Lora M, 
Trueblood, second scout; Daisy McLemore. first runner; Ethel Roseberry, 
second runner ; Grace Fancher, first councillor ; Mary A. Knapp, second 
councillor; George V. Brown, first warrior; Harry Emery, second warrior; 
Xoljle I^"ultz, third warrior; Hiram McLemore, fourth warrior. 

The Council has had a steady growth and the present membership is 
one hundred and fift\-. They meet regularly each week in the Improved 
Order of Red Men's hall. The present officers are as follow ; Emma 
McPheeters, prophetess; Ethel Gordon, pocahontas; Elva Spaulding, 
wenona; Hershel Fisher, jxiwetan; Hazel Hedrick, keeper of records; Sylvia 
Hedrick, keeper of wampum; Dolle Berkey, special deputy; Emma C. 
Spaulding and Mattie Griffin, representatives to great council; John W. 
Spaulding, degree captain. 

The Improved Order of Red Men has lodges at Livonia and at Har- 


Salem Court Xo. 207, Tribe of Ben-Hur, was instituted in the Inde- 
pendent Order of Odd Fellows hall, by Supreme Deputy Chief D. A. Pere- 
grine, of Greencastle, August 31, 1900, with twenty-one charter members. 
-At one time this court had one hundred and ten beneficial members, but 
owing to a change in rates the membership now is seventy-five. Seven 
members have been lost b}- death, the first 1>eing Charles A. Allen, and the 
last AVilliam F. Banks, then residing at Oakland, California. 

Both men and women are accepted to membership and the present 
officers are as follows : Past chief, Thomas W. Whitson ; chief, Fred N. 
Clarke: judge, Harry C. Barnett; scribe, J. A. Adams; teacher, Nannie M. 
Tegarden; keeper of tribute, John W. Spaulding; captain, C. C. Davis; 
guide. John O. Reister; keeper of inner gate, Leslie L. Adams; keeper of 
outer gate. W. A. Medlock. The court meets the first and third Wednes- 
day rights of each month at the Red Men's hall. 


Forest Camp No. 4189, Modern Woodmen of America, at Salem, was 
organized on September t,. 1896, by District Deputy Head Consul P. J. 



Stnack, with seventeen charter members. Salem Camp Xo. 8402 was 
organized a few years later and for several years two active camps were 
maintained, but by mutual agreement the camps consolidated under the name 
of Union Camp No. 41 8g which at this time has one hundred and eighty 
f)€neficial meml^ers. carrying $256,000 insurance. Seventeen members are 
deceased and the societ>- has paid their families benefits amounting to 
$3 1 .000. 

The present officers of the camp are: Past consul, G. H. Hagen; 
consul, H. E. Bressie; banker, J. W. Griflin ; clerk, J. D. Clark: escort. J- I. 
Hedrick; watchman, Claude McCoskey ; sentry, Fred Brewer: camp phvsi- 
cians, Dr. John I. ^Mitchell, Dr. H. M. Paynter, Dr. C. H. Stalker: trustees, 
H. Barnett. William Knight, F.llis Wright: chief forester, M. M. \\'ood. 

Campbellslnirg Camp Xo. 1072 1, Ab^dern \A'nndnien of America, has a 
membership of ninety. 

The ^Modern Woodmen of America has a camp at Livonia, with a mem- 
bership of about eighty. 


On the evening of December 4, 1867. the Xational Grange, a farmers' 
organization, was duly constituted at Washington, D. C. Just at this time 
the tillers of the soil seemed to demand something of the kind, feeling that 
a closer intimacy in neighborhood, state and nation, together with a better 
knowledge and understanding of agricultural affairs would lead to a better- 
ment of conditions in home and governmental affairs. 

From the very start the order grew rapidh' in all parts oi the country, 
and the tidal wave reached Washington county in 1873, and in less than 
a year's time nearly every family engaged in farming were members of the 
order. It was at its zenith of popularity in the fall of 1874. At this time 
there were over twenty Granges organized, with officers as f(5llow : 

Pierce Township Grange. William Ivudder, master: VA\ Strain, secre- 

Express Grange, Pierce Township. R. R. Shanks, master: J. M. Goss, 

Polk Grange, Polk Township, ^^■illian^ McGinnis. master: S. L. Raker, 

Howard Grange, Howard Township. Willian. Roberts, master; E 
Xewbv, secretarv'. 


Star Grange, Washington Township. J. T. Shanks, master; A. A. 
I Cooper, secretary. 

Smedley range, Vernon Township. C. Prow, master; J. H. Smed- 
ley, secretary. 

Zion Grange, Washington Township. M. M. C. Hobbs, master; N. 
Brown, secretary. 

Elienezer range, Washington Township. James Bowers, master; L. N. 
Smith, secretary. 

Jefferson Grange, Jefferson Township. W. P. Enochs, master ; S. 
Batt, secretary. 

Campbellsburg Grange, Brown Township. A. S. Wilcox, master; 
Alljert Mitten, secretary. 

Highland Grange. Washington Township. A. B. Davis, master; J. D. 
Heacock, secretary. 

Kossuth Grange, Monroe Township. W. G. Jamison, master ; M. L. 
Kiebelin, secretary. 

Delaney's Creek Grange, INIonroe Township. E. H. Peugh, master; 
George W. Robertson, secretary. 

Hardinsburg Grange, Posey Township. James A. •Cra\'ens, master; W. 
A. Ellis, secretary. 

Jackson Grange, Jackson Township. Preston Stucker, master, Wilson 
Grimes, secretary. 

Union Grange, Vernon Township. J. R. Chastain, master, G. A. Chas- 
tain, secretary. 

Posey Grange, Posey Township. Robert Armstrong, master; James 
Armstrong, secretar)-. 

York Grange, Gibson Township. A. N. Elrod, master; J. C. Hobson. 

Buffalo Grange, Jefferson Township. Elhanan Elliott, master; J. A. 
Rice, secretary. 

Zion Grange, Polk Township. John W. Mead, master; Joshua Crow, 

Livonia Grange. G. W. T. Gardner, master; A. L. Hardin, secretary. 

A county council .was organized on March 21, 1874, with E. W. Shanks, 
president; Dr. Charles Rathbun, vice-president; M. M. C. Hobbs, secretary 
and purchasing agent, and W. Roberts, treasurer. 

One of the largest outpourings of the people ever witnessed in the 
county was the Grange picnic held at Hobbs' grove, two miles east of Salem 


on the Canton road, August 6, 1874. The grove contained thirty acres 
and by noon, when delegations and processions from all parts of the county 
had filed in, there was some twelve thousand people on the grounds. 

Various appropriate mottoes were displayed by the various granges as 
they passed in procession, and prominent speakers addressed the multitudes 
from two stands. Brass bands, martial bands and glee clubs vied with each 
other to render music and enthusiasm for the occasion. The speakers were : 
Norman J. Colman, of St. Louis; E. A. .Allman and James Buchanan, of 
iTidianapolis ; J. 0. Newsom, of Bartholomew county, and William Sanders, 
of Orange county. 

The speakers urged the farmers to organize and continue their efforts to 
place themselves upon an equality with the rest of the industrial world. 
They were reminded ot the fact that they fed the nation and should l3e 
recognized as prominent factor in the administration of affairs by those 
who administered the affairs of state and nation. 


All were so enthused by the success of the meeting that it was decided 
that a county ticket should oe nominated, which was accordingly done on 
September 7. Nathan B. Wright was named for clerk ; E. H. Peugh, audi- 
tor: A. J. Parker, treasurer; Charles McFall, recorder; Archibald Baxter, 
sheriff; Samuel Lusk, surveyor, and E. W\ Shanks, representative. Horace 
Hefifren was chosen county chairman, and conducted the campaign. A hotly 
contested campaign followed, but the county went Democratic by majorities 
ranging from one to six hundred. 

The Grange as an order was kept up for a few years. A Grange 
store was established but gradually it died out and inside of four years the 
order was defunct in Washington county. It was scarcely heard ot again, 
although it flourished in other parts of the country, until 1897, when the 
Salem Grange was organized, with W. W. Stevens, master, and !\Irs. Asa 
Elliott, secretary. This Grange lasted but three years. 

In 1890, and for two or three years afterward, the Farmers' ?\Iutual 
Benefit Association succeeded in getting a strong organization and large 
membership throughout the county and established a store in Salem. It also 
was doomed to be short lived and a number of individuals exchanged their 
money for \-aluable experience — an article that is worth a great deal some- 
times, when it does not cost too much and the investor remembers the lesson 


It was unfortunate for this farming community that the Grange was 
allowed to die out. As a national organization it has done much for the 
farmer and the country, particularly in moulding public opinion and shaping 
legislation. They were first to advocate the election of United States sena- 
tors by popular vote; labored long and assiduously for the . I^blishment of 
the parcels post, rural free delivery, economy in public afifairs, the curbing of 
railroad monopolies and trusts, and a higher education for the boys and girls 
on the farm. They accomplished their ends rather slowly because they 
were in advance of the times and public sentiment. But they were con- 
scientious in all things, and their independence and perseverance have won 
national recognition, having been called into the nation's councils time and 
again to assist in unravelling some of the knotty problems that confronted 
the leaders of the country. 

It was their undoing here in Washington county to allow themselves 
to become involved in local politics, forgetting the grand precepts of the 
order to engage in the hazardous game of politics. 


On September i, 1897, Thomas Williams, Col. S. D. Sayles, George 
Paynter and Robert Morris, suggested an organization to hold an old set- 
tler's meeting each year. At a called meeting Foster Trueblood, Erasmus 
Shanks, Rev. M. M. C. Hobbs and Thornton Callaway joined them in a 
committee and the first annual meeting was held on October 22, 1897. For 
eleven years these meetings were held annually, being addressed at dififerent 
times by such prominent men as Professor Campbell, Professor Bloss, 
Professor Jo.seph Moore, Rev. F. T. Moore, Hon. Cyrus Davis and others. 

On November 25, 1905, a constitution was adopted and the commis- 
sioners granted the use of rooms in the court house for the society. Meet- 
ings were then held each month for a short time, but the older members 
having gradually dropped out by death, the meetings were finally discon- 
tinued for several years. On April 17. 1914, the three .surviving members 
of the old organization committee, Lewis N. Smith, Augustus S. Garriott, 
and E. Hicks Trueblood, called a meeting for the purpose of reorganization. 
This was done by the selection of others to take the places on the com- 
mittee of those deceased, and W. B. Lindley was chosen president; E. Hicks 
Trueblood, treasurer; and F. J- Heacock, secretary. A number of new 
members have now become active in the work, and plans are under considera- 


tion to make ijermanent arrangements for a meeting place and for the 
preservation of the old docnnients, relics, and curios of the society. 


Salem enjoys the reputation of being one of the most celebrated club 
towns of its size in the state. Among the first to be organized was the 
Salem Farmer's Club. This is a unique and progressive organization of 
farmers with a meml>ership of twenty-four acti\e workers — the heads of 
twelve different families. It was organized bv Mr. and Mrs. W". W. 
Stevens in Novemh)er, 1892. The object of this club is the study of the 
science and the practical results of intelligent farming and to teach the host 
and hostess along the fine arts of attractive menu and entertainment. The 
meetings are held once a month, each time at the home of one of the mem- 
bers, thus each family pro\ides one dinner a year and enjoys the hospitality 
of the others eleven times during the year. The programs provide for both 
forenoon and afternoon exercises. This club \\as the only one of its kind 
in the state when started, ])ut since its organization and successful opera- 
tion many others have been organized along similar lines. 

The first meeting and organization of this clul) was held at the home 
of E. M. C. Hobljs, with the folli iwing ennillnient : W. W. .Ste\ens and 
wife, E. M. C. Hobbs and wife. Asa I^Iintt and wife, W. B. Lindlev and 
wife, C. N. Lindley and wife. L. G. Davis and wife, E. H. A\'right and wife, 
L. N. Smith and wife, Enoch Parr and wife, C. J. Newby and wife, T. M. 
Louden and wife and I'Tances XixdTi and "wife. Those who have taken the 
places of members who have retired from the club are F. J. Heacock and 
wife, J. W- May and wife, J. P. Grimes and wife. F. J. Schocke and wife, 
R. R. Xewlon and wife. H. C. Dawalt and wife. Otto Zink and wife, J. T- 
^Mitchell and wife and W. X. Short and wife. 

Members (if this club ha\e stood at the head of state agricultural and 
horticultural societies and several of them ha\"e been prominent farmer's- 
institute workers. 


The Highland Farmer's Club wa^ organized in February, 1015, at the 
home of Rev. .\. T,. Carney. Tt is compo^^ed of twelve families, all meml>ers 
of the family are included as associate members and take part in the exer- 
cises and discussions, but only the heads of families are voting members. 


The usual program consists of nuisic, devotional exercises, reading and the 
discussion of some farm topic, and also some home topic of special interest 
to the women. 

The active members at present are: Mr. and Mrs. Carl Watts; Mr. 
and Mrs. Oris Williams; Sylvanus and Anna Knight; Mr. and Mrs. Clen 
Bottorff; Mr. and Mrs. Clarence Bowers; Mr. and Mrs. Lewis Payne; Mr. 
and Mrs. Francis Godfrey; Mr. and Mrs. Clint Spencer; Rev. and Mrs. A. 
L. Larney; Mr. and Mrs. Fred Baynes ; Mr. and Mrs. Olan Williams; Mr. 
and Mrs. William Cauble. The officers are: President, Carl Watts; secre- 
tary, Mrs. I'Ved B.'ixnes; chajilain, Clarence Bowers. 


The IVogressixe Farmers' Club, of O.xonia, was organized in October, 
igoS, and meets with one of the members one night each month. The 
usual program includes readings, papers and discussions of farm and house- 
hold topics. There are twenty-four acti\e memlters, consistmg of the heads 
of twelve families, as follow: Mr. and Mrs. Lewis Baynes, Mr. and Mrs. 
John Atkins, Mr. and Mrs. Hiram Barrett, Mr. and Mrs. William Bundy, 
Mr. and Mrs. John E. Cauble, Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Brooks, Mr. and Mrs. 
Newlon Emery, Mr. and Mrs. Clarence Dennis, Mr. and Mrs. Bert Howard, 
Mr. and Mrs. Grant Cauble, Mr. and Mrs. Isaac Baynes, Mr. and Mrs. 
James Fultz. The officers are : President, James Ftiltz ; vice-president, 
Lewis Baynes; secretary, Mrs. John Atkins; treasurer, Mrs. Hiram Bar- 
rett ; chaplain. William Bundy. 


Organized fifteen years ago, the l'"ortnightly Club meets twice each 
month, as its name indicates. Its purpose is, "The improvement of the 
social and intellectual condition of its members." Membership is limited to 
thirty-six and the exercises consist of current events, select reading, assigned 
subjects and general discussion. The present officers are: President, Orra 
Hopper; vice-president, Clem O. Thompson; secretary, Mrs. Asa Elliott; 
treasurer, Mrs. W. W. Hottel. 

The Woman's Club meets on alternate Tuesdays, at three o'clock in the 
afternoon. It was organized in 1891. The work consists of music, read- 


ings and discussions of general cultural interest, with social features and 
welfare work for die community. The officers are : Mrs. F. F. Cauble, 
president; Mrs. W. H. Rudder, vice-president; ?^lrs. George Smith, secre- 
tary; Mrs. F. S. HoustOi treasurer. 


The officers of the Culture Club are as follow : President, ]\Iinnie 
Munkelt ; vice-president, Harriet Zink ; secretary, Fthel Justi ; treasurer, 
Blanche Smith. Meetings are held monthly at the homes of the various 
members, with a general theme of study for the \'ear's work, and a special 
phase of this theme for each meeting. 


A meeting of the Columbian Club is held each month, with one of the 
members as hostess. The year's program takes up items of current inter- 
est, with one member as leader at each meeting. An annual picnic is held 
at some time during the j-ear. The officers for the present year are: Miss 
Bradie Shrum, president; Mrs. Charles McClintock, vice-president; Miss 
Louise Telle, secretary; and Mrs. Otis Shields, treasurer. 


Meetings of the Shakespeare Club are held on the first and third 
Wednesdays of each month at the homes of the various members. W'hile 
the study and discussion of Shakespeare and his works form an important 
item in the work, other authors and other themes are also taken up, and the 
year's program includes many subjects of interest. Tlie officers are: Presi- 
dent, Mrs. Minnie Naugle ; vice-president, Mrs. Jerry Jamison; secretary, 
Mrs. W. W. Hottel; treasurer, ]\Irs. Leroy Hobbs. 

ladies' piano club. 

Organized in 1896. the Fadies" Piano Club meets each three weeks with 
some member as hostess. A'ocal and instrumental selections are given at 
each meeting, with discussions of current events and music, a particular 
theme being the basis of the year's work. The officers are: Miss Fthel 
Shultz, president; Mrs. Harvey Morris, vice-president; Airs. R. R. Tash, 
secretary; and Mrs. Forest C. Tavlor, treasurer. 



The ufficers of the Junior Piano Ckib are: President, Ruby Graves; 
vice-president, Mary Thompson: secretary. Helen Shanks; treasurer, Lena 
Graves. -Meetings are held each month and the topics of interest are dis- 
cussed with readings and ^'ocal and instrumental selections. 


The PeneIoi)e Club is a club organized among the teachers of Salem, 
and while its main purpose has been one of fellowship and social pleasure, 
it has done much to foster a spirit of co-operation and mutual helpfulness 
among the teachers, and has resulted in better work and greater interest in 
the public schools. 



The minds of the niajorit\- nt people a century or more ago were 
strongly imbued with puritanical ideas. Many believed that in the moral 
and social realms whatever was pleasurable was sinful. The}' also believed 
that in the gastronomic world whatever tasted particularly good was neces- 
sarily unwholesome, and that the efficacy of medicines was in proportion to 
their nastiness and the consequent amount of discomfort that could be 
ihtlicted on the patient by their administration. Children especially were 
made to suffer by being deprived, wholly, or in part, nf the very things which 
e\-er\' healthx', normal stomach would cra\e. There is no doubt that the con- 
stant suggestions imparted to children in regard to the indigestibility of 
exerything they were particularly fond of, ine\ itabl\- weakened tlieir diges- 
ti\e powers, and man_\-, no doubt, were tluK moulded into chronic dvspeptics 
before their milk teeth \\ere all shed. It i> not a matter of w.-omler to us 
li\ing in this ad\-ance(l of ps\chologic;d research, thai -C"-' 'US results 
so (.if ten followed the inhibition of various articles of diet which went under 
the ban. The eating ot an_\'thing which do'ctors and people generally pro- 
n(.)uiice(l detrimental to good health was bound to produce bail results, unless 
it wah in the case of the small l)o\- who ])ai<l little attention to dietary restric- 
tion>, ha\ing more in fear the apjilication of the peach-tree switch for diM>be- 
dience than for any serious results arising from an overindulgence in the 
things he was ]>ositi\el\- forbidden to eat. In the summer season, particu- 
larlv, the edicts were ])r<iclaime(l loudest against articles of diet which were 
considered most dangerous, such ;is melons, tomatoes, lilackberries and most 
fruits, all oi which are now eaten with impunity, the doctor now telling 
his patient to eat w liat be likes. 

It was not, bowexer. rdone in regai'd to diet that doctors a century ago 
practiced upon the jtrinciple that whatexer was gratifyin.g to the ])atient 
must, for that reason, be inhibited. .\ cardinal principle of practice in cases 
of fever was that the patient must be kept in a close, warm room, without 
\entilation and on no account was a drink of cold water allowed, a warm 


decoction of slippery-elm bark being substituted therefor, and the thought of 
snow or ice in the sick room was terrible. Happily, most of the old doctors 
who practiced under the old regime are dead. A fever patient is now given 
the benefit of all the fresh air available. He is not only allowed to use cold 
water freely, but chopped ice is placed within his reach, everything being 
dune to add to his comfort. 


Another popular idea in old-time practice \\as that the efficiency of 
medicine was measured by the nastiness. The botanical system of medicine 
was apparently devised with special reference to the principle, that whatever 
was pleasant to the taste possessed very little therapeutic value. Medicines 
were indicated by numerals and "No. i" stood for that supreme herbal 
abomination, known to botanists as lobelia inflata. It was sure enough an 
emetic, and if it was selected to stand at the head of the list solely because 
of its nasty taste, no better selection could have been made. It was always 
the first medicine to be administered, no matter what the disease might be. 
Then followed the process of steaming and sweatmg, a bit more of the 
initiatory torture process. The patient who suiwived the lobelia treatment, 
always felt better, for it would have been impossible for him to have felt 
worse than when that particular nostrum was performing its mission. The 
initiatory ^tep followed by the Allopath was to try the effect of "blue-mass." 
The discomforts and distress that resulted from a big tablespoonful dose of 
this sickening mixture made a patient both glad and surpri.sed to find him- 
self alive when its effects subsided. E\en in early times the wise phy-sician 
practiced psychological treatment unwittingly when he doled out his dough 
pills, or laid aside his mysterious look and action long enough to drop a bit 
of encouragement and friendly cheer to his confiding patient. 

There is now no doubt that the Indian cured disease by the practice of 
incantations, and the frightening away of evil .spirits by means of hideous 
noises and the diabolical "make up" in which he presented himself at the 
bedside of his patient. These practices can be accounted for now scientific- 
ally, under the j^rinciple of mental suggestion, which physicians of all schools 
and healers of all classes now recognize as one of the greatest of therapeu- 
tic agents. Paracelsus, more than three hundred years ago, made a very 
distinct discovery, which was that a false belief, however induced, what- 
ever means employed, was just as efficacious for therapeutic purposes as a 
true one. faith being the sole condition precedent. 



While there were tew physicians in the country, and they remote from 
the back settlements, the .vomen doctors were very necessary factors in the 
body politic. To those isolated families scattered over the country where 
Washington county's domains are now defined, they were indispensable, and 
their ministrations were, in many instances, the only means available to 
relieve the sick and suiYering. The merits of their herbs may not well be dis- 
puted, nor need thev be defended, for they uften constituted the only choice 
in case of illness. Considering the limited supply of cures they could com- 
mand, their resources for assuaging suffering and ministering to the afflicted 
were — in the light of modern science — little less than marvelous. There 
was scarcely an herb or weed, growing in the wilds of the forests, that they 
did not use in some way in treating diseases of different kinds, and various 
kinds of herbs were grown in the garden, the foliage and roots of which 
were carefully laid away for future use. Most of tliese medicines were 
made into "teas" to be taken in copious draughts as prescribed. Poultices 
were favorite remedies for many ills and the\- were very eft'ecti\e in relie\- 
ing most kinds of aches and pain^. Girls were hardlv considered qualified 
to marr}- unless they had ac(_|uired considerable proficiency in the use and 
application of nature's simple remedies, as were then in comnKm use. P'or 
chronic ailments of all kinds, bitters, made up of whisky, barks of trees and 
roots, were the standard remedies, and there were as many ditterent com- 
binations prescribed as there were diseases to he treated. 

THE "patent medicine" MAN. 

In the early part of the last century "patent medicine men" caught on 
to the "l)itters" usage and waxed rich for many }-ears upon the credulity of 
the pul)lic. The fellow who put out a bitters for purifying the blood, pos- 
sessed a sovereign remedy for all ills that was heir to, for the reason 
that nearly all ills could ht traced to "liad blood." Liver remedies were 
most numerous of all, for a liad li\er. if neglected, was sure to bring in its 
train all sorts of ailments and misery. Some people, even in this age of 
progress and advancement, h,i\e not emerged entirely from the "bitters' 

"Fees" were not often s|)oken of, and sometime^ not thought of, in those 
davs when all good neighbors "helped nut." I'mliably more often than 


Otherwise those who needed the services of the woman doctor were not able 
adeqiiatel}- to compensate her, promising "some time to do as much for 
iier," when there was opportunity to do so. But the Good Samaritan was 
none the less \igilant and attentive, feeling that her first duty was to relieve 
the suiTering, and her own pecuniary welfare a second consideration. 
Whenever and from wherever the call came she was always prompt in the 
role of a ministering angel of mercy. No matter how dark or stormy the 
night, how far distant the call, her was quickly saddled by some male 
member of the household, while she donned her traveling habit and replen- 
ished her saddlebags with the necessary "roots and herbs" and was gone. 
It might be a midnight journey across the paths of wild beasts, along dimly- 
l>lazed trails beset by savages, across streams that were raging torrents, but 
nothing dismayed these fearless stout-hearted women who went forth on 
duty bent, never asking for or expecting an escort. They would, however, 
ofttimes be accompanied by the messenger who had been dispatched to secure 
her services, and who was sometimes needed to pilot the way through dark- 
ness and unfamiliar byways. The woman doctor had a horse that was 
always her own. and it usually was a pacing and swift-footed animal, the 
very best that the country produced, and it was cared, for, both at home and 
abroad, with great concern and solicitude. Perhaps the doctor would return 
by dawn, if her mission was ended, otherwise she would remain for days 
at a stretch, faithfully nursing the sick and not unfrequently acting in the 
capacity of cook, housekeeper and general caretaker. Their ministrations 
never cea; ed till advancing years warned them of the limitations nature set 
upon their powers of endurance. 


Women practitioners were distinguished from men by the appellaticjn 
"Granny," instead of "Doctor," and they were proud of the title. Among 
some of our older people the names of Granny Lusk, Granny Robertson, 
Granny Scott, Granny Hinds and Granny Emery are still remembered. Dr. 
Mary Lusk resided on Walnut Ridge, and probably enjoyed the widest repu- 
tation of any "Granny" in the whole country. She felt equal to any emer- 
gency when human ills were to be treated and was quite a surgeon as well. 
It was not infrequently that she responded to calls over in Jackson county, 
twenty-five miles distant, and no doubt earned the wide reputation she 
enjoyed. It is said that a numljer of times she swam her horse across the 
Aluscatatuck river in order to reach her patients promptly when the call was 


very urgent. Epidemics of various kinds were more common in the early 
settlements of the county than they are now and at such times it hecame 
necessary for all the doctors in the country to be almost constantly in the 
saddle till the worst was < .er. Idierc is no question that the old time female 
doctor was more sympathetic in her administrations to the sick than men 
doctors, and knew, from experience, more about the nursing and dieting of 
patients. Rut the enactment of laws making it necessary for practicing phy- 
sicians to lla^•e license before they could minister to the sick and afflicted, 
gradually paved the way for the retirement of the woman doctors about the 
middle of the last century. 



Tlie first newspaper published in the town of Salem was called the 
Tocsin. The first number of this ancient publication was issued on March 
17. iiSi8. It was a four-column folio, published weekly, at two dollars per 
annum, in advance ; two dollars and fifty cents, in six months ; or three 
dollars at the expiration of the year. "The highest Salem market prices for 
wheat, corn, beef, pork, corn blades, hay, oats, etc., will be allowed in the 
discbarge of delits due this ofiice," was the announcement made by the pro- 
prietor of the paper. In adrlition to local and legal advertisements — which 
were not \-ery extensive — the paper was filled up with congressional news, 
one month old, and news from abri;ad that had taken three months to get to 
this western country. No column rules were used, just a blank space being 
left between each column of reading matter. 

The population of Salem at that time did not exceed one thousand 
inhabitants. But the early settlers were generally intelligent and enterpris- 
ing, and a considerable portion of the people were well educated for that 
da\ : that is, they could read and write. They desired to keep posted on 
news from the outside world and as a necessary consequence demanded a 
well conducted home newspaper. Ilie paper started out with a subscription 
list of al)out two hundred and fifty names. When the Tocsin sprang into 
life, there were but very few newspapers published in Indiana. The state, 
as such, was little more than a yearling, consequently the Tocsin became at 
once the news, advertising and publication medium for the counties of 
\\'ashington, Jackson, Monroe, Orange and perhaps others. 

The enterprising editors and projjrietors of this first newspaper ven- 
ture were b'benezer Patrick and Reebe Booth. \\'h\- thev chose the term 
"'I'ocsin" ;is their news]iaper title does not a])])ear. Then there were no or- 
ganized jiarty conflicts, the only exciting (|uestion of public notoriety being 
the (le])reciated paper currency then in circulation. Except the Florida 
Seminole trouble, there was neither war nor rumor of war. Spain and 
the United States were then jieacefully settling the question of their 
boundary lines in the south ami west. Still Patrick & Booth projMsed to 


sound a weekly tocsin on their newly-polished alarm liell. They were both 
active, energetic, enterprising men. Indeefl, to \enture on tlie publication 
of a village paper, at that time, demanded nerve and financial skill. It was 
to say the least, an unti >d experiment in a field entirely new. One of 
the old settlers was afterwards heard to say that Booth furnished the funds 
and Patrick the brains to start the thing going. 

Patrick had learned the printing business liack east before he came to 
Indiana. He was a versatile genius. He was an editor, an associate judge 
(under a provision of Indiana's first Constitution), a preacher and a school 
master. As a writer his style was generally terse. At times he was not a 
little witt}', then sarcastic, and not infrec|uently editorially belligerent. As 
a tyjxT he was considered a "thoroughbred" workman, and the paper he got 
uut was a model of neatness, notwithstanding the fact that the press and 
material he had at his command were somewhat rude and imperfect. .\s a 
preacher he was plain, free from sing-song delivery and occasionally zealous 
to'the highest pitch of enthusiasm. Nor did he in his ministerial functions 
always eschew fun. He was a practical joker. On a certain occasion, being 
called upon to ride a few miles into the country to marry a couple of rather 
"green Hoosiers," and being under the necessity of ha\ing his horse shod 
l)efore he could make the trip, he inquired of the blacksmith what he would 
charge for the shoeing. The smith replied: "Half the marriage fee." Pat- 
rick readily promised to give this. He journeyed out to the country, tied up 
his couple, got a good dinner, and when he got ready to start home the 
ilelighted groom rushed u]) and tijld him he was a thousand! times obliged 
to him for his trouble. Patrick, on returning to .Salem, \-ery promptly- 
hunted up the blacksmith, to whom he said: "I give you fi\e hundred 
thanks for shoeing my horse. I got a thousand as the marriage fee, and 
according to contract, I give you one-half." 

As associate judge. Patrick was much more than a mere cipher on the 
bench, and with the co-operation of his equal on the bench, his positive 
character often led him to oppose the rulings of the chief justice, and over- 
rule his decisions. .As a school master, Patrick did not consider himself a 
great success, although he taught a niuuber of schools. He said: "In the 
schoolmaster's profession there is too much tuonotou}', too much of the spirit 
of 'Baker' for me." "Baker" was a word that headed the first two-syllable 
c^ilumn in "Webster's Speller." E\en in that early day he saw the evils of 
intemperance, and was a radical ad\ocate of prohibiting both the manufac- 
ture and sale of whisky altogether, although at that time farmers had no 
wav of disposing of their surplus corn so profitably as to lup/e it made into 


whisky and the products of still-houses brought more ready money into 
the county than any other one thing. In the Tocsin, Patrick frequently 
gave utterance to his temperance sentiments. On this question his trumpet 
gave no uncertain sound. 


The name of Beebee Booth will live long in the early history of the 
county, if for no other reason than that he was the father of Newton Booth, 
who rast his lot among the early emigrants to California and afterward 
became governor and United States senator of that state. But Beebee Booth 
was a man possessed of more than ordinary ability; fine-looking, mild-spoken 
and withal a gentleman in the truest sense of that oft-abused term. For 
many years he was a successful merchant and manufacturer, and so affable 
were his manners that the young ladies of that day, when about to take 
upon themselves matrimonial alliances, thought Booth & Newly's store the 
only place to obtain choice, up-to-date wedding outfits. 

Booth was also an early advocate of the temperance movement, and 
was one of the active originators of the Washington County Peace Society. 
While connected with the paper he frequently contributed to its columns 
and assisted in shaping its policy. The ofiice was located above his store, 
which was the corner building on lot 8, on the north side of the public 
square. The office was reached by an outside stairway in the rear of the 
building, and it was here that Mr. Patrick received an injury on the head 
and from which' it was said he never fully recovered. The door that opened 
into the office got fastened some way, and while Patrick was pulling and 
■jerking at it vigorously, it gave way suddenly and he was precipitated 
backwards to the foot of the stairs, upon a pile of wood, where he was 
picked up in a very much battered and bruised condition; the most serious 
injury being about the head. 

At the close of the first volume of the Tocsin, Booth's connection 
ceased, and Patrick continued the publication. In the first issue of the paper, 
March 22, 1819, Patrick said, editorially: "We this day issue the first 
number of the second volume of the Tocsin. We did not allow the profits 
of the office, at the commencement of the paper, would more than defray 
the expense for two or three years: but did we consider all our subscribers' 
dues as good as cash in the old stocking, safely deposited in the drawer, we 
might reckon to ourselves a small profit, as compensation for our labor. 


What is due for subscription we hope will be considered as money lent, 
without drawing one cent of interest — which debts in honor require the 
most prompt payment. We acknowledge a profit from job work, but from 
the paper we acknowledge none. Our paper is beneficial to us in this respect 
only, it secures to us the principal part of the job work in this part of the 
country. We do not expect to derive profit from the paper for some years. 
We shall be highly gratifietl to see it diffusing knowledge and just principles 
for the support of our freedom and the security of our rights. Should our 
country increase in wealth and population, as it has done, we shall undoubt- 
edly be well rewarded for our labor." 

This announcement showed that while he could find very little encour- 
agement in the first year's experience in operating the paper, he could still see 
ahead bright prospects for the future. In April, 1819, Matthew Patrick 
became associated with his brother in the concern, but remained with it less 
than a year, when Ebenezer Patrick again operated the paper alone, which 
he continued to do till the close of the third volume, near the first of ]\Iay, 
182 1. 

Then followed a newspaper interregnum in Salem for a year, the pat- 
ronage not being suiticient to pay for the issuing of the paper, to say nothing 
of profit for time, labor and a return on capital invested. Ebenezer and 
Eleazer Wheelock, nephews of Mr. Patrick, purchased the material used in 
printing the Tocsin, and on ^la}' 3, 1822, issued the first number of a 
[)aper, entitled the Indiana Fanner. 

The Wheelocks were new men in the town, but the}- possessed energy 

and sprightly intellect. Their salutatory was full of optimism for the future 

of the town and surrounding countrv. In the first volume of this second ' 

. . 1 

newspaper \enture much attention was gnen to agricultural news and the [ 

development of the new lands, still covered with forests, all o^•er the county. 
Quite a numlier of lengthy communications from tillers of the soil found a 
place in the Farmer, thus making it popular with everybody. In the latter 
part of the \ olume, the art of President-making received some critical atten- 
tion. It was suggested that the time had fully arrived when the sovereign 
people should take more interest in pul)lic affairs, particularly in the selection 
ijf men who were to rule over them and make their laws; that there should 
be a departure from the "line of safe precedents." and that "cabinet succes- 
sions" and congressional renominations by a fa\ored few should be at an 

In political matters, the Farmer was independent, as no indications as 
to who its fa\'orites were could be detected. Jackson's bra\"erv and militarv 


exploits were admired; the diplomacy of Adams applauded; the eloquence 
and statesmanship of Clay commended, and the acknowledged integrity and 
trustworthiness of Crawford not overlooked. From May 3, 1822, to April 
17, 1826, Patrick and the Wheelocks, one or the other, sometimes both, 
were directors of the paper. In the spring of 1824 Wheelock went to 
Bloomington to start a paper called the Clarion, but some time in 1825 he 
was back in Salem again and assumed full ownership of the Farmer. In 
the early part of 1826 his health failed and Patrick rented the office for 
a vear, and in assuming charge of the same, changed the name back to the 
old title, Tocsin. 


In this last volume of the Tocsin. Patrick's political preferences took 
decided shape. The two great national parties were assuming shape and 
people lining themselves up on one side or the other, according to their con- 
victions. One was called the Administration, or Adams party; the other the 
Jackson party. One the Whig, the other the Democratic party. The Toc- 
sin sided with the Adams party. But, in the main, there was no great poHti- 
cal excitement till about the close of 1826, when Henry S. Handy purchased 
the oitice of Wheelock, and the Tocsin gave place to the Annotator. 

The first number of the Annotator was issued on January i, 1827. 
Handy was a sprightly little man, with a remarkably prominent nose. He 
was well educated and possessed a strong personality. He came to Salem 
a perfect stranger, but after a year's residence became quite a prominent 
figure in public affairs, and was chosen to pronounce the oration at the 
celebration of the ninety-sixth anniversary of Washington's birth. His per- 
formance was regarded as a very learned effort. From some circumstance 
now not remembered, the editor of the Annotator was commonly called 
"General" Handy, but like the boy said of Marion, he was a "monstrous 
little man to be a general.'' The Annotator was considerably larger than 
any of its predecessors had been. It was made a twenty-four column folio. 
In the outset it took a decided stand against the Adams party. A strong 
preference in favor of Andrew Jackson for the ensuing presidency marked 
all his editorials. 

The date of the first issuance of the Annotator noted the beginning of 
the first Democratic paper ever published in Washington county. During 
the entire first volume Handy was sole editor and proprietor. In volume 
II, number 2, his name appeared as proprietor and J. Allen, as printer. This 
number was issued on March 8. 1828. About the beginning of this year a 


very large Jackson mass meeting was held in Salem, in which "General" 
Handy was quite conspicuous, being the author of a lengthy address to the 
l>eople — which was adopted at the meeting — every paragraph of which 
began with the then note<.' phrase, "Believing as we do." The paragraphs 
in the address were numerous, and the phrase became a political by-word 
during the canvass of that noted year. 

On June 7, 1828, John Allen's name appeared as junior editor, and 
H. S. Handy announced himself a candidate for Congress. In the issue of 
July 12, Handy withdrew from the congressional race and departed for 
Xew York. His coming into the county was unannounced anfl his departure 
was as sudden and unexpected. 

John Allen became sole proprietor of the Annntator and so continued 
to the close of the second vokmie. The third vohmie was commenced on 
May 2, 1829. At that time distinctive western interests were constant 
themes of political discussion, and Mr. .\llen came to the conclusion to 
prefix, as a matter of policy, the term "Western" to the existing title of his 
paper, and thus originated the If cstcni Annotator. William Tannehill, a 
printer, now took stock in the plant, and this relation was maintained to the 
close of the third volume. Prior to the date of his forming the co-partner- 
ship with Allen, Tannehill had started a paper entitled the Salon Literary 
Register, but he published it but a short time, and finding that it was a losing 
adventure, suspended its publication. 

On August 19. 1830, a competitor in the newspaper line entered the 
field. Eljenezer Patrick, the old newspaper war-horse, laitl aside the school- 
master's birch, picked up the printer's stick again and unfurled the banner 
of the Indiana Times. But the life of this paper was doomed to be brief. 
.^ little less than four months had gone by when the Times office and every- 
thing it contained went up in smoke — this on December 21, 1830. This 
calamity stopped for a time newspaper controversy in Salem. Patrick's loss 
by the fire was considerable, as the plant was a new one, but ere long, out of 
the ashes of the Times was hatched the Phoeni.r. 

Wishing to a\'oid political controversy, Patrick hoisted the flag of neu- 
trality, under which he sailed for about ten months. But neutral colors did 
not keep peace between the columns of the PJweni.v and the Annotator. 
Both editors were inclined to be belligerent. Keen were the darts and 
pointed the arrows hurled back and forth in this ink and type warfare. In 
the presidential campaign of 1832 the Phoeni.r man hauled down his neutral 
flag and spread to the breeze a broad Henry Clay banner, and from that tune 


Oil till the close of the campaign the missiles flew thick and fast between 
Allen and Patrick. 

In the latter part of December, 1832, James G. May became one of the 
editors of the Annotator. Patrick at once opened a scathing broadside upon 
him. May retaliated in like kind, with all the power of cruel irony and 
bitter sarcasm at his command. This warfare lasted till the death of the 
Phoenix, which occurred on June 15, 1833. Allen gave it a pithy obituary 
notice. On May 4, 1833, John Allen became a candidate to represent the 
county in the ensuing Legislature, and soon thereafter the editorial manage- 
ment of the IVcstern Annotator devolved chiefly upon James G. May. Allen 
was a very popular man and would no doubt have won the office to which 
he aspired, but on July 6 he died of cholera. His wife's death preceded his 
six days. They left behind them a little five-year-old boy, of whom they 
were very fond. The boy was carefully cared for and educated, went west 
and became a noted man — B. F. Allen, of Des Moines, Iowa. 

At the time of Allen's death the sixth volume of his paper lacked but 
tweh'e numbers of completion, which May, as surviving partner, completed. 
May continued to run the paper till the fall of 1834, a part of the time his 
brother, William May, being in charge of the mechanical department of the 
paper. About September i, 1835, they issued a prospectus for the eighth 
\olunie, in which many improvements were contemplated, but before the 
new volume was begun, James G. May was chosen superintendent of Deca- 
tur County Seminary, which position he accepted, and thus ended the West- 
crn Annotator. The property being for sale, was in due time turned over to 
Dr. Charles Hay and Royal B. Child, the purchasers. They changed the 
name to the Indiana Monitor. 


Doctor Hay was an old-school Henry Clay Whig, and as a matter of 
course the Monitor was an unadulterated advocate of Whig policies. Doctor 
Hay came to Salem from Lexington, Kentucky, to practice his profession. 
He gained many lasting friends in consequence of the devoted attention he 
bestowed on the afflicted during the prevalence of the cholera in Salem 
during June and July, 1833. R. B. Child, the other proprietor, was a practi- 
cal printer and took full charge of the publishing end of the business. Under 
their management the Monitor was continued through three volumes, when 
Child disposed of his interest to Z. W. Rowse, and the name of the paper 
was changed to the Salem Whig. 


Rowse was a new man in the community, hut. he was taken up at once 
by his pohtical friemls and encMurageil in his new enterprise. lie was young 
and energetic, and had entered upon his work in Salem at the beginning of 
a great pohtical conflict. He forged ahead and struggled hard for the 
triumph of his partv in that Imtly-contested struggle of 1840. Thn )ughout 
the canvass the Whig fought with vehemence for "Tippecanoe and Tyler 
too." During the entire conflict that comity alwa_\s due a manly oijponent 
was scrupulously awarded. The bouts the Salcvi JVhig had with its lively 
competitor, the Republican, were conducted in a gentlemanly manner, free 
from scurrilous and personal innuendoes. 

On December 30, i8.|.o, the partnershi]) lietween Hiay and Rowse was 
dissolved. Doctor Hav retiring. He, with other leading business men of the 
town, had lost their all in the disastrous failure of the old company store 
and mill, and concluding that a new start could be made sold out and went 
to A\'arsaw, Illinois, in the spring of 1841. Mr. Rowse continued the pub- 
lication of the Wing till his death. March 16, 1841, and with his death the 
Salon IJ'hif/ ceased. 

During most of the time that Doctor Hay was at the head of the 
Monitor and the Whig there was a lively competitor in the field. The county 
was strongly Jacksonian, and as sonn as the Annotator changed hands and 
became the organ of the opixwition, the Jack>on men were not long in get- 
ting together for the imrpose ( 
they so de.arly cherished. .Xccn! 
and sufficient funds were cimt 
James Markwell. lugether wit! 
former as pniprietnr and the la 
imiton Republican wa> ^tarteil. 
selves as Repulilicans. hence the name. 

For the ensuing twn year> there were -everal change-; in the manage- 
ment of the paper. In December. i8;^(). L. Menaugh was for a time 
manager, with J. < ). \\ alter-; a^ pulilisher. .\nd again James Markwell was 
on the tripi'd. .\s it wa- being run there was not enough in the business to 
justif\- the emiiloyment o\ a competent man to operate it regularly and suc- 
cessfullv. In ITTruary. 1840, the office was closed, whereupon satisfactory 
arrangement-; were made an<l bTary and Tucas became bona fide owners of 
the plant, and imm that time on it was o])erated successfully. On the 28th 
of ]\Iarcli, 1840. thev issued the hr-t numlier of the new. or sectind series, 
of the paper. 

Whh 1-Tarv at the beini the Republican did nolile work for the Democ- 

starting a 


to advocate the principles 

mgly .a stoc 

■k conii 

lany was organzied (|uietly 

l)nte<l to p 


■ a newspaper outfit, and 

James M. 


were put in charge — the 

er as c.lit.v 

r, and ; 

m April, i8_^8, the JJ'ash' 


in tho 

ise da\-s still stvle.l them- 


racy in the campaign of 1840. This canvass was the most exciting in the 
political history of the country up to that time. The Democrats were put 
upon the defensive in defending the acts of Van Buren, who was their can- 
didate for re-election. The Whigs poured hot shot into the ranks of their 
opponents, inflicting them with every form of dart that partisan art and 
malice could invent. Business men advertised to pay farmers six dollars a 
barrel for flour if Harrison should be elected — three dollars if Van Buren 
should be successful. To what extent this obligation was carried out is not 

In the fall of 1840, just before the election, Lucas married, and, it is 
said, changed his politics, and severed his connection with the Republican. 
In December, 1841. Frary disposed of the establishment to Thomas P. Will- 
iams, and C. L. Dunham became editor. On June 22, 1843, Dunham retired 
and Thomas P. Baldwin took upon himself the duties of editor, and con- 
ducted the paper through the memorable campaign when Polk and Clay were 
pitted against each other. The question of admitting Texas into the Union 
was the one upon which the people were divided, the Democrats favoring 
and the Whigs opposing same. On April 20, 1845, ^- B. J. Twyman assumed 
editorial management and changed the title to the People's Advocate. 

During the second life of the Republican two hundred and fifty-two 
numbers were published. Twyman remained with the paper less than a 
year, but Williams continued the Advocate till his death, which occurred 
about October i, 1845. Here Calvin Frary once more purchased the plant, 
and on October 12. 1845, issued the first number of the third series of the 
IWishington Republican. He continued its publication until he sold out to 
John I. Morrison, in November, 1847, from which date it is not so difificult 
to trace down the life history of the Salem Democrat of today. 

With a number of changes in title, and a few intervening weeks of sus- 
pension between times when changes of ownership were being made, the 
present Salem Democrat can trace its life line back to January i, 1838, when 
Markwell and Lucas first started the Washington Republican. The same 
press and tyi^e purchased new for the Republican forever thereafter was 
used in printing a Democratic paper, and up to the time of the burning of 
the Democrat office, August i, 1875, old Robert Harrison, the "typo" who 
learned his trade under Patrick and Booth, said he recognized some of the 
joli and display type in the office that was purchased when the Republican 
was first started. 

It now becomes necessary to revert to 1841, when the old Whig passed 
out of existence, and shortly thereafter William H. May purchased the 


plant and on April 22, 1841, issued the first number of the Western Com- 
mentator. He chose for a motto the dying words of President Harrison, 
then fresh in the minds of all, which indicated the shade of politics that was 
to be sustained by the new paper. The editorial department was assigned 
to James G. May. In September, following, the office was purchased and 
taken to Madison, Indiana, where the Cu)iui!C)itator was changed to a tem- 
perance daily. 


The Whigs in the county now felt the need of an organ to l:>attle for 
their principles. Marcus L. Deal and Miles M. Birdsong were prevailed 
upon to start a paper, and in January, 1845, they began the publication of 
the Salem Weekly Nezvs. This paper lived till November 27, 1852. For 
a time previous to its close I\Ir. Deal was alone in the work. In volume VI, 
n'umber 2. issued on January 17, 185 1, was a lengthy article, under flaming 
headlines, announcing the arrival of railroad cars in Sa'em. This important 
event occurred on January 15, 185 1. 

The AVu'j- lived through two vigorous presidential campaigns, l)attling 
zealously, first for Zachariah Taylor in 1848, and then in 1852 fur General 
Scott, In number 33, volume MI. ?vlr. Deal announced that two more 
numbers would close the Nc7vs. and in the same number it was announced 
that the A'e'7*;' Albany Tribune would treat patrons of the Xeti's. filling out 
all over-paid subscriptions, and thus ended the Salon Jl'eelcly Xez^'s. 

On the 19th of June, 1855, Howard' Coe and Lionel R. Kuniville 
unfurled the American True Flu;/. In volume I the editors of the Flag 
had quite a war of words with Z. S. Garriott. at that time editor of the 
Washington Deniocrat. which, like all similar wars, en(le<l when the con- 
testant's ammunition was all expended. 

In number 31, Tanuarv S, 1856, Rum\ille took lea\e of the Flag and 
left the countrv. Coe continued the publication till the close of the volume, 
when Thomas Collins Ijecame owner and ushered in the .iniericau Citicen. 
the first "issue of which appeared on June 19. 1856. This was during 
"know-nothing" times, when the old Whig party was giving way to the 
formation of the new Republican The campaign of 1856 was an exciting 
one. The "know-nothings" was an American party and very strongly 
opposed to foreigners in every way. Xew citizens were mobbed at the jiolls 
and in many instances robbed of tlit-ir rights to vote by the combineil ett'ort 
of this secret order of "know-nothings." Their career entled with the clos- 
ing of the 1856 campaign. 


On June ii, 1857, the Citizen ended its days. The office remained 
closed till February 18, 1858, when A. C. Trueblood and B. F. Hicks 
brought forth the Salciii Ti)ncs. They were both practical printers and 
edited their paper as well. On November 10, 1859, Frank Hicks retired 
and E. P. Huston took his place. During Trueblood & Huston's adminis- 
tration the bloodiest conflict that has ever marked American politics was 
begun. They were very strong administration supporters after Lincoln's 

.\. C. Trueblood's name apjieared for the last time in connection with 
the Times on May g. 1861. He joined the army, disposing of his interest 
in the paper to John I. Morrison. In this arrangement, Morrison and Hus- 
ton came together, having prior to this date been political opponents. Morri- 
son had joined the ranks of the Republican party. On the 6th of June, 1861, 
the Times was clothed in mourning for Stephen A. Douglas, who had 
recently died. 

On June 13, 1865, the name Salcvi Times gave place to the Union 
Adz'oeate. The condition of the times induced the change. In number 41, 
of this series. Huston retired, and Morrison became the sole proprietor of 
the .-Idvoeate. Later on he took into the firm David A. Burton, as publisher. 
Morrison continued his relation with the Advocate to the close of the sixth 
volume, June 24, 1864, and in his valedictory stated that most of the edi- 
torial work for the preceding six months had been done by James G. May. 

George \'. Smith became proprietor and publisher of the Advocate, 
with May as editor. Thus began the seventh volume. About March 9, 1865, 
r. H. and J. P. Cozine purchased the establishment. They operated the 
paper but a short time. The printing material was sold and shipped away. 

.\bout the middle of March, 1869, J. S. Butler and O. T. Kendall com- 
menced the ]niblication of a paper entitled the Salem Mercury. The life of 
this paper was short, probably not more than six months. In September, 
1872, D. M. .Als]5augh and C. .\. Allen liegan the publication of the Salem 
Republican, hut it ceased on January 5, 1873. .T- H. Taggant started a small 
sheet in 1874, entitled the Free Press, Init only about eighteen numbers were 

On Xo\enil)er 26, 1874, Lyman S. Fulmer started the Independent, 
and continued its publication until .'Xpri! 22, 1875, when S. B. Voyles, F. L. 
Pron and J. M. Caress purchased his plant and kept it up till December 16. 
1875, when John L. Menaugh became owner, who operated it for a short 
time and sold to parties at Fredericksburg, where a paper was started. 



At this point it is nc-essary to return to November, 1847. ^^ is a mat- 
ter of some historical importance to look up the origin and progress of the 
newspaper that can rightfully claim the longest life of any newspaper ever 
published in Salem. Though of long duration, it has been the victim of 
various mutations. The Democratic organ of the county has heretofore 
been traced down under various titles, from January. 1838. to Xovember 
2/, 1847, at which time Morrison and Taylor purchased the plant and issued 
the first number of the IVashington Democrat. 

With the name of John I. jNIorrison all Indiana was once very familiar. 
He faithfully filled the responsible office of treasurer of state, was a member 
of the convention that formed the present state Constitution, besides other 
important positions of public trust. But the crowning work of his life was 
found in his ofiice of teacher. In this his ability, tact and fidelity made real 
men and women, and of these there were by no means a few who made 
their mark in life. 

]\Ir. Taylor was a practical printer and took charge of the printing 
department. When the banner of the IVashiiujton Dcnwcrat was llung to 
the breeze, the Weekly Xezvs was well advanced in its second \o!ume. 
Opposing politics and competition gave spice to both papers. In the presi- 
dential campaign of 1848 Air. Taylor lal)ored hard for the election of 
Lewis Cass, the regular Democratic nominee, and devoted all his energy, 
both on the stump and in the editorial chair, to restrain Indiana Democrats 
from falling into line with Wan P.uren. the then great leader of Democratic 
seceders. About December i, 18411. th^' paper passed to \A'illiams X: Owens. 
In the issue of Januar}- 5. 1850, William Williams appears as proprietor 
and T. X. Jordan, editor. This relatiim w.-is sustained during fort\- weekly- 
issues, when Air. Jordan retired, saying in his \ aledicturx- that he had not 
had a single S(|uabble with an\- of the editorial fraternitx'. 

For a time Air. Williams worked .-dnne. but < -n Fchruar}- _'8. 1S52, 
Horace Heffren and William Williams st,,,,,! fMrih a^ joint The 
services of Heft'ren \\ere secured \o gi\e additiniial strength to the paper 
during the state and presidential caiuass of that year. Hetfren was a new 
lawyer in the county and an able and iiiignaci(Tus Democrat. There never 
was a political campaign during his entire life that he did not tii^ure in 
prominently one way or another. The political struggle of 185 j \\as a 
fierce one. The Whig jiart}- had nominated General Scott for the prcsi- 


dency, while the Democrats had Frankhn Pierce. Scott had shown himself 
a iiost on the battlefield and for a time it was apprehended that he would 
prove as formidable in the political arena, so it behooved the Democrats to 
be on the alert if the}- hoped to win. 

Through the sixth volume Mr. Williams worked alone. In the seventh 
volume. ]\Iarch ,^, 1834, Z. .S. Garriott entered the concern as joint editor. 
He made no bow to the patrons of the Democrat and in the same volume, 
number 48, as silently withdrew. In volume VIII, number 27, August 17, 
1855, Garriott appeared as sole editor, Williams publisher and promoter. 
This relation existed to the close of the eighth volume, January i, 1856. 
That year Mr. Williams was elected to the office of auditor of the county, 
but retained the proprietorship of the Doiiocrat, with Garriott as editor. 
In numlier 2, \olume XI. January, 1858, Z. S. Garriott stood forth as both 
editor and proprietor till August 25, 1859, when he stepped out and Levi D. 
Maxwell became publisher and proprietor. 

Z. S. Garriott was a young man of ver)' promising talent, a talent which 
unimpaired, would have rendered him, had he li\ed, one of the powerful 
men of the state. Maxwell continued the publication O'f the Democrat up to 
April 19, i860. Wilunie XII. num]>er 4(), contained his valedictory and the 
salutatory of Horace Heffren, who. with Thomas Telle as publisher, now 
controlled the destinies of the paper. This arrangement lasted till June i, 
1861, when both editor and publisher entered the army. For a month or 
two an old printer named Robert Harrison got out a paper, when on August 
22. 186 1. G. V. Johnson took charge, changed the name and issued a paper 
bearing the title ^f the Banner of Liberty. He continued this publication 
to number 5, of the second vohmie, when O. T. Kendall with H. Heffren 
as editnr. tnok charge, and on Sejitemljer 25. 1862, the name Washington 
Democrat i-esunieil. 

This orcjer was continued till September 1863, when George Fultz and 
William P. Greene became purchasers and proprietors, the latter being editor- 
in-chief. This arrangement continued for about one year when Fultz 
became sule owner. During this ownership, which continued for about 
seven years. O. T. Kendall was local editor and publisher for several years, 
and was succeeded by M. P. Armstrong, who remained on the paper till 
Fultz sold out. \\hile he owned the pa])er Fultz was sheriff of the county 
for two terms and was an as])irant for other county offices. He was, in 
1872. his ]iarty's candidate for county treasurer, but was defeated. He was 
a very enterjirising and hard-working citizen, but had very little education 
and never gaxe a great amount of attention toward establishing a first-class 


country printing office. He always had other things on hand vhich he con- 
sidered of more importance than the newspaper and it might be said that 
while he owned it, the paper ran itself. 

On February 22, 1872. Warder W. Stevens and A. A. Cravens became 
joint editors and proprietors and with the first issue the name of the paper 
was changed to the Salem Democrat. They were both energetic young men 
and had recently graduated from the state university. They started out to 
make improvement in everything pertaining to the establishment. The old 
printing press, called the "Washington hand press," had seen service for 
more than thirty years and the type had long before been worn out and 
unfit to use. All this material was exchanged for new. The office was 
removed from a dark, dirty second-story room on South Main street, that 
stood on the south end of lot 16. to commodious quarters on the third floor, 
No. 7, Lyon's block, with editorial rooms and business office underneath, 
on- the second floor. The "patent outside"' was soon disposed of and the 
paper was all home print. A new job press was installed and first-class 
printers employed. In short, the entire establishment was put in shape so 
that it was a credit to the town. 

The business moved along seemingly without any mishap until Satur- 
day night, August l, 1874, when the entire three-story block which stood on 
lots 5 and 6, and known as Lyon's block, was burned to the ground. A 
few cases of type were all that was saved from the printing office. News- 
paper files and subscription list were rescued from the editorial rooms. The 
proprietors, with commendable energy, took' their typos to New .\lbany, 
where, in the Ledger-Standard office, the regiilar issue of the following 
Wednesday was issued on time. An entire new outfit was procured and 
installed in time for the issuance of the next number, so that not a single 
issue of the paper was prevented by the conflagration. 


On October 28, 1874, A. .\. Cravens retired from the paper on account 
of failing health. Warder W. Stevens becoming sole proprietor and editor. 
The paper was soon made ti) rank among the first weeklies of the state and 
from a mechanical standpoint it was generally conceded to have no equal. 
Increased patronage was such that it was soon necessary to add new facilities 
to the printing department and accordingly a fine power press, operated by 
a two and one-half horsepower steam engine was installed on December 22, 
1875. the first that was ever in Salem. The office was now complete in all 


its appointments and enjoyed an extensive patronage. For some time, three 
papers, beside the Democrat were printed in this office. For the first two 
years, after the Indiana Student was started (a state university college 
paper), the printing was done in Salem. For nearly three years the Demo- 
crat turned out a neat little paper called the Mirror, edited and published 
by Rev. W. M. Jordan, of Salem, devoted to religious and temperance mat- 
ters. For some considerable time there was also printed a thirty-six-page 
monthly, called Ancient Landinarks, edited and circulated by Rev. W. H. 
Krutsinger, of Ellettsvillc, Indiana, devoted to religious topics and the 
Christian church. 

During the time the paper was conducted by Mr. Stevens a special 
feature was old-time reminiscences, and from the pens of H. Heffren, James 
G. May, and others much of the early history of Washington county has 
been preserved, as gathered from the mouths of pioneer settlers. A special 
"Centennial Issue" of the Democrat, printed on February 23, 1876. con- 
tained eight pages of matter devoted exclusively to the early history of the 
county. Warder W. Stevens stepped down and out of the proprietorship 
and editorial management of the Salem Democrat on February 26, 1883, 
having been connected with the paper for over eleven years, issuing five 
hundred and seventy-two numbers. 

Dr. R. J. Wilson took over the Democrat office on February 26, 1883. 
Full of energy and enterprise, coupled with ability, his administration was 
very successful. Wilson conducted the paper till June, 1886, when he sold 
out to D. A. Jennings, from Ohio. Jennings was smart but not properly 
balanced. Every individual that had a skeleton in their closet had it brought 
forth to public gaze. He made himself so very unpopular that he was 
waited upon one dark night by a vigilance committee and received some 
rough treatment. He sold out to Menaugh Brothers, E. W. and C. C, on 
October 13, 1898, who conducted the paper till December 21, 1908, when 
Charles R. Morris and Henry E. Smith purchased the plant and are now 
operating the same. 

.After disposing of the Democrat. Jennings started a sheet which he 
called the Searchlight, which he sold to Cauble and Garriott a year later, 
who changed the name to the Washington County Democrat, which had a 
peaceful death a year later and the remains were purchased by the then 
proprietors of the Salem Democrat. 

John Gresham started the Washington County Dispatch in the summer 
of 1895, ran it two years, when it was suspended for lack of patronage. 
In 1874 Lyman Fulmer started the Salem Independent which he ran for a 


year and a half, and getting into trouble sold the plant to J. L. Menaugh, 
who operated it a few months and sold out to Allan Smith, who moved the 
plant to Fredericksburg and started a paper. The Democratic Sun was 
started in 1889 and for iunr or five years was under the management of C. 
C. Menaugh, when it was merged with the Salem Democrat. 


In tracing the historv of the Republican-Leader, now edited and pub- 
lished by John W. Lewis, it seems proper to begin with the year 1878, when 
the Salem Press made its first appearance under the editorship and pro- 
prietorship of Charles A. Allen. The Press was a four-column folio and 
Republican in politics. On the ist of January, 1881, it was enlarged to a 
five-column folio and the sulxscription price advanced from sixty cents per 
annum to one dollar. After five years of the usual newspaper experience 
of "ups and downs'" the plant was transferred to Heber H. Allen, the 
brother of Charles A., and it was enlarged to a seven-column folio. The 
paper enjoyed a very good circulation and was liberally patronized in the 
advertising and job-work departments. It was the organ of the Republican 
partv of Washington county, well managed and ably conducted. 

About the year 1884 the plant passed into the hands of Lew O. Salt- 
marsh, a voung printer of experience and ability. The name was changed 
to the Republican Press, but was subsec|uently called the True-Blue Repub- 
lican and under that name continued to advocate the principles of the Repub- 
lican party. Harvey Morris was the political editor of the True-Blue 
Republican during the ownership of Mr. Saltmarsh. 

It was in the year 1881 that James A. Kemp issued the first number of 
the Salem Leader and ardently supported the principles of the Republican 
party. The publication prospered from the beginning and after a few years 
Mr. Kemp found it necessary to enlarge his plant. He built a commodious 
building on the north side of the public square, which was the home of his 
paper for manv years. He added a power press and new t}pe to the plant 
and made many other changes in the business, among which was the pur- 
chase of the True-Blue Republican — its name, its type and presses, its sub- 
scription list and good will. He then enlarged the paper and changed its 
name to the Republican-Leader. It has lieen the only Republican paper 
published in the county since that date. 

In 1003 Mr. Kemp sold the jiaper to James A. Prow and F. A. Martin. 
Mr. Martin did not retain his interest very long, having sold it the following 


year to Dr. H. C. Hobbs. It was in the year 1907 that J. W. Lewis, the 
present owner and manager of the Republican-Leader bought the plant of 
Dr. Hobbs and at once assumed control. He is a practical printer with a 
large experience in all departments of newspaper work and has added many 
new and interesting features to the paper since he assumed the editorship 
and management. Its subscription list has been materially increased and it 
is enjoying satisfactory advertising patronage. 



Among Salem's celebrities mention must be made of some to whom the 
poetic muse was more or less kind. Only a few scattering little poems, here 
and there, have been picked up, but these show that greater things might 
have been accomplished if their efforts had been properly appreciated and 
encouraged. In 1870 there was a young lawyer in Salem named Jerry Tal- 
bott, who possessed a mind exceedingly bright, but whisky was his ruin. At 
one time he essayed the role of minister, and for a time won considerable 
reputation as an eloquent expounder of the Gospel, but his old enemy got the 
best of him, and when he once started on the down grade he never stopped 
short of the gutter. Like Poe, it was when his mind was stimulated by drink 
that it turned to poetry, and then it seemed that he could talk in rhyme. He 
wrote many very creditable poems, but none of them were preser\ecl, exc